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Tuesday | CHI 2013
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All communities Design (85) Engineering (24) Management (5)
User Experience (65) Child-Computer Interaction (7) Digital Arts (6) Games and Entertainment (22)
Health (20) Sustainability (9) HCI for Development (5)

Tuesday – 9:00-10:20

BluePapers: Interacting around Devices

SFKSession chair: Géry Casiez
  • PCJPaper: IllumiRoom: Peripheral Projected Illusions for Interactive Experiences
    B. Jones (Univ. of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, USA), H. Benko, E. Ofek, A. Wilson
    B. Jones (Univ. of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, USA)H. Benko (Microsoft Research, USA)E. Ofek (Microsoft Research, USA)A. Wilson (Microsoft Research, USA)

    IllumiRoom is a proof-of-concept system that augments the area surrounding a television with projected visualizations to enhance traditional gaming experiences. IllumiRoom is a proof-of-concept system that augments the area surrounding a television with projected visualizations to enhance traditional gaming experiences. We investigate how projected visualizations in the periphery can negate, include, or augment the existing physical environment and complement the content displayed on the television screen. Peripheral projected illusions can change the appearance of the room, induce apparent motion, extend the field of view, and enable entirely new physical gaming experiences. Our system is entirely self-calibrating and is designed to work in any room. We present a detailed exploration of the design space of peripheral projected illusions and we demonstrate ways to trigger and drive such illusions from gaming content. We also contribute specific feedback from two groups of target users (10 gamers and 15 game designers); providing insights for enhancing game experiences through peripheral projected illusions.

  • PJZPaper: WorldKit: Rapid and Easy Creation of Ad-hoc Interactive Applications on Everyday Surfaces
    R. Xiao (Carnegie Mellon Univ., USA), C. Harrison, S. Hudson
    R. Xiao (Carnegie Mellon Univ., USA)C. Harrison (Carnegie Mellon Univ., USA)S. Hudson (Carnegie Mellon Univ., USA)

    Describes a paired depth-camera and projector system for on-the-world interaction and a software kit for application development: provides an inexpensive way to support interactions on everyday surfaces.Instant access to computing, when and where we need it, has long been one of the aims of research areas such as ubiquitous computing. In this paper, we describe the WorldKit system, which makes use of a paired depth camera and projector to make ordinary surfaces instantly interactive. Using this system, touch-based interactivity can, without prior calibration, be placed on nearly any unmodified surface literally with a wave of the hand, as can other new forms of sensed interaction. From a user perspective, such interfaces are easy enough to instantiate that they could, if desired, be recreated or modified “each time we sat down” by “painting” them next to us. From the programmer’s perspective, our system encapsulates these capabilities in a simple set of abstractions that make the creation of interfaces quick and easy. Further, it is extensible to new, custom interactors in a way that closely mimics conventional 2D graphical user interfaces, hiding much of the complexity of working in this new domain. We detail the hardware and software implementation of our system, and several example applications built using the library.

  • PBJPaper: Understanding Palm-Based Imaginary Interfaces: The Role of Visual and Tactile Cues when Browsing
    S. Gustafson (Hasso Plattner Institute, DE), B. Rabe, P. Baudisch
    S. Gustafson (Hasso Plattner Institute, DE)B. Rabe (Hasso Plattner Institute, DE)P. Baudisch (Hasso Plattner Institute, DE)

    The main contribution of this paper is an exploration into the inherent properties of palm-based imaginary interfaces and how the available visual and tactile cues are responsible for user performance.Imaginary Interfaces are screen-less ultra-mobile interfaces. Previously we showed that even though they offer no visual feedback they allow users to interact spatially, e.g., by pointing at a location on their non-dominant hand. The primary goal of this paper is to provide a deeper understanding of palm-based imaginary interfaces, i.e., why they work. We perform our exploration using an interaction style inspired by interfaces for visually impaired users. We implemented a system that audibly announces target names as users scrub across their palm. Based on this interface, we conducted three studies. We found that (1) even though imaginary interfaces cannot display visual contents, users’ visual sense remains the main mechanism that allows users to control the interface, as they watch their hands interact. (2) When we remove the visual sense by blindfolding, the tactile cues of both hands feeling each other in part replace the lacking visual cues, keeping imaginary interfaces usable. (3) While we initially expected the cues sensed by the pointing finger to be most important, we found instead that it is the tactile cues sensed by the palm that allow users to orient themselves most effectively. While these findings are primarily intended to deepen our understanding of Imaginary Interfaces, they also show that eyes-free interfaces located on skin outperform interfaces on physical devices. In particular, this suggests that palm-based imaginary interfaces may have benefits for visually impaired users, potentially outperforming the touchscreen-based devices they use today.

  • PLMPaper: AD-Binning: Leveraging Around Device Space for Storing, Browsing and Retrieving Mobile Device Content
    K. Hasan (Univ. of Manitoba, CA), D. Ahlström, P. Irani
    K. Hasan (Univ. of Manitoba, CA)D. Ahlström (Alpen-Adria-Univ. Klagenfurt, AT)P. Irani (Univ. of Manitoba, CA)

    Presents AD-Binning, a novel interface for future small-screen mobile devices equipped with around-device sensing capabilities, with which screen content can be off-loaded in around-device-space to improve browsing and interaction efficiency.Exploring information content on mobile devices can be tedious and time consuming. We present Around-Device Binning, or AD-Binning, a novel mobile user interface that allows users to off-load mobile content in the space around the device. We informed our implementation of AD-Binning by exploring various design factors, such as the minimum around-device target size, suitable item selection methods, and techniques for placing content in off-screen space. In a task requiring exploration, we find that AD-Binning improves browsing efficiency by avoiding the minute selection and flicking mechanisms needed for on-screen interaction. We conclude with design guidelines for off screen content storage and browsing.

241Panel

  • LPLCHI at the Barricades – an Activist Agenda?
    Daniela Busse (moderator), Alan Borning, Samuel Mann, Tad Hirsch, Lisa Nathan, Andrea Grimes Parker, Ben Shneiderman, Bryan Nunez
    Daniela Busse (moderator)Alan BorningSamuel MannTad HirschLisa NathanAndrea Grimes ParkerBen ShneidermanBryan Nunez

    Technology plays an increasingly important role in enabling activist agendas, supporting activist activities and self-organization, bringing people together on causes they support and developing tools and platforms to scaffold activist activities. This panel explores both the role of HCI in activism and activism in HCI.

242ABPapers: Design for the Home

SESSession chair: Nadir Weibel
  • PKBPaper: Designing Web-Connected Physical Artefacts for the ‘Aesthetic’ of the Home
    S. Ylirisku (Aalto Univ., FI), S. Lindley, G. Jacucci, R. Banks, C. Stewart, A. Sellen, R. Harper, T. Regan
    S. Ylirisku (Aalto Univ., FI)S. Lindley (Microsoft Research, UK)G. Jacucci (Helsinki Institute for Information Technology, FI)R. Banks (Microsoft Research, UK)C. Stewart (Univ. of Dundee, UK)A. Sellen (Microsoft Research, UK)R. Harper (Microsoft Research, UK)T. Regan (Microsoft Research, UK)

    In this paper we ask what it means to design domestic web-connected technologies, placing the aesthetic of the home and home life at the centre of our design exploration.Web-based technologies are often built to capitalize on the flexibility and fluidity that is supported by the internet, with the value of ‘access anywhere’ underpinning a blurring of boundaries across home and work. Yet the home is well known in HCI to have a unique set of qualities that can use-fully be drawn upon when designing to support domestic life. In this paper we ask what it means to design domestic web-connected technologies, placing the aesthetic and ma-terial properties intrinsic to the home and home life at the centre of our design exploration. We present three concepts that were selected and prototyped from a broader process of research-through-design: Tokens of Search provides tangi-ble handles to web resources; Hole in Space connects the home intimately to a remote place; and Manhattan enables the tangible exploration of events in the community, putting the home at the centre. Discussions in the paper consider not only how aesthetics is articulated in the material and digital properties of the artefacts, but also how a considera-tion of the properties of the home can create a potentially new design space to explore.

  • PBKPaper: On the Relation of Ordinary Gestures to TV Screens: General Lessons for the Design of Collaborative Interactive Techniques
    O. Juhlin (Mobile Life @ Stockholm Univ., SE), E. Onnevall
    O. Juhlin (Mobile Life @ Stockholm Univ., SE)E. Onnevall (Mobile Life @ Stockholm Univ., SE)

    If natural and social gesturing in front of TV screens are on-goingly and collaboratively shaped, then viewers might need to adapt such behaviour to emerging gesture tracking technology.We present an interaction analysis based on ethnographic fieldwork of how physical movements, including gestures, are produced by viewers in front of television screens in a sports bar. Understanding ordinary life and specifically television watching in social situations will benefit the dis-cussion of the potential of gesture techniques for controlling interactive televisions in various locations. Challenges for system design include body movement recognition, since movements can have many different purposes and are di¬rected simultaneously at the screen and co-viewers. More¬over, gestures as elements of conversation are sometimes negotiated and overlapping. Since these ordinary move¬ments are hard to automatically track and analyse, sug¬gested systems might lead to demands on viewers to re¬strain their accustomed movements and adapt them in ways that might be considered awkward. We also reveal new design opportunities that draw upon the ways viewers’ gestures are influenced by ongoing broadcast.

  • PCMPaper: From Codes to Patterns: Designing Interactive Decoration for Tableware
    R. Meese (The Univ. of Nottingham, UK), S. Ali, E. Thorne, S. Benford, A. Quinn, R. Mortier, B. Koleva, T. Pridmore, S. Baurley
    R. Meese (The Univ. of Nottingham, UK)S. Ali (The Univ. of Nottingham, UK)E. Thorne (Central Saint Martins College of Art and Design, UK)S. Benford (The Univ. of Nottingham, UK)A. Quinn (Central Saint Martins College of Art and Design, UK)R. Mortier (The Univ. of Nottingham, UK)B. Koleva (The Univ. of Nottingham, UK)T. Pridmore (The Univ. of Nottingham, UK)S. Baurley (Brunel Univ., UK)

    A collaboration between ceramic designers, technologists and a restaurant reveals strategies for creating aesthetic decorative pattern for plates and other tableware that contain multiple embedded visual codes hidden within them.We explore the idea of making aesthetic decorative patterns that contain multiple visual codes. We chart an iterative collaboration with ceramic designers and a restaurant to refine a recognition technology to work reliably on ceramics, produce a pattern book of designs, and prototype sets of tableware and a mobile app to enhance a dining experience. We document how the designers learned to work with and creatively exploit the technology, enriching their patterns with embellishments and backgrounds and developing strategies for embedding codes into complex designs. We discuss the potential and challenges of interacting with such patterns. We argue for a transition from designing ‘codes to patterns’ that reflects the skills of designers alongside the development of new technologies.

  • PNXPaper: Pass the iPad: Collaborative Creating and Sharing in Family Groups
    N. Yuill (Univ. of Sussex, UK), Y. Rogers, J. Rick
    N. Yuill (Univ. of Sussex, UK)Y. Rogers (Univ. College London, UK)J. Rick (Saarland Univ., DE)

    Reports two studies of a tablet app to support co-creation in family groups. Relates findings to use of tablets as ‘scrap computers’.The increasingly cross-generational use of personal technology portrays families each absorbed in individual devices. Tablets potentially support multi-user working but are currently used as personal devices primarily for consumption, or individual or web-based games. Could tablets support creative co-located groupwork in families and how does such creative work differ from the same task on paper? We designed and evaluated an app requiring individual and group co-creation in families. 262 family groups visiting a science fair played the collaborative drawing game on paper and iPads. Group creations were rated significantly more original and cohesive on iPads than paper. Detailed video analysis of seven family groups showed how tablets support embodiment and use of digital traces, and how the different media sustain individual and shared actions at different stages in the creative process. We sketch out implications for ownership and ‘scrap computers’: going beyond personally-owned devices and developing collaborative apps to support groupwork with tablets.

243Course C08, unit 1/2

  • CAXC08: User Experience Evaluation Methods – Which Method to Choose?
    V. Roto (Aalto Univ., FI), A. Vermeeren, K. Väänänen-Vainio-Mattila, E. Law, M. Obrist
    V. Roto (Aalto Univ., FI)A. Vermeeren (Delft Univ. of Technology, NL)K. Väänänen-Vainio-Mattila (Tampere Univ. of Technology, FI)E. Law (Univ. of Leicester, UK)M. Obrist (Newcastle Univ., UK)

    Helps to select the right user experience evaluation methods for different purposes. A collection of methods that investigate how people feel about the system under study is provided at www.allaboutux.org.High quality user experience (UX) has become a central competitive factor of products in mature consumer markets. Improving UX during product development and research requires evaluation, but traditional usability testing methods are not adequate for evaluating UX. The evaluation methods for investigating how users feel about the tested system are still less known in the HCI community. Since 2008, the instructors have been collecting a comprehensive set of 80 UX evaluation methods both from academia and industry, which is now available at www.allaboutux.org/all-methods. During this course, we will present an overview of the set of methods and present some methods in more detail. By the end of this course, you will be able to choose suitable methods for your specific user experience evaluation case. You will understand the difference between UX evaluation and traditional usability evaluation methods, as well as the variety of UX evaluation methods available. This course will cover the following topics: - the general targets of UX evaluation - the various kinds of UX evaluation methods available for different purposes (an overview) - how to choose the right method for the purpose - the basics of a sample of UX methods of different types - guidance on where to find more information on those methods Our target audience consists of researchers and practitioners who want to get acquainted with user experience evaluation methods. The participants should have basic understanding of the user-centered design process, and preferably experience on usability studies. The course was well-attended at CHI’12 – do not miss it this year!

251Papers: Social Creativity

SCQSession chair: Gary Hsieh
  • PNEPaper: Revisiting Social Practices Surrounding Music
    T. Leong (Univ. of Technology, Sydney, AU), P. Wright
    T. Leong (Univ. of Technology, Sydney, AU)P. Wright (Newcastle Univ., UK)

    This paper extends and contributes to our understanding of social practices and sociality surrounding music in light of recent key technological developments.Music shapes our social lives. While previous research has provided a foundational understanding of the social affordances surrounding people’s interactions with music, there is a need to update this understanding in light of recent key developments in our digital technological landscape. This paper describes a qualitative study of people’s social activities and practices around music in households. It extends previous research by revealing the impact key technologies have on how, where, when, and with who people’s interactions surrounding music occur. It also reveals people’s creative attempts to design their musical experiences with others through reconfiguring and connecting to various digital technologies and digital platforms in order to pursue more opportunities for communicating, sharing, bonding, and celebrating lives with others.

  • PNVPaper: Write Here, Write Now!: An Experimental Study of Group Maintenance in Collaborative Writing
    J. Birnholtz (Northwestern Univ., USA), S. Steinhardt, A. Pavese
    J. Birnholtz (Northwestern Univ., USA)S. Steinhardt (Cornell Univ., USA)A. Pavese (Google, Inc., USA)

    We present a laboratory study of dyads writing together. Results suggest that communication via comments and chat is positively related to social outcomes in synchronous, but not asynchronous, writing.Writing documents together using collaborative editing tools has become extremely common with the widespread availability of tools such as Google Docs. The design of such tools, rooted in early CSCW research, has historically been focused on providing awareness of the presence and activities of one’s collaborators. Evidence from a recent qualitative study, however, suggests that people are also concerned about how their behaviors – and they themselves – will be perceived by others; and take steps to mitigate possible negative perceptions. We present an experimental study of dyads composing documents together, focusing in particular on group maintenance, impression management and relationship-focused behavior. Results suggest that communication is positively related to social relations, but only for synchronous writing in a shared space; the reverse can be true in asynchronous commenting and editing.

  • PLCPaper: Machinima Production Tools: A Vernacular History of a Creative Medium
    S. Gross (Indiana Univ. Bloomington, USA), T. Pace, J. Bardzell, S. Bardzell
    S. Gross (Indiana Univ. Bloomington, USA)T. Pace (Indiana Univ. Bloomington, USA)J. Bardzell (Indiana Univ. Bloomington, USA)S. Bardzell (Indiana Univ. Bloomington, USA)

    In this study of massive scale community creativity, we provide a diachronic analysis of the co-emergence of community-developed creativity tools and the expressive visual language of their medium.In recent years, HCI has shown a rising interest in the creative practices associated with massive online communities, including crafters, hackers, DIY, and other expert amateurs. One strategy for researching creativity at this scale is through an analysis of a community’s outputs, including its creative works, custom created tools, and emergent practices. In this paper, we offer one such case study, a historical account of World of Warcraft (WoW) machinima (i.e., videos produced inside of video games), which shows how the aesthetic needs and requirements of video making community coevolved with the community-made creativity support tools in use at the time. We view this process as inhabiting different layers and practices of appropriation, and through an analysis of them, we trace the ways that support for emerging stylistic conventions become built into creativity support tools over time.

  • PBVPaper: Front-Camera Video Recordings as Emotion Responses to Mobile Photos Shared Within Close-Knit Groups
    Y. Cui (Nokia Research Center, FI), J. Kangas, J. Holm, G. Grassel
    Y. Cui (Nokia Research Center, FI)J. Kangas (Nokia Research Center, FI)J. Holm (Nokia Research Center, FI)G. Grassel (Nokia Research Center, FI)

    Using the front camera of a cell phone in social photography services: capturing video clips and sharing them as emotion responses to the individual photo viewedPeople use social-photography services to tell stories about themselves and to solicit responses from viewers. State of the-art services concentrate on textual comments, “Like” buttons, or similar means for viewers to give explicit feedback, but they overlook other, non-textual means. This paper investigates how emotion responses—as video clips captured by the front camera of a cell phone and used as tags for the individual photo viewed—can enhance photo-sharing experiences for close-knit groups. Our exploration was carried out with a mobile social-photography service called Social Camera. Four user groups (N=19) used the application for two to four weeks. The study’s results support the value of using front-camera video recordings to glean emotion response. It supports lightweight phatic social interactions not possible with comments and “Like” buttons. Most users kept sharing emotion responses throughout the study. They typically shared the responses right after they saw a just taken photo received from a remote partner. They used the responses to share their current contexts with others just as much as to convey nuanced feelings about a photo. We discuss the implications for future design and research.

252ACourse C11, unit 1/2

  • CUEC11: Analyzing Social Media Systems
    S. Farnham (FUSE Labs, USA), E. Kiciman
    S. Farnham (FUSE Labs, USA)E. Kiciman (Microsoft Research, USA)

    This half day course provides practical instructions and tips for collecting, structuring, and analyzing social media data with easily accessible tools in order create meaningful inferences out of messy data.Detailed Course Description: Social media is playing an increasingly dominant role across many domains relevant to the CHI audience – including social computing, computer supported cooperative work, information retrieval, machine learning, civic media, online learning, digital media, digital art, and so forth. However when seeking to analyze social media data for the first time, the data’s overwhelming size and messy, unstructured nature may be daunting, even to those experienced with data analysis. Further, for those new to analyzing social behavior in online systems, there are any number of pitfalls that make it challenging to find the meaning in the mess. The goal of this half day course is to provide practical, step-by-step instructions for collecting and analyzing social media data with common or easily accessible tools. Throughout these steps we discuss special considerations when analyzing social behavioral or conversational data. We will use two data sources as appropriate –- So.cl or Twitter — as examples of either instrumenting your own system or using a public social media source. We will describe analyses using SPSS, NodeXL, or our custom Query Human Analyzer (QHA) tool, which we provide for analysis of social media trends. We will walk course attendees step by step through the process of collecting, structuring, and analyzing data to create meaningful inferences out of the chaotic mess that is social media. Attendees will have some hands on experience, and walk away with sample data, sample analysis scripts, and access to our QHA system, which they may easily adapt to answer their own research questions. The Data We will use So.cl’s behavioral logging system to provide an example of instrumentation data. So.cl is an experimental social media web site from FUSE Labs of Microsoft Research that integrates searching the web with social networking to enable users to share and connect around their interests. It now has over 300,000 registered users, about 13,000 active each month. In developing So.cl as an experimental platform they instrumented their system to log social behaviors, and are making that dataset publicly available for research purposes. Shelly Farnham has played a lead role in designing several social media instrumentation systems to optimize them for research purposes – including So.cl — and draws from this experience when discussing how to collect and process social data for analysis. We will use Twitter data as an example of a large scale, publicly available social media system that many HCI researchers have expressed an interest in analyzing. The entire Twitter data corpus is pulled from the Twitter fire hose through a special agreement between Twitter and Microsoft. Most university’s have a similar agreement with Twitter. In addition, individuals and companies may access Twitter data in smaller amounts through their API (commonly referred to as the garden hose). Emre Kiciman has worked extensively with Twitter data and draws from this experience when discussing techniques for analyzing behavioral and semantic content of Twitter data. The Tools There are any number of tools available for processing and analyzing social media data. Some are better for more descriptive analysis of user behaviors, some are better for social network analysis, and some are better for semantic or content analysis. We will use three commonly available tools to provide examples of these different kinds of analysis. We will use SPSS as a tool to illustrate data clean up and analysis of usage behaviors. SPSS is statistical software commonly used by social scientists, and well-adapted for behavioral analyses. (Similar analyses may be implemented with systems like R, which is open-sourced and thus cheaper to use, but not as easy to learn; Excel, which enables simple analysis but does not handle large scale data sets; or SQL, which is more programmatic and adapted to large scale data but harder to use for statistical analyses.) We will briefly illustrate social network analysis using NodeXL, an Excel plug-in which may be downloaded for free and easily used by both novices and experts. Our lessons for cleaning and preparing date for social network analyses may also be adapted for common open-sourced web analytics tools. To illustrate semantic content analysis we will use our own custom Querying Human Activities (QHA) tool, which simplifies the analysis of social media. It combines the ability to mix-and-match low-level feature extractors (e.g., entity recognition, sentiment analysis, user classification) with high-level analyses (e.g., clustering, graph measures). To do this, our analysis tool uses a concept of “discussion graphs” augmented with a set of aggregated statistics derived from observed and inferred features in a corpus of social media. Users may for example easily browse for relationships between gender and time of day in trends in sentiment around Barack Obama and Mitt Romney. Course Audience The goal of this course is to illustrate special considerations when collecting, cleaning, and analyzing social media data as opposed to other forms of data. We will not be teaching basic data analysis or statistics. As such we expect the course audience to be students, faculty, or industry professionals who already have a basic understanding of data manipulation and statistics and some experience with common tools such as SPSS, R, SQL, MySQL; but who may have little or no experience working with social media data. Programming experience is not required. About the Instructors Shelly Farnham has a Ph.D. in Social Psychology from the University of Washington, and is currently a researcher specializing in social media in FUSE Labs of Microsoft Research. Through her drive to have a real world, meaningful impact on people’s lives, she has worked primarily in industry research focusing on innovation in social technologies, including social networking, match-making, online communities, and mobile social coordination. As a key component of the prototyping and evaluation process she has many years of experience analyzing behavioral data in social systems. See http://research.microsoft.com/en-us/people/shellyfa/ Emre Kiciman has a Ph.D. in Computer Science from Stanford University, and is currently a researcher in the Internet Services Research Center at Microsoft Research. His interests are in using social data to help people find what they want and need, and is extensively experienced with data analysis in social networking, content analysis, and information retrieval. See: http://research.microsoft.com/en-us/people/emrek/

252BAlt.chi: Experiences

SAVSession chair: Carl DiSalvo
  • AJXFlying Head: A Head Motion Synchronization Mechanism for Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Control
    K. Higuchi (Meguro-ku, JP), J. Rekimoto
    K. Higuchi (Meguro-ku, JP)J. Rekimoto (The Univ. of Tokyo, JP)

    The Flying Head: The system synchronizes human head motions with those of an unmanned aerial vehicle.We propose an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) control mechanism, called a “Flying Head” which synchronizes a human head and the UAV motions. The accurate manipulation of UAVs is difficult as their control typically involves hand-operated devices. We can incorporate the UAV control using human motions such as walking, looking around and crouching. The system synchronizes the operator and UAV positions in terms of the horizontal and vertical positions and the yaw orientation. The operator can use the UAV more intuitively as such manipulations are more in accord with kinesthetic. Finally, we discuss flying telepresence applications.

  • AXJAn Implicit Test Of UX: Individuals Differ In What They Associate With Computers
    M. Schmettow (Univ. of Twente, NL), M. Noordzij, M. Mundt
    M. Schmettow (Univ. of Twente, NL)M. Noordzij (Univ. of Twente, NL)M. Mundt (Univ. of Twente, NL)

    Do all users think of computers in the same way? We introduce an experimental approach to measure users’ associations. We find that some value geekism over utility or hedonic qualities.User experience research has made considerable progress in understanding subjective experience with interactive technology. Nevertheless, we argue, some blind spots have remained: individual differences are frequently ignored, the prevalent measures of self-report rarely undergo verification, and overly focus is on utilitarian and hedonic dimensions of experience. A Stroop priming experiment was constructed to assess what people implicitly associate with a picture of a computing device. Three categories of target words were presented: hedonic, utilitarian and “geek” words. Longer response times were interpreted as stronger associations. Need-for-cognition and subject of undergraduate study (computer science vs. psychology) were taken as predictors for a hypothetical geek personality. The results suggest that persons with a geek predisposition tend to think of computers as objects of intellectual challenge and play, rather than tools or extensions of the self.

  • ANCPerformative Experience Design
    J. Spence (Univ. of Surrey, UK), D. Frohlich, S. Andrews
    J. Spence (Univ. of Surrey, UK)D. Frohlich (Univ. of Surrey, UK)S. Andrews (Univ. of Surrey, UK)

    A taxonomy of the key ways that HCI uses ‘performance’; resolving some confusions and contradictions, moving beyond restrictive assumptions, and pointing towards an emerging field of Performative Experience Design.This paper categorises key HCI literature that engages with performance theory or practice according to a taxonomy that puts the user at the centre of the analysis. This taxonomy reveals three strands of research that use performance to address HCI and interaction design at the most fundamental level. We use these strands of research to map out what we have identified as the emerging field of Performative Experience Design. This field, which lies between HCI and performance studies, presents an extraordinarily rich potential for the design of interactive systems.

  • AKNExperiences Before Things: A Primer for the (Yet) Unconvinced
    M. Hassenzahl (Folkwang Univ. of the Arts, DE)
    M. Hassenzahl (Folkwang Univ. of the Arts, DE)

    The true value of technology is only in the resulting experiences. Consequently, we must put experiences before things – treating experiences as objectives of design rather than as appreciated by-products.While things (i.e., technologies) play a crucial role in creating and shaping meaningful, positive experiences, their true value lies only in the resulting experiences. It is about what we can do and experience with a thing, about the stories unfolding through using a technology, not about its styling, material, or impressive list of features. This paper explores the notion of “experiences” further: from the link between experiences, well-being, and people’s developing post-materialistic stance to the challenges of the experience market and the experience-driven design of technology.

  • AFSMobile Interaction Does Not Exist
    J. Marshall (The Univ. of Nottingham, UK), P. Tennent
    J. Marshall (The Univ. of Nottingham, UK)P. Tennent (The Univ. of Nottingham, UK)

    Few mobile devices are designed to be used when mobile. Describes challenges of designing truly mobile interactions.Most mobile systems are ‘stop-to-interact’; designed for active interaction only when a user is standing still, paying visual and mental attention to the device. However, people are increasingly carrying and using devices while undertaking a wide range of movement activities, such as walking, cycling, running. Some existing systems such as Apple’s Siri aim for hands and eyes free use, but they do not consider the wider challenges of interaction during movement. We describe the challenges of system design for active mobile interaction. These ‘interaction in motion’ challenges are discussed with reference to an extreme movement interaction situation – cold water swimming.

  • AZGThe Elephant in the Conference Room: Let’s Talk About Experience Terminology
    A. Ibargoyen (Intel, USA), D. Szostak, M. Bojic
    A. Ibargoyen (Intel, USA)D. Szostak (Intel, USA)M. Bojic (sencha, USA)

    We reflect upon how conflicting definitions of experience terminology (HFE, Usability, IxD, HCI, UX, XD) impact our understanding of the field and our ability to communicate, collaborate and educate others. We reflect upon how the ambiguous and often conflicting definitions of experience terminology (e.g., HFE, Usability, IxD, HCI, UX, XD) are impacting our understanding of the field as well as our ability to communicate, collaborate and educate others. We analyze the history of relevant disciplines and discuss the findings of an online survey completed by academics and professionals, which indicates a high variety in interpretation of terms. Further, we discuss surveys of job descriptions and related academic programs, and provide our perspective on the impact of this problem, as well as suggestions on how to begin to solve it.

253Course C09, unit 1/2

  • CZSC09: Choice and Decision Making for HCI
    A. Jameson (German Research Center for Artificial Intelligence (DFKI), DE)
    A. Jameson (German Research Center for Artificial Intelligence (DFKI), DE)

    Find out how users of your systems make choices and decisions – and how you can help them make better ones. BENEFITS People are constantly making small choices and larger decisions about their use of computing technology, such as: – “Shall I use this new application as a replacement for my current one?” – “Which privacy settings are best for me? Should I even take the trouble to figure them out?” – “Shall I make a contribution to this on-line community?” – “If so, which of the two available methods should I use?” The ways in which users arrive at these choices and decisions can take many different forms and involve a wide range of processes, such as anticipation of consequences of actions, social influence, affective responses, and previous learning and habit formation. This course offers a synthesis of relevant research in psychology and HCI that will enable you to analyse systematically the choices made by the users that you are interested in. This type of analysis will be useful in the design and interpretation of studies that involve users’ choices and in the generation of strategies for helping users to make better choices. ORIGINS This course was introduced at CHI 2011 and presented again at CHI 2012. FEATURES – Discuss, with reference to concrete examples, several types of choice and decision problem regularly faced by users of computing technology. – Learn how to go beyond current HCI analyses of these problems by applying relevant concepts and insights from several relevant areas of psychological research. – Take away supplementary materials that expand on the discussion in the course and help you to apply its analytical framework in your own work. AUDIENCE HCI researchers, practitioners, and students who want to be able to understand and influence the ways in which users of the systems that they design or study make choices and decisions. PRESENTATION Lecture segments with interspersed structured discussion. INSTRUCTOR BACKGROUND Anthony Jameson (PhD, psychology) is a principal researcher at DFKI, the German Research Center for Artificial Intelligence. After having studied specific aspects of users’ choice and decision making processes in connection with user-adaptive systems, recommender systems, and multimodal systems, he recently conducted a 2-year research project to prepare the comprehensive analytical framework presented in this course. He has given numerous tutorials at CHI and other conferences and has written chapters for the Human-Computer Interaction Handbook, including a recent chapter on the topic of this course. He is founding coeditor-in-chief of the ACM Transactions on Interactive Intelligent Systems. FURTHER INFORMATION Please see the course web page for detailed further information: http://dfki.de/~jameson/chi13-course-jameson

BordeauxPapers: Design for Classrooms 2

SQVSession chair: Judy Kay
  • PBPPaper: Building Open Bridges: Collaborative Remixing and Reuse of Open Educational Resources across Organisations
    T. Coughlan (The Univ. of Nottingham, UK), R. Pitt, P. McAndrew
    T. Coughlan (The Univ. of Nottingham, UK)R. Pitt (The Open Univ., UK)P. McAndrew (The Open Univ., UK)

    We broaden understanding of open collaborations through analysing a cross-organisational initiative to remix and reuse Open Educational Resources. We define emerging practices and issues as openness evolves in different domains.In this paper we analyse the remixing and reuse of online learning materials offered as Open Educational Resources (OER). We explore the practices that developed as a set of course materials were released as OER from the UK, remixed for a US context by a cross-organisational, cross-cultural team, and then reused in a broad range of educational settings. We analyse the approaches taken during these remixing and reuse activities as novel forms of creative collaboration. As a basis for comparison, we explore similarities and differences with openness in other domains. We identify how openness provoked novel inter-organisational collaboration and forms of ownership; define forms of open practice that need support, and present issues that should be considered in devising and supporting open projects in education and beyond.

  • PQEPaper: ARTFuL: Adaptive Review Technology for Flipped Learning
    D. Szafir (Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, USA), B. Mutlu
    D. Szafir (Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, USA)B. Mutlu (Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, USA)

    Presents adaptive content review technology for students engaged in online learning and empirical results supporting student learning gains. Offers design guidelines for technological support for flipped learning.Internet technology is revolutionizing education. Teachers are developing massive open online courses (MOOCs) and using innovative practices such as flipped learning in which students watch lectures at home and engage in hands-on, problem solving activities in class. This work seeks to explore the design space afforded by these novel educational paradigms and to develop technology for improving student learning. Our design, based on the technique of adaptive content review, monitors student attention during educational presentations and determines which lecture topic students might benefit the most from reviewing. An evaluation of our technology within the context of an online art history lesson demonstrated that adaptively reviewing lesson content improved student recall abilities 29% over a baseline system and was able to match recall gains achieved by a full lesson review in less time. Our findings offer guidelines for a novel design space in dynamic educational technology that might support both teachers and online tutoring systems.

  • PJRPaper: Challenges and Opportunities for Technology in Foreign Language Classrooms
    K. Kuksenok (Univ. of Washington, USA), M. Brooks, Q. Wang, C. Lee
    K. Kuksenok (Univ. of Washington, USA)M. Brooks (Univ. of Washington, USA)Q. Wang (Univ. of Washington, USA)C. Lee (Univ. of Washington, USA)

    The roles of artifacts in language learning, based on ethnographic study of introductory Russian classrooms, informing design for this stressful, yet creative, cooperative environment.We present the results of a two-month ethnographic study of three introductory Russian classrooms. Through observation and interviews, we identify several distinct roles played by physical artifacts in the classrooms, such as providing a reference to necessary foreign-language material and serving as props in creative role-play. The range of roles taken on by artifacts and the attitudes students have toward them provide a basis for our discussion about how technology might be more effectively introduced into the socially negotiated environment of the introductory foreign-language classroom. We identify the need to balance between collaborative and personal technology in a stressful, but social, context. Our findings inform a range of roles that technology can undertake in replacing or augmenting existing classroom artifacts.

  • PNTPaper: Tables in the Wild: Lessons Learned from a Large-Scale Multi-Tabletop Deployment
    A. Kharrufa (Newcastle Univ., UK), M. Balaam, P. Heslop, D. Leat, P. Dolan, P. Olivier
    A. Kharrufa (Newcastle Univ., UK)M. Balaam (Newcastle Univ., UK)P. Heslop (Newcastle Univ., UK)D. Leat (Newcastle Univ., UK)P. Dolan (Northumbria Univ., UK)P. Olivier (Newcastle Univ., UK)

    The paper presents the analysis of our observations and design recommendations for multi-tabletop applications designed for and deployed within a realistic classroom setting.This paper presents the results and experiences of a six-week deployment of multiple digital tabletops in a school. Dillenbourg’s orchestration framework was used both to guide the design and analysis of the study. Four themes, which directly relate to the design of the technology for the classroom, out of the 15 orchestration factors are considered. For each theme, we present our design choices, the relevant observations, feedback from teachers and students, and we conclude with a number of lessons learned in the form of design recommendations. The distinguishing factors of our study are its scale (in terms of duration, number of classes, subjects, and teachers), and its ‘in-the-wild’ character, with the entire study being conducted in a school, led by the teachers, and using teacher-prepared, curriculum-based tasks. Our primary contributions are the analysis of our observations and design recommendations for future multi-tabletop applications designed for and deployed within the classroom. Our analyses and recommendations meaningfully extend HCI’s current design understandings of such settings.

342APapers: Reflecting on Phones

SKGSession chair: Joonhwan Lee
  • PFZPaper: iPhone In Vivo: Video Analysis of Mobile Device Use
    B. Brown (Mobile Life @ Stockholm Univ., SE), M. McGregor, E. Laurier
    B. Brown (Mobile Life @ Stockholm Univ., SE)M. McGregor (City Univ. London, UK)E. Laurier (Univ. of Edinburgh, UK.University of Edinburgh)

    This paper uses video data to gain new insight into the use of mobile computing devices. Our new method combines screen-capture of iPhone use with video recordings from wearable cameras. Despite the widespread use of mobile devices, details of mobile technology use ‘in the wild’ have proven difficult to collect. This paper uses video data to gain new insight into the use of mobile computing devices. Our new method combines screen-capture of iPhone use with video recordings from wearable cameras. We use this data to analyse how mobile device use is threaded into other co-present activities, focusing on the use of maps and internet searches. Close analysis reveals novel aspects of gestures on touch screens, how they serve ‘double duty” – both as interface gestures but as as resources for ongoing joint action. We go on to describe how users ‘walk the blue dot’ to orientate themselves, and how searches are occasioned by the local environment. In conclusion, we argue that mobile devices – rather than pushing us away from the world around us – are instead just another thread in the complex tapestry of everyday interaction.

  • PQPPaper: AnyType: Provoking Reflection and Exploration with Aesthetic Interaction
    L. Devendorf (Univ. of California, Berkeley, USA), K. Ryokai
    L. Devendorf (Univ. of California, Berkeley, USA)K. Ryokai (Univ. of California, Berkeley, USA)

    AnyType generates unique typefaces from photographs of shapes people find in their environment. In keeping with the principles of aesthetic interaction, AnyType supports opportunities for surprise, storytelling, and expression.AnyType is a mobile application that generates unique typefaces from photographs of shapes that people find in their environment. In keeping with the principles of aesthetic interaction, the design of AnyType supports opportunities for surprise, storytelling, and expression. This paper presents data collected from two observational studies of AnyType. In both studies, we found that people appropriated the application to create highly personalized messages. They found inspiration in unexpected locations, created memories from nuanced details in their lives, and creatively explored the design space provided by the system. Drawing from our observations, we discuss possible roles mobile devices could play in people’s personal meaning making, creative process, and discovery, in interaction with elements of their physical environment.

  • PKGPaper: Stories of the Smartphone in Everyday Discourse: Conflict, Tension & Instability
    E. Harmon (Univ. of California, Irvine, USA), M. Mazmanian
    E. Harmon (Univ. of California, Irvine, USA)M. Mazmanian (Univ. of California, Irvine, USA)

    This analysis of popular stories about the smartphone highlights three areas of conflict, tension and instability relevant to the relationships among values, mobile ICTs, user experience, and everyday practice.As the smartphone proliferates in American society, so too do stories about its value and impact. In this paper we draw on advertisements and news articles to analyze cultural discourse about the smartphone. We highlight two common tropes: one calling for increased technological integration, the other urging individuals to dis-integrate the smartphone from daily life. We examine the idealized subject positions of these two stories and show how both simplistic tropes call on the same overarching values to compel individuals to take opposing actions. We then reflect on the conflicts individuals experience in trying to align and account for their actions in relation to multiple contradictory narratives. Finally, we call for CHI researchers to tell and provoke more complicated stories of technologies and their relationships with values in conversations, publications, and future designs.

  • PFQPaper: Emotions, Experiences and Usability in Real-Life Mobile Phone Use
    S. Kujala (Aalto Univ., FI), T. Miron-Shatz
    S. Kujala (Aalto Univ., FI)T. Miron-Shatz (Ono Academic College, IL)

    Longitudinal study investigating emotions over a five-month period of product use. Clarifies the role of emotions in usability, user experience and product success and helps in designing for user experience.Positive emotional experiences with an interactive product are assumed to lead to good user experience and, ultimately, to product success. However, the path from emotional experiences to product evaluation may not be direct, as emotions fluctuate over time, and some experiences are easier to recall than others. In this study, we examined emotions and experience episodes during real-life mobile phone use over a five-month period. The goal is to understand how emotions and memories are related to overall evaluation of a product: usability, user experience and behavioral intentions. The results show that both emotions and how people remember them had strong unique roles in the overall evaluation of the product. Positive emotions were mostly related to good user experience and negative emotions to low usability. In the early stages of use, users overestimated their positive emotions and seemed to focus on user experience, the importance of usability increased over time.

343Course C10, unit 1/2

  • CSJC10: Cognitive Crash Dummies: Predicting Performance from Early Prototypes
    B. John (IBM T.J. Watson Research Center, USA)
    B. John (IBM T.J. Watson Research Center, USA)

    Presents a free tool that integrates rapid UI prototyping with predictive human performance modeling. Participants use their own laptop, learn to mock-up interactive systems, and create models of skilled performance.Prototyping tools are making it easier to explore a design space so many different ideas can be generated and discussed, but evaluating those ideas to understand whether they are better, as opposed to just different, is still an intensely human task. User testing, concept validation, focus groups, design walkthroughs, all are expensive in both people’s time and real dollars. Just as crash dummies in the automotive industry save lives by testing the physical safety of automobiles before they are brought to market, cognitive crash dummies save time, money, and potentially even lives, by allowing designers to automatically test their design ideas before implementing them. Cognitive crash dummies are models of human performance that make quantitative predictions of human behavior on proposed systems without the expense of empirical studies on running prototypes. When cognitive crash dummies are built into prototyping tools, design ideas can be rapidly expressed and easily evaluated. This course reviews the state of the art of predictive modeling and presents a tool that integrates rapid prototyping with modeling. Participants will use their own laptops to mock-up an interactive system and create a model of skilled performance on that mock-up. The course ends with a review of other tools and a look to the future of predictive modeling.

361Special Interest Group

  • GYUConsumer Engagement in Health Technologies Special Interest Group
    K. Cheng (Univ. of California, Irvine, USA), K. Caine, W. Pratt, K. Connelly
    K. Cheng (Univ. of California, Irvine, USA)K. Caine (Clemson Univ., USA)W. Pratt (Univ. of Washington, USA)K. Connelly (Indiana Univ. Bloomington, USA)

    How do we keep consumers engaged in using health technologies? We welcome all researchers and practitioners who are interested in this question to join us for a spirited discussion, hosted by the CHI Health Community.

362/363Special Interest Group

  • GDGA new Perspective for the Games and Entertainment Community
    R. Bernhaupt (IRIT, Univ. Paul Sabatier, Toulouse III, FR), K. Isbister
    R. Bernhaupt (IRIT, Univ. Paul Sabatier, Toulouse III, FR)K. Isbister (Polytechnic Institute of New York Univ., USA)

    Games and Entertainment has become an important area for researchers in Human-Computer Interaction. The community has grown dramatically in the past three years. During CHI 2012 a two-day workshop on Games User Research was held, and a growing number of game-oriented submissions shows the increasing importance of the field. In 2013 the successful Student Games Competition will continue and we plan to program engaging game experiences during CHI 2013. The games and entertainment community is the only community that got the agreement of the Conference Management Committee of SIGCHI to extend existence beyond the initial three years. The Games and Entertainment Community is thus extended for the years 2014 and following. It is of immense importance for the community to have the possibility to discuss new perspectives for the Games and Entertainment Community in a SIG.

HavanePapers: Technologies for Life 2

SSNSession chair: Predrag Klasnja
  • PSTPaper: Echoes From the Past: How Technology Mediated Reflection Improves Well-Being
    E. Isaacs (Palo Alto Research Center (PARC), USA), A. Konrad, A. Walendowski, T. Lennig, V. Hollis, S. Whittaker
    E. Isaacs (Palo Alto Research Center (PARC), USA)A. Konrad (Univ. of California, Santa Cruz, Santa Cruz)A. Walendowski (Samsung Research America, USA)T. Lennig (Univ. of California at Santa Cruz , USA)V. Hollis (Univ. of California at Santa Cruz , USA)S. Whittaker (Univ. of California at Santa Cruz, USA)

    We explored technology mediated reminiscence (TMR) by building Echo, a novel smartphone application for recording and reflecting on everyday experiences. Three deployments with 44 users show TMR improves well-being.As people document more of their lives online, some recent systems are encouraging people to later revisit those recordings, a practice we’re calling technology-mediated reflection (TMR). Since we know that unmediated reflection benefits psychological well-being, we explored whether and how TMR affects well-being. We built Echo, a smartphone application for recording everyday experiences and reflecting on them later. We conducted three system deployments with 44 users who generated over 12,000 recordings and reflections. We found that TMR improves well-being as assessed by four psychological metrics. By analyzing the content of these entries we discovered two mechanisms that explain this improvement. We also report benefits of very long-term TMR.

  • PPCPaper: The Dynamics of Younger and Older Adult’s Paired Behavior when Playing an Interactive Silhouette Game
    M. Rice (Institute for Infocomm Research, SG), W. Tan, J. Ong, L. Yau, M. Wan, J. Ng
    M. Rice (Institute for Infocomm Research, SG)W. Tan (Temasek Polytechnic , SG)J. Ong (Institute for Infocomm Research , SG)L. Yau (Institute for Infocomm Research, SG)M. Wan (Institute for Infocomm Research, SG)J. Ng (Institute for Infocomm Research , SG)

    We present the design and evaluation of an intergenerational game with 60 younger and older players, and report on the communicative and cooperative interaction, with subsequent recommendations.In this paper, we report on the findings of an acute trial in which we evaluate the design of a novel gesture-based game. 60 younger and older players, divided into three separate group-types: (i) Young-Young, (ii) Old-Old, and (iii) Young-Old, took part in the study. The primary aim of this work was to evaluate the communicative and cooperative behavior of same-age and mixed-age pairs, with secondary interests in their perceived ease-of-use of the game. A mixed-method approach was used, comprising of direct observations, a post-game questionnaire and paired interviews. Our results identified noticeable differences between the group-types, with the Young-Old showing more physical cooperation, as compared to the same-age groups. The work elaborates on how the young and old differ in expectations and perceived interaction, and concludes with some recommendations for future research.

  • TCLTOCHI: What Does Touch Tell Us About Emotions in Touchscreen-Based Gameplay?
    Y. Gao (Univ. College London, UK), N. Bianchi-Berthouze, H. Meng
    Y. Gao (Univ. College London, UK)N. Bianchi-Berthouze (Univ. College London, UK)H. Meng (Brunel Univ., UK)

    The paper contributes a method to automatically recognize users’ emotional states from their touch behaviour in touch-based computer games. It also discusses its generalization to other types of applications. The increasing number of people playing games on touch-screen mobile phones raises the question of whether touch behaviours reflect players’ emotional states. This prospect would not only be a valuable evaluation indicator for game designers, but also for real-time personalization of the game experience. Psychology studies on acted touch behaviour show the existence of discriminative affective profiles. In this paper, finger-stroke features during gameplay on an iPod were extracted and their discriminative power analysed. Machine learning algorithms were used to build systems for automatically discriminating between four emotional states (Excited, Relaxed, Frustrated, Bored), two levels of arousal and two levels of valence. Accuracy reached between 69% and 77% for the four emotional states, and higher results (~89%) were obtained for discriminating between two levels of arousal and two levels of valence. We conclude by discussing the factors relevant to the generalization of the results to applications other than games.

  • NMXNote: Multiple Notification Modalities and Older Users
    D. Warnock (Univ. of Glasgow, UK), S. Brewster, M. McGee-Lennon
    D. Warnock (Univ. of Glasgow, UK)S. Brewster (Univ. of Glasgow, UK)M. McGee-Lennon (Univ. of Glasgow, UK)

    An experiment tested the way older users react to notifications delivered in 8 different modalities. Interesting differences were found between notifications requiring a response and ones that should be ignored.Multimodal interaction can make home care reminder systems more accessible to their users, most of whom are older and/or have sensory impairments. Existing research into the properties of different notification modalities have used younger participants rather than members of the older population at which they are aimed. This paper presents the results of a user study with older adults that examined how different notification modalities affected (a) performance in a card matching game and (b) how effective the different modalities were at delivering information. Participants were all aged over 50 and notifications were delivered using textual, pictographic, abstract visual, speech, Earcon, Auditory Icon, tactile and olfactory modalities while playing the game. The results showed that older users were influenced by the same factors as younger users, yet there were subjective differences. The implications for the design of multimodal reminder systems for home care are discussed.

  • NJXNote: The Power of Mobile Notifications to Increase Wellbeing Logging Behavior
    F. Bentley (Motorola Mobility Inc., USA), K. Tollmar
    F. Bentley (Motorola Mobility Inc., USA)K. Tollmar (KTH, SE)

    We demonstrate the power of passive mobile notifications to increase logging of wellbeing data, particularly food intake, in a mobile health service by 5x.Self-logging is a critical component to many wellbeing systems. However, self-logging often is difficult to sustain at regular intervals over many weeks. We demonstrate the power of passive mobile notifications to increase logging of wellbeing data, particularly food intake, in a mobile health service. Adding notifications increased the frequency of logging from 12% in a one-month, ten-user pilot study without reminders to 63% in the full 60-user study with reminders included. We will discuss the benefits of passive notifications over existing interruptive methods.

351Papers: Gesture Studies

SLTSession chair: Yang Li
  • PHKPaper: Memorability of Pre-designed and User-defined Gesture Sets
    M. Nacenta (Univ. of St Andrews, UK), Y. Kamber, Y. Qiang, P. Kristensson
    M. Nacenta (Univ. of St Andrews, UK)Y. Kamber (Univ. of St Andrews, UK)Y. Qiang (Univ. of St Andrews, UK)P. Kristensson (Univ. of St Andrews, UK)

    We analyze memorability aspects of gesture sets, comparing gesture sets created by users, gesture sets created by designers, and stock gesture sets. We present evidence from three studies.We studied the memorability of free-form gesture sets for invoking actions. We compared three types of gesture sets: user-defined gesture sets, gesture sets designed by the authors, and random gesture sets in three studies with 33 participants in total. We found that user-defined gestures are easier to remember, both immediately after creation and on the next day (up to a 24% difference in recall rate compared to pre-designed gestures). We also discovered that the differences between gesture sets are mostly due to association errors (rather than gesture form errors), that participants prefer user-defined sets, and that they think user-defined gestures take less time to learn. Finally, we contribute a qualitative analysis of the tradeoffs involved in gesture type selection and share our data and a video corpus of 66 gestures for replicability and further analysis.

  • PAKPaper: Learning and Performance with Gesture Guides
    F. Anderson (Univ. of Alberta, CA), W. Bischof
    F. Anderson (Univ. of Alberta, CA)W. Bischof (Univ. of Alberta, CA)

    Existing gesture guides show a tradeoff between performance and learning. A novel guide mitigates this tradeoff. New evaluation methods, and implications for gesture design are proposed.Gesture-based interfaces are becoming more prevalent and complex, requiring non-trivial learning of gesture sets. Many methods for learning gestures have been proposed, but they are often evaluated with short-term recall tests that measure user performance, rather than learning. We evaluated four types of gesture guides using a retention and transfer paradigm common in motor learning experiments and found results different from those typically reported with recall tests. The results indicate that many guide systems with higher levels of guidance exhibit high performance benefits while the guide is being used, but are ultimately detrimental to user learning. We propose an adaptive guide that does not suffer from these drawbacks, and that enables a smooth transition from novice to expert. The results contrasting learning and performance can be ex-plained by the guidance hypothesis. They have important implications for the design and evaluation of future gesture learning systems.

  • PQFPaper: Your Left Hand Can Do It Too! Investigating Intermanual, Symmetric Gesture Transfer on Touchscreens
    M. Annett (Univ. of Alberta, CA), W. Bischof
    M. Annett (Univ. of Alberta, CA)W. Bischof (Univ. of Alberta, CA)

    This work examines intermanual gesture transfer, i.e., learning a gesture with one hand and performing it with the other. It was found that stroke-based gestures transfer, and do so symmetrically.This work examines intermanual gesture transfer, i.e., learning a gesture with one hand and performing it with the other. Using a traditional retention and transfer paradigm from the motor learning literature, participants learned four gestures on a touchscreen. The study found that touchscreen gestures transfer, and do so symmetrically. Regardless of the hand used during training, gestures were performed with a comparable level of error and speed by the untrained hand, even after 24 hours. In addition, the form of a gesture, i.e., its length or curvature, was found to have no influence on transferability. These results have important implications for the design of stroke-based ges- tural interfaces: acquisition could occur with either hand and it is possible to interchange the hand used to perform gestures. The work concludes with a discussion of these implications and highlights how they can be applied to ges- ture learning and current gestural systems.

  • PHSPaper: The Challenges and Potential of End-User Gesture Customization
    U. Oh (Univ. of Maryland, USA), L. Findlater
    U. Oh (Univ. of Maryland, USA)L. Findlater (Univ. of Maryland, USA)

    We present a study on end-user gesture creation to understand users’ thought processes and the challenges encountered. Our findings provide insight for how to better support gesture customization. The vast majority of work on understanding and supporting the gesture creation process has focused on professional designers. In contrast, gesture customization by end users—which may offer better memorability, efficiency and accessibility than pre-defined gestures—has received little attention. To understand the end-user gesture creation process, we conducted a study where 20 participants were asked to: (1) exhaustively create new gestures for an open-ended use case; (2) exhaustively create new gestures for 12 specific use cases; (3) judge the saliency of different touchscreen gesture features. Our findings showed that even when asked to create novel gestures, participants tended to focus on the familiar. Misconceptions about the gesture recognizer’s abilities were also evident, and in some cases constrained the range of gestures that participants created. Finally, as a calibration point for future research, we used a simple gesture recognizer ($N) to analyze recognition accuracy of the participants’ custom gesture sets: accuracy was 68–88% on average, depending on the amount of training and the customization scenario. We conclude with implications for the design of a mixed-initiative approach to support custom gesture creation.

352ABPapers: Manipulating Video

SJHSession chair: Steven Feiner
  • PNPPaper: NoteVideo: Facilitating Navigation of Blackboard-style Lecture Videos
    T. Monserrat (National Univ. of Singapore, SG), S. Zhao, K. McGee, A. Pandey
    T. Monserrat (National Univ. of Singapore, SG)S. Zhao (National Univ. of Singapore, SG)K. McGee (National Univ. of Singapore, SG)A. Pandey (National Univ. of Singapore, SG)

    We create a summarized image of the video and using it as an in-scene navigation interface that allows users to directly jump to the video frame of choice.Khan Academy’s pre-recorded blackboard-style lecture videos attract millions of online users every month. However, current video navigation tools do not adequately support the kinds of goals that students typically have, like quickly finding a particular concept in a blackboard-style lecture video. This paper reports on the development and evaluation of the new NoteVideo and its improved version, NoteVideo+, systems for identifying the conceptual ‘objects’ of a blackboard-based video – and then creating a summarized image of the video and using it as an in-scene navigation interface that allows users to directly jump to the video frame where that object first appeared instead of navigating it linearly through time. The research consisted of iteratively implementing the system and then having users perform four different navigation tasks using three different interfaces: Scrubbing, Transcript, and NoteVideo. Results of the study show that participants perform significantly better on all four tasks while using the NoteVideo and its improved version – NoteVideo+ – as compared to others.

  • PCQPaper: Direct Space-Time Trajectory Control for Visual Media Editing
    S. Santosa (Univ. of Toronto, CA), F. Chevalier, R. Balakrishnan, K. Singh
    S. Santosa (Univ. of Toronto, CA)F. Chevalier (Univ. of Toronto, CA)R. Balakrishnan (Univ. of Toronto, CA)K. Singh (Univ. of Toronto, CA)

    An exploration of the design space for using motion trajectories to edit visual elements across space and time. Pen-based techniques are introduced in DirectPaint: a video painting and annotation system.We explore the design space for using object motion trajectories to create and edit visual elements in various media across space and time. We introduce a suite of pen-based techniques that facilitate fluid stylization, annotation and editing of space-time content such as video, slide presentations and 2D animation, utilizing pressure and multi-touch input. We implemented and evaluated these techniques in DirectPaint, a system for creating free-hand painting and annotation over video.

  • PLVPaper: Swifter: Improved Online Video Scrubbing
    J. Matejka (Autodesk Research, CA), T. Grossman, G. Fitzmaurice
    J. Matejka (Autodesk Research, CA)T. Grossman (Autodesk Research, CA)G. Fitzmaurice (Autodesk Research, CA)

    Swifter is a new technique for navigating streaming videos which presents a grid of thumbnail images during scrubbing operations, and allows the user to directly select the desired playback location.Online streaming video systems have become extremely popular, yet navigating to target scenes of interest can be a challenge. While recent techniques have been introduced to enable real-time seeking, they break down for large videos, where scrubbing the timeline causes video frames to skip and flash too quickly to be comprehendible. We present Swifter, a new video scrubbing technique that displays a grid of pre-cached thumbnails during scrubbing actions. In a series of studies, we first investigate possible design variations of the Swifter technique, and the impact of those variations on its performance. Guided by these results we compare an implementation of Swifter to the previously published Swift technique, in addition to the approaches utilized by YouTube and Netfilx. Our results show that Swifter significantly outperforms each of these techniques in a scene locating task, by a factor of up to 48%.

  • NNMNote: Direct Manipulation Video Navigation in 3D
    C. Nguyen (Portland State Univ., USA), Y. Niu, F. Liu
    C. Nguyen (Portland State Univ., USA)Y. Niu (Portland State Univ., USA)F. Liu (Portland State Univ., USA)

    This paper presents a 3D DMVN system that visualizes the video frame and motion in 3D, resolves temporal ambiguities, and allows a user to manipulate an object along its trajectory. Direct Manipulation Video Navigation (DMVN) systems allow a user to navigate a video by dragging an object along its motion trajectory. These systems have been shown effective for space-centric video browsing. Their performance, however, is often limited by temporal ambiguities in a video with complex motion, such as recurring motion, self-intersecting motion, and pauses. The ambiguities come from reducing the 3D spatial-temporal motion (x, y, t) to the 2D spatial motion (x, y) in visualizing the motion and dragging the object. In this paper, we present a 3D DMVN system that maps the spatial-temporal motion (x, y, t) to 3D space (x, y, z) by mapping time t to depth z, visualizes the motion and video frame in 3D, and allows to navigate the video by spatial-temporally manipulating the object in 3D. We show that since our 3D DMVN system preserves all the motion information, it resolves the temporal ambiguities and supports intuitive navigation on challenging videos with complex motion.

221/221MLast-minute SIGs: Session 4

Tuesday – 11:00-12:20

BluePapers: Sustainable Energy

SMLSession chair: John Zimmerman
  • PAPPaper: At Home with Agents: Exploring Attitudes Towards Future Smart Energy Infrastructures
    T. Rodden (The Univ. of Nottingham, UK), J. Fischer, N. Pantidi, K. Bachour, S. Moran
    T. Rodden (The Univ. of Nottingham, UK)J. Fischer (The Univ. of Nottingham, UK)N. Pantidi (The Univ. of Nottingham, UK)K. Bachour (The Univ. of Nottingham, UK)S. Moran (The Univ. of Nottingham, UK)

    This paper considers critical socio-economical issues regarding how consumers might relate to future smart energy infrastructures and suggests a number of key design principles to address those.Energy systems researchers are proposing a broad range of future “smart” energy infrastructures to promote more efficient management of energy resources. This paper considers how consumers might relate to these future smart grids within the UK. To address this challenge we exploited a combination of demonstration and animated sketches to convey the nature of a future smart energy infrastructure based on software agents. Users’ reactions suggested that although they felt an obligation to engage with energy issues, they were principally disinterested. Users showed a considerable lack of trust in energy companies raising a dilemma of design. While users might welcome agents to help in engaging with complex energy infrastructures, they had little faith in those that might provide them. This suggests the need to consider how to design software agents to enhance trust in these socio-economic settings.

  • PQQPaper: Everyday Activities and Energy Consumption: How Families Understand the Relationship
    C. Neustaedter (Simon Fraser Univ., CA), L. Bartram, A. Mah
    C. Neustaedter (Simon Fraser Univ., CA)L. Bartram (Simon Fraser Univ., CA)A. Mah (Simon Fraser Univ., CA)

    Describes a study of how families tie their everyday routines to their understanding of energy consumption. Outlines how designs can leverage calendars and increase shared knowledge of consumption between family members.Energy consumption is a growing concern and it is important to inform families of their consumption and how they might reduce it. We conducted an interview study that focuses on the existing routines of families and how they currently understand their power and gas consumption based on standard utility bills. We also investigated how this understanding ties to their everyday activities as might be recorded on their calendars. This allowed us to assess calendars as an artifact for energy consumption awareness. Our results show that many people relate changes in energy consumption to high-level effects such as weather and temperature and not necessarily their own everyday activities. Events on calendars may aid this understanding but people do not currently record enough information on their calendars to make a strong tie. This suggests that if calendars are to be used as artifacts to aid energy consumption understanding, digital calendars need to provide support to include more energy-related information, including both activities and patterns of consumption.

  • PBFPaper: Cultivating Energy Literacy— Results from a Longitudinal Living Lab Study of a Home Energy Management System
    T. Schwartz (Fraunhofer Institute for Applied Information Technology (FIT), DE), S. Denef, G. Stevens, L. Ramirez, V. Wulf
    T. Schwartz (Fraunhofer Institute for Applied Information Technology (FIT), DE)S. Denef (Fraunhofer Institute for Applied Information Technology (FIT), DE)G. Stevens (Institut of Information Systems / Univ. of Siegen , DE)L. Ramirez (Fraunhofer Institute for Applied Information Technology (FIT), DE)V. Wulf (Univ. of Siegen, DE)

    The paper presents a 13-month living lab study around the use of Home Energy Management Systems and introduces and discusses the concept of energy literacy as a key observed category.This paper presents results of a three-year research project focused on the emplacement of Home Energy Management Systems (HEMS) in a living lab setting with seven households. The HEMS used in this study allowed householders to monitor energy consumption both in real-time and in retrospective on the TV and on mobile devices. Contrasting with existing research focused on how technology persuades people to consume less energy, our study uses a grounded approach to analyze HEMS emplacement. As an important result, we present here the issue of ‘energy literacy’. Our study reveals that, by using HEMS, participants became increasingly literate in understanding domestic electricity consumption. We discuss the role HEMS played in that process and how the acquired literacy changed energy consumption patterns. We conclude that literacy in energy consumption has value on its own and explain how eco feedback system designs can benefit from this understanding.

  • PGZPaper: The Dubuque Electricity Portal: Evaluation of a City-Scale Residential Electricity Consumption Feedback System
    T. Erickson (IBM T.J. Watson Research Center, USA), M. Li, Y. Kim, A. Deshpande, S. Sahu, T. Chao, P. Sukaviriya, M. Naphade
    T. Erickson (IBM T.J. Watson Research Center, USA)M. Li (IBM T.J. Watson Research Center, USA)Y. Kim (IBM T.J. Watson Research Center, USA)A. Deshpande (IBM T.J. Watson Research Center, USA)S. Sahu (IBM T.J. Watson Research Center, USA)T. Chao (IBM T.J. Watson Research Center, USA)P. Sukaviriya (IBM T.J. Watson Research Center, USA)M. Naphade (IBM T.J. Watson Research Center, USA)

    Evaluation of an electricity portal deployed to 765 homes for 20 weeks that used feedback and social techniques to support decreased electricity consumption. Can assist designers of residential feedback systems. This paper describes the Dubuque Electricity Portal, a city-scale system aimed at supporting voluntary reductions of electricity consumption. The Portal provided each household with fine-grained feedback on its electricity use, as well as using incentives, comparisons, and goal setting to encourage conservation. Logs, a survey and interviews were used to evaluate the user experience of the Portal during a 20-week pilot with 765 volunteer households. Although the volunteers had already made a wide range of changes to conserve electricity prior to the pilot, those who used the Portal decreased their electricity use by about 3.7%. They also reported increased understanding of their usage, and reported taking an array of actions ¬ – both changing their behavior and their electricity infrastructure. The paper discusses the experience of the system’s users, and describes challenges for the design of ECF systems, including balancing accessibility and security, a preference for time-based visualizations, and the advisability of multiple modes of feedback, incentives and information presentation.

241Panel

  • LLCUX Management: Current and Future Trends
    Janice Rohn (moderator), Kathy Baxter, Catherine Courage, Janaki Kumar, Carola Thompson, Steve Rogers
    Janice Rohn (moderator)Kathy BaxterCatherine CourageJanaki KumarCarola ThompsonSteve Rogers

    User Experience (UX) leaders and managers are required to continually adapt to changes in: organizational strategies and re-structuring, resources, technology, economic pressures, and other factors. Simultaneously, more companies are realizing that they need UX expertise to ensure that they are competitive in today’s marketplace. This panel is comprised of UX leaders who have created strategies and tactics to succeed both in spite of and with the aid of the past and current trends. The panel will focus on the current trends, what strategies and tactics have and have not worked in addressing these trends, and also discuss which future trends they think will impact UX departments, companies, and the field, and how they are preparing for these future trends. The panel will be of interest to managers, practitioners and those who work closely with these teams, including developers, project managers, market researchers, test managers, and executives.

242ABPapers: Impairment and Rehabilitation

SSRSession chair: Karyn Moffatt
  • PBGPaper: PointAssist: Assisting Individuals with Motor Impairments
    G. Salivia (Minnesota State Univ., USA), J. Hourcade
    G. Salivia (Minnesota State Univ., USA)J. Hourcade (Univ. of Iowa, USA)

    This paper presents results from evaluating PointAssist with participants with motor impairments in a remote test. It contributes to HCI by showing how PointAssist can be adapted to individual differences.We tested PointAssist, software that assists in pointing tasks by detecting difficulty through a sub-movement analysis and triggering help, with adjustments proposed to personalize the assistance provided to individuals with motor impairments. A within-subjects study with sixteen individuals with fine motor skills impairments resulted in statistically significant effects on accuracy using Friedman’s test with chi-square(1)=6.4, p=.011 in favor of personalized PointAssist compared to no assistance.

  • PJMPaper: Analyzing User-Generated YouTube Videos to Understand Touchscreen Use by People with Motor Impairments
    L. Anthony (Univ. of Maryland, Baltimore County, USA), Y. Kim, L. Findlater
    L. Anthony (Univ. of Maryland, Baltimore County, USA)Y. Kim (Univ. of Maryland, USA)L. Findlater (Univ. of Maryland, USA)

    To inform accessible touchscreen design, we analyzed 187 YouTube videos depicting people with physical disabilities interacting with mobile touchscreen devices. We report on challenges observed and user-initiated adaptations being made.Most work on the usability of touchscreen interaction for people with motor impairments has focused on lab studies with relatively few participants and small cross-sections of the population. To develop a richer characterization of use, we turned to a previously untapped source of data: YouTube videos. We collected and analyzed 187 non-commercial videos uploaded to YouTube that depicted a person with a physical disability interacting with a mainstream mobile touchscreen device. We coded the videos along a range of dimensions to characterize the interaction, the challenges encountered, and the adaptations being adopted in daily use. To complement the video data, we also invited the video uploaders to complete a survey on their ongoing use of touchscreen technology. Our findings show that, while many people with motor impairments find these devices empowering, accessibility issues still exist. In addition to providing implications for more accessible touchscreen design, we reflect on the application of user-generated content to study user interface design.

  • PPKPaper: Exploring & Designing Tools to Enhance Falls Rehabilitation in the Home
    S. Uzor (Glasgow Caledonian Univ., UK), L. Baillie
    S. Uzor (Glasgow Caledonian Univ., UK)L. Baillie (Glasgow Caledonian Univ., UK)

    The studies described in the paper explored the usability and acceptance of two distinct types of visual feedback for unsupervised rehabilitation in the home. Falls are the leading cause of accidental injury-related deaths in the elderly; a fall can lead to a loss of independence, and a fear of falling. Rehabilitation programmes involving exercise have proved the most successful way to reduce the risk of falls. However, the limitations of standard care (e.g. booklets) could prevent home users from receiving the full therapeutic benefit that rehabilitation offers. Having consulted users and health experts, we developed games, and visualizations for falls rehabilitation that we believe could potentially overcome the main barriers to effective rehabilitation in the home. In this paper, we describe user studies that we carried out with older adults to evaluate the use of these visual tools versus standard care, both in the laboratory and in the home. Our main findings show that our visualizations and games were able to overcome the major limitations of standard care, and that they were usable and acceptable to the end users.

  • NPPNote: Stroke Rehabilitation with a Sensing Surface
    C. Boulanger (Microsoft Applied Sciences Group, USA), A. Boulanger, L. de Greef, A. Kearney, K. Sobel, R. Transue, Z. Sweedyk, P. Dietz, S. Bathiche
    C. Boulanger (Microsoft Applied Sciences Group, USA)A. Boulanger (Hear for Yourself, USA)L. de Greef (Harvey Mudd College, USA)A. Kearney (Harvey Mudd College, USA)K. Sobel (Harvey Mudd College, USA)R. Transue (Harvey Mudd College, USA)Z. Sweedyk (Harvey Mudd College, USA)P. Dietz (Microsoft, USA)S. Bathiche (Microsoft, USA)

    We propose a multisensory environment that tracks movements on a sensing platform for patients with a spectrum of cognitive and physical ability. Our study elaborates an interaction model that motivates patients in continued therapeutic engagement. This paper presents a new sensing and interaction environment for post-stroke and upper extremity limb rehabilitation. The device is a combination of camera-based multitouch sensing and a supporting therapeutic software application that advances the treatment, provides feedback, and records a user’s progress. The image-based analysis of hand position provided by a Microsoft Surface is used as an input into a tabletop game environment. Tailored image analysis algorithms assess rehabilitative hand movements. Visual feedback is provided in a game context. Experiments were conducted in a sub-acute rehabilitation center. Preliminary user studies with a stroke-afflicted population determined essential design criteria. Hand and wrist sensing, as well as the goals of the supporting game environment, engage therapeutic flexion and extension as defined by consulted physicians. Participants valued personalization of the activity, novelty, reward and the ability to work at their own pace in an otherwise repetitive therapeutic task. A “character” – game element personifying the participant’s movement – was uniquely motivating relative to the media available in the typical therapeutic routine.

  • NJSNote: PT Viz: Towards a Wearable Device for Visualizing Knee Rehabilitation Exercises
    S. Ananthanarayan (Univ. of Colorado, USA), M. Sheh, A. Chien, H. Profita, K. Siek
    S. Ananthanarayan (Univ. of Colorado, USA)M. Sheh (Univ. of Colorado, USA)A. Chien (Univ. of Colorado, USA)H. Profita (Univ. of Colorado, USA)K. Siek (Univ. of Colorado, USA)

    PT Viz is a wearable electronic prototype for visualizing knee rehabilitation that was used to explore the needs of physical therapy patients when performing exercises away from the clinic. We present a wearable sensory display for visualizing knee rehabilitation as part of an in-home physical therapy program. Currently, patients undergoing knee rehabilitation have limited ways of assessing exercise form and extent of movement at home. To address this issue, we developed an exploratory wearable electronic prototype to visualize knee bend. We evaluated the device with physical therapy patients to get feedback on the design and to help us understand some of the challenges they face. We discovered that our current design is better suited for patients recovering from surgery as opposed to patients with chronic conditions.

243Course C08, unit 2/2

  • CAXC08: User Experience Evaluation Methods – Which Method to Choose?
    V. Roto (Aalto Univ., FI), A. Vermeeren, K. Väänänen-Vainio-Mattila, E. Law, M. Obrist
    V. Roto (Aalto Univ., FI)A. Vermeeren (Delft Univ. of Technology, NL)K. Väänänen-Vainio-Mattila (Tampere Univ. of Technology, FI)E. Law (Univ. of Leicester, UK)M. Obrist (Newcastle Univ., UK)

    Helps to select the right user experience evaluation methods for different purposes. A collection of methods that investigate how people feel about the system under study is provided at www.allaboutux.org.High quality user experience (UX) has become a central competitive factor of products in mature consumer markets. Improving UX during product development and research requires evaluation, but traditional usability testing methods are not adequate for evaluating UX. The evaluation methods for investigating how users feel about the tested system are still less known in the HCI community. Since 2008, the instructors have been collecting a comprehensive set of 80 UX evaluation methods both from academia and industry, which is now available at www.allaboutux.org/all-methods. During this course, we will present an overview of the set of methods and present some methods in more detail. By the end of this course, you will be able to choose suitable methods for your specific user experience evaluation case. You will understand the difference between UX evaluation and traditional usability evaluation methods, as well as the variety of UX evaluation methods available. This course will cover the following topics: - the general targets of UX evaluation - the various kinds of UX evaluation methods available for different purposes (an overview) - how to choose the right method for the purpose - the basics of a sample of UX methods of different types - guidance on where to find more information on those methods Our target audience consists of researchers and practitioners who want to get acquainted with user experience evaluation methods. The participants should have basic understanding of the user-centered design process, and preferably experience on usability studies. The course was well-attended at CHI’12 – do not miss it this year!

251Papers: Exergames and Beyond

SQPSession chair: Erika Poole
  • TXLTOCHI: Physical Activity Motivating Games: Be Active and Get Your Own Reward
    S. Berkovsky (National ICT Australia, AU), J. Freyne, M. Coombe
    S. Berkovsky (National ICT Australia, AU)J. Freyne (CSIRO, AU)M. Coombe (CSIRO, AU)

    We present a game design that leverages the playfulness of games to motivate players to perform mild physical activity. This design can potentially change the way players interact with games.People’s daily lives have become increasingly sedentary, with extended periods of time being spent in front of a host of electronic screens for learning, work, and entertainment. We present research into the use of an adaptive persuasive technology, which introduces bursts of physical activity into a traditionally sedentary activity – computer game playing. Our game design approach leverages the playfulness and addictive nature of computer games to motivate players to engage in mild physical activity. The design allows players to gain virtual in-game rewards in return for performing real physical activity captured by sensory devices. This paper presents a two-stage analysis of the activity-motivating game design approach applied to a prototype game. Initially, we detail the overall acceptance of active games discovered when trialling the technology with 135 young players. Results showed that players performed more activity without negatively affecting their perceived enjoyment of the playing experience. The analysis did discover, however, a lack of balance between the amounts of physical activity carried out by players with various gaming skills, which prompted a subsequent investigation into adaptive techniques for balancing the amount of physical activity performed by players. An evaluation of additional 90 players showed that adaptive techniques successfully overcame the gaming skills dependence and achieved more balanced activity levels. Overall, this work positions activity-motivating games as an approach that can potentially change the way players interact with computer games and lead to healthier lifestyles.

  • PQNPaper: Understanding Exergame Users’ Physical Activity, Motivation and Behavior Over Time
    A. Macvean (Heriot-Watt Univ., UK), J. Robertson
    A. Macvean (Heriot-Watt Univ., UK)J. Robertson (Heriot-Watt Univ., UK)

    A school based exergame intervention analysed through the lens of self-efficacy in order to understand in-game behavior, and provide guidance for affective exergame interventionsEffective exergames should increase the proportion of time users regularly spend in moderate to vigorous physical activity. There are currently few studies of exergame systems which evaluate the impact on physical activity over time. Those which do, show increases in light intensity exercise which although valuable, do not increase the proportion of moderate to vigorous activity required for optimal health benefits. Furthermore, longitudinal studies to date have encountered a plateau effect in physical activity as the novelty of the game wears off. This paper suggests how exergame designs based on deeper understandings of player motivations could address these problems. We report on longitudinal patterns of users’ physical activity, motivations and behaviour when using exergames, based on case studies from a seven week long school based field trial. These new insights, interpreted through Bandura’s theory of self efficacy, are of value to designers in the HCI community who wish to motivate users with a range of attitudes towards exercise to undertake regular moderate to vigorous physical activity.

  • PBDPaper: Designing Action-based Exergames for Children with Cerebral Palsy
    H. Hernandez (Queen’s Univ., CA), Z. Ye, T. Graham, D. Fehlings, L. Switzer
    H. Hernandez (Queen’s Univ., CA)Z. Ye (Queen’s Univ., CA)T. Graham (Queen’s Univ., CA)D. Fehlings (Holland Bloorview Kids Rehabilitation Hospital, CA)L. Switzer (Holland Bloorview Kids Rehabilitation Hospital, CA)

    We present guidelines for the design of action-oriented exergames for people with motor disabilities. These preserve the core message of traditional guidelines, while mitigating their push to slow-paced gameplay.Children with cerebral palsy (CP) want to play fast-paced action-oriented videogames similar to those played by their peers without motor disabilities. This is particularly true of exergames, whose physically-active gameplay matches the fast pace of action games. But disabilities resulting from CP can make it difficult to play action games. Guidelines for developing games for people with motor disabilities steer away from high-paced action, including recommendations to avoid the need for time-sensitive actions and to keep game pace slow. Through a year-long participatory design process with children with CP, we have discovered that it is in fact possible to develop action-oriented exergames for children with CP at level III on the Gross Motor Function Classification Scale. We followed up the design process with an eight-week home trial, in which we found the games to be playable and enjoyable. In this paper, we discuss the design of these games, and present a set of design recommendations for how to achieve both action-orientation and playability.

  • NACNote: 4 Design Themes for Skateboarding
    S. Pijnappel (RMIT Univ., AU), F. Mueller
    S. Pijnappel (RMIT Univ., AU)F. Mueller (RMIT Univ., AU)

    We explore how to design interactive technologies to enhance the experience of skateboarding, providing thought provoking insights into how technology can have value beyond the context of performance focused sports.Interactive technology can support exertion activities, with many examples focusing on improving athletic performance. We see an opportunity for technology to also support extreme sports such as skateboarding, which often focus primarily on the experience of doing tricks rather than on athletic performance. However, there is little knowledge on how to design for such experiences. In response, we designed 12 basic skateboarding prototypes inspired by skateboarding theory. Using an autoethnographical approach, we skated with each of these and reflected on our experiences in order to derive four design themes : location of feedback in relation to the skater’s body, timing of feedback in relation to peaks in emotions after attempts, aspects of the trick emphasized by feedback, and aesthetic fittingness of feedback. We hope our work will guide designers of interactive systems for skateboarding, and extreme sports in general, and will therefore further our understanding of how to design for the active human body.

  • NQTNote: Bodily Interaction in the Dark
    L. Vongsathorn (Univ. of Oxford, UK), K. O’Hara, H. Mentis
    L. Vongsathorn (Univ. of Oxford, UK)K. O’Hara (Microsoft Research, UK)H. Mentis (Microsoft Research, UK)

    Describes a body-centric, sound-based interaction using the Microsoft Kinect device, which is performed in the dark. The interaction is designed and analysed in the context of somaesthetics.In light of the growing interest in designing for new body-movement based interfaces through somaesthetics and somatic awareness, we created a sound-based interaction using the Microsoft Kinect device, which is performed in the dark. The absence of visual feedback led participants to deeply focus on the movement of their bodies, and to have a different awareness of their bodies and the space around them. The notable difference between performing this inter-action in light and dark suggests that non-visual based interfaces are a fruitful area to explore in somaesthetic interaction.

252ACourse C11, unit 2/2

  • CUEC11: Analyzing Social Media Systems
    S. Farnham (FUSE Labs, USA), E. Kiciman
    S. Farnham (FUSE Labs, USA)E. Kiciman (Microsoft Research, USA)

    This half day course provides practical instructions and tips for collecting, structuring, and analyzing social media data with easily accessible tools in order create meaningful inferences out of messy data.Detailed Course Description: Social media is playing an increasingly dominant role across many domains relevant to the CHI audience – including social computing, computer supported cooperative work, information retrieval, machine learning, civic media, online learning, digital media, digital art, and so forth. However when seeking to analyze social media data for the first time, the data’s overwhelming size and messy, unstructured nature may be daunting, even to those experienced with data analysis. Further, for those new to analyzing social behavior in online systems, there are any number of pitfalls that make it challenging to find the meaning in the mess. The goal of this half day course is to provide practical, step-by-step instructions for collecting and analyzing social media data with common or easily accessible tools. Throughout these steps we discuss special considerations when analyzing social behavioral or conversational data. We will use two data sources as appropriate –- So.cl or Twitter — as examples of either instrumenting your own system or using a public social media source. We will describe analyses using SPSS, NodeXL, or our custom Query Human Analyzer (QHA) tool, which we provide for analysis of social media trends. We will walk course attendees step by step through the process of collecting, structuring, and analyzing data to create meaningful inferences out of the chaotic mess that is social media. Attendees will have some hands on experience, and walk away with sample data, sample analysis scripts, and access to our QHA system, which they may easily adapt to answer their own research questions. The Data We will use So.cl’s behavioral logging system to provide an example of instrumentation data. So.cl is an experimental social media web site from FUSE Labs of Microsoft Research that integrates searching the web with social networking to enable users to share and connect around their interests. It now has over 300,000 registered users, about 13,000 active each month. In developing So.cl as an experimental platform they instrumented their system to log social behaviors, and are making that dataset publicly available for research purposes. Shelly Farnham has played a lead role in designing several social media instrumentation systems to optimize them for research purposes – including So.cl — and draws from this experience when discussing how to collect and process social data for analysis. We will use Twitter data as an example of a large scale, publicly available social media system that many HCI researchers have expressed an interest in analyzing. The entire Twitter data corpus is pulled from the Twitter fire hose through a special agreement between Twitter and Microsoft. Most university’s have a similar agreement with Twitter. In addition, individuals and companies may access Twitter data in smaller amounts through their API (commonly referred to as the garden hose). Emre Kiciman has worked extensively with Twitter data and draws from this experience when discussing techniques for analyzing behavioral and semantic content of Twitter data. The Tools There are any number of tools available for processing and analyzing social media data. Some are better for more descriptive analysis of user behaviors, some are better for social network analysis, and some are better for semantic or content analysis. We will use three commonly available tools to provide examples of these different kinds of analysis. We will use SPSS as a tool to illustrate data clean up and analysis of usage behaviors. SPSS is statistical software commonly used by social scientists, and well-adapted for behavioral analyses. (Similar analyses may be implemented with systems like R, which is open-sourced and thus cheaper to use, but not as easy to learn; Excel, which enables simple analysis but does not handle large scale data sets; or SQL, which is more programmatic and adapted to large scale data but harder to use for statistical analyses.) We will briefly illustrate social network analysis using NodeXL, an Excel plug-in which may be downloaded for free and easily used by both novices and experts. Our lessons for cleaning and preparing date for social network analyses may also be adapted for common open-sourced web analytics tools. To illustrate semantic content analysis we will use our own custom Querying Human Activities (QHA) tool, which simplifies the analysis of social media. It combines the ability to mix-and-match low-level feature extractors (e.g., entity recognition, sentiment analysis, user classification) with high-level analyses (e.g., clustering, graph measures). To do this, our analysis tool uses a concept of “discussion graphs” augmented with a set of aggregated statistics derived from observed and inferred features in a corpus of social media. Users may for example easily browse for relationships between gender and time of day in trends in sentiment around Barack Obama and Mitt Romney. Course Audience The goal of this course is to illustrate special considerations when collecting, cleaning, and analyzing social media data as opposed to other forms of data. We will not be teaching basic data analysis or statistics. As such we expect the course audience to be students, faculty, or industry professionals who already have a basic understanding of data manipulation and statistics and some experience with common tools such as SPSS, R, SQL, MySQL; but who may have little or no experience working with social media data. Programming experience is not required. About the Instructors Shelly Farnham has a Ph.D. in Social Psychology from the University of Washington, and is currently a researcher specializing in social media in FUSE Labs of Microsoft Research. Through her drive to have a real world, meaningful impact on people’s lives, she has worked primarily in industry research focusing on innovation in social technologies, including social networking, match-making, online communities, and mobile social coordination. As a key component of the prototyping and evaluation process she has many years of experience analyzing behavioral data in social systems. See http://research.microsoft.com/en-us/people/shellyfa/ Emre Kiciman has a Ph.D. in Computer Science from Stanford University, and is currently a researcher in the Internet Services Research Center at Microsoft Research. His interests are in using social data to help people find what they want and need, and is extensively experienced with data analysis in social networking, content analysis, and information retrieval. See: http://research.microsoft.com/en-us/people/emrek/

252BCase studies: Communities of Practice

SAZSession chair: Dirk-Jan Hoets
  • YKCDon’t Talk to Strangers! Peer Tutoring versus Active Intervention methodologies in interviewing children
    S. Ognjanovic (Digital Solutions, USA), J. Ralls
    S. Ognjanovic (Digital Solutions, USA)J. Ralls (Digital Solutions, DK)

    Based on our internal, qualitative studies, we found Peer Tutoring to be an appropriate method for usability testing with children.Digital products designed for children should be validated by children. When it comes to usability testing, not all the available methods which work well with adults are equally applicable with child participants. In our study, we investigated two methods, Peer Tutoring which was developed for children, and Active Intervention which originates from the more traditional Think-Aloud methodology with adults. Our goal was to find out which of the two methods does elicit more comments by 8-10 years old boys when using a web application. The results showed that Peer Tutoring did elicit the greatest number of comments. At the same time the number of prompts provided by the test moderator was tendentially lower than during Active Intervention.

  • YHYLeverage User Experience through Social Networking to Improve Health Adherence
    R. Lin (IBM, TW), X. Zhu
    R. Lin (IBM, TW)X. Zhu (IBM T.J. Watson Research , USA)

    This case study makes a contribution to Human-Computer and Human-Human Interactions and the use of social media/gaming in the health care sector. Patient adherence is an important factor in improving health outcomes. However, as one of the causes of increasing population with chronic diseases, low adherence has become a major health care issue globally. Often, due to deferred benefits of treatment or lifestyle recommendations, many fail to adhere to their treatment regimen or health plans given by care providers until their conditions deteriorate. As poor adherence remains a significant yet inadequately addressed problem of severe health issues, it is critical to create effective interventions as part of the solutions. Previous studies have suggested that peer supports be effective to improve adherence, and social cognitive theories have indicated that personal realization and confidence enhanced through entertaining gaming elements could encourage behavior change. To understand how different motivation factors affect user experience through social networking, a health care adherence website with built-in behavior analyses was constructed to conduct experiments. Users’ health adherence levels can be reported to the website and shared among consenting social members for discussion or competition. Key design and development components are illustrated through the case study, including a social gaming and learning portal, an engineering approach to supporting different application scenarios, and information interventions based on predefined rules to achieve effective adherence. The preliminary analysis showed that people using social media for health care adherence may be motivated differently and act strategically during their social interactions.

  • YTBThe Needs of Early School Children and Their Parents with Respect to the Design of Mobile Service Offers
    A. Szostek (Warsaw School of Social Psychology, PL), J. Kwiatkowska, O. Górnicka
    A. Szostek (Warsaw School of Social Psychology, PL)J. Kwiatkowska (Czestochowa Univ. of Technology, PL)O. Górnicka (Warsaw School of Social Psychology, PL)

    We investigated needs of early school children and their parents to identify ingredients for mobile service offers. We identified three categories of needs: safety, entertainment and communication. The goal of the project was to investigate the needs of early school children and their parents to identify ingredients for a mobile service offer. The results showed a difference regarding such needs between children age 7-8 and age 9-10, and between girls and boys. We identified three categories of needs: safety, entertainment and communication. Based on the findings we proposed a number of implications for the design of mobile service offers for early school children.

  • YBDEnhancing Company Communication: The Case of a Social Media Platform
    A. Krischkowsky (Univ. of Salzburg, AT), A. Weiss, S. Osswald, M. Tscheligi
    A. Krischkowsky (Univ. of Salzburg, AT)A. Weiss (Univ. of Salzburg, AT)S. Osswald (Univ. of Salzburg, AT)M. Tscheligi (Univ. of Salzburg, AT)

    This case study presents lessons learned from the introduction of a social media platform in an internationally operating company with five HCI actions to ensure a positive user experience. This case study reports on the pilot phase of a social media platform, based on Microsoft SharePoint 2010, which should enhance the communication between and within departments of an internationally operating semiconductor manufacturing company, which has different sites in Europe, the US, and Asia. Our research group monitored this pilot phase in order to increase the acceptability and usage among the employees of the company. Five different HCI actions have been undertaken for that: Information kick-off workshops to raise awareness, a survey on success criteria, an expert evaluation on usability problems, a collaborative use case definition, and a survey on benchmarking the tool in terms of user experience and acceptability. We demonstrate the benefits of HCI research for the introduction of this communication tool in the company.

253Course C09, unit 2/2

  • CZSC09: Choice and Decision Making for HCI
    A. Jameson (German Research Center for Artificial Intelligence (DFKI), DE)
    A. Jameson (German Research Center for Artificial Intelligence (DFKI), DE)

    Find out how users of your systems make choices and decisions – and how you can help them make better ones. BENEFITS People are constantly making small choices and larger decisions about their use of computing technology, such as: – “Shall I use this new application as a replacement for my current one?” – “Which privacy settings are best for me? Should I even take the trouble to figure them out?” – “Shall I make a contribution to this on-line community?” – “If so, which of the two available methods should I use?” The ways in which users arrive at these choices and decisions can take many different forms and involve a wide range of processes, such as anticipation of consequences of actions, social influence, affective responses, and previous learning and habit formation. This course offers a synthesis of relevant research in psychology and HCI that will enable you to analyse systematically the choices made by the users that you are interested in. This type of analysis will be useful in the design and interpretation of studies that involve users’ choices and in the generation of strategies for helping users to make better choices. ORIGINS This course was introduced at CHI 2011 and presented again at CHI 2012. FEATURES – Discuss, with reference to concrete examples, several types of choice and decision problem regularly faced by users of computing technology. – Learn how to go beyond current HCI analyses of these problems by applying relevant concepts and insights from several relevant areas of psychological research. – Take away supplementary materials that expand on the discussion in the course and help you to apply its analytical framework in your own work. AUDIENCE HCI researchers, practitioners, and students who want to be able to understand and influence the ways in which users of the systems that they design or study make choices and decisions. PRESENTATION Lecture segments with interspersed structured discussion. INSTRUCTOR BACKGROUND Anthony Jameson (PhD, psychology) is a principal researcher at DFKI, the German Research Center for Artificial Intelligence. After having studied specific aspects of users’ choice and decision making processes in connection with user-adaptive systems, recommender systems, and multimodal systems, he recently conducted a 2-year research project to prepare the comprehensive analytical framework presented in this course. He has given numerous tutorials at CHI and other conferences and has written chapters for the Human-Computer Interaction Handbook, including a recent chapter on the topic of this course. He is founding coeditor-in-chief of the ACM Transactions on Interactive Intelligent Systems. FURTHER INFORMATION Please see the course web page for detailed further information: http://dfki.de/~jameson/chi13-course-jameson

BordeauxPapers: Full-Body Interaction

SJSSession chair: Karon MacLean
  • PPYPaper: Make It Move: A Movement Design Method of Simple Standing Products Based on Systematic Mapping of Torso Movements & Product Messages
    J. Jung (KAIST (Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology), KR), S. Bae, J. Lee, M. Kim
    J. Jung (KAIST (Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology), KR)S. Bae (KAIST (Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology), KR)J. Lee (KAIST (Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology), KR)M. Kim (KAIST (Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology), KR)

    For affective movement design of daily products, this paper brought human movement expertise and product design expertise together through a step-by-step research procedure by using mediated prototyping, the robotic torsoHuman communication significantly relies on the expressivity of their body movements. Based on these body language experiences, humans tend to extract meanings even from movements of objects. This paper begins with the above human tendencies to create a design method that can help product designers make their products move to communicate. As a research vehicle, we created a robotic torso prototype and utilized it to collaborate with movement experts, and listed up possible expressive movement components. We then built a mapping matrix that links these movements to general product messages. A method which utilizes this mapping matrix was developed to help designers determine a set of effective movements that can communicate specific product messages. Lastly, a design workshop was conducted to identify the usefulness of the proposed method. We expect the procedures and findings of this study to help researchers and designers approach affective user experience through product movement design.

  • PNZPaper: Information Capacity of Full-Body Movements
    A. Oulasvirta (Max Planck Institute for Informatics, DE), T. Roos, A. Modig, L. Leppänen
    A. Oulasvirta (Max Planck Institute for Informatics, DE)T. Roos (Univ. of Helsinki, FI)A. Modig (Aalto Univ., FI)L. Leppänen

    Presents a novel metric for the information capacity of full-body movements.We present a novel metric for information capacity of full-body movements. It accommodates HCI scenarios involving continuous movement of multiple limbs. Throughput is calculated as mutual information in repeated motor sequences. It is affected by the complexity of movements and the precision with which an actor reproduces them. Computation requires decorrelating co-dependencies of movement features (e.g., wrist and elbow) and temporal alignment of sequences. HCI researchers can use the metric as an analysis tool when designing and studying user interfaces.

  • PBTPaper: Body-centric Design Space for Multi-surface Interaction
    J. Wagner (INRIA, FR), M. Nancel, S. Gustafson, S. Huot, W. Mackay
    J. Wagner (INRIA, FR)M. Nancel (Univ. Paris Sud, FR)S. Gustafson (Hasso Plattner Institute, DE)S. Huot (INRIA, FR)W. Mackay (INRIA, FR)

    BodyScape, a body-centric design space, allows researchers and practitioners to describe, classify and systematically compare existing multi-surface interaction techniques, individually or in combination, as well as generate new interaction techniques. We introduce BodyScape, a body-centric design space that allows us to describe, classify and systematically compare multi-surface interaction techniques, both individually and in combination. BodyScape reflects the relationship between users and their environment, specifically how different body parts enhance or restrict movement within particular interaction techniques and can be used to analyze existing techniques or suggest new ones. We illustrate the use of BodyScape by comparing two free-hand techniques, on-body touch and mid-air pointing, first separately, then combined. We found that touching the torso is faster than touching the lower legs, since it affects the user’s balance; and touching targets on the dominant arm is slower than targets on the torso because the user must compensate for the applied force.

  • PQLPaper: MotionMA: Motion Modelling and Analysis by Demonstration
    E. Velloso (Lancaster Univ., UK), A. Bulling, H. Gellersen
    E. Velloso (Lancaster Univ., UK)A. Bulling (Max Planck Institute for Informatics, DE)H. Gellersen (Lancaster Univ., UK)

    This work describes MotionMA, a system that extracts a quantitative model of movements and generates an analysis and feedback interface for helping other users perform them.Particularly in sports or physical rehabilitation, users have to perform body movements in a specific manner for the exercises to be most effective. It remains a challenge for experts to specify how to perform such movements so that an automated system can analyse further performances of it. In a user study with 10 participants we show that experts’ explicit estimates do not correspond to their performances. To address this issue we present MotionMA, a system that: (1) automatically extracts a model of movements demonstrated by one user, e.g. a trainer, (2) assesses the performance of other users repeating this movement in real time, and (3) provides real-time feedback on how to improve their performance. We evaluated the system in a second study in which 10 other participants used the system to demonstrate arbitrary movements. Our results demonstrate that MotionMA is able to extract an accurate movement model to spot mistakes and variations in movement execution.

342APapers: Video Communication

SBRSession chair: Steve Harrison
  • PDKPaper: PanoInserts: Mobile Spatial Teleconferencing
    F. Pece (Univ. College London, UK), W. Steptoe, F. Wanner, S. Julier, T. Weyrich, J. Kautz, A. Steed
    F. Pece (Univ. College London, UK)W. Steptoe (Univ. College London, UK)F. Wanner (Univ. College London, UK)S. Julier (Univ. College London, UK)T. Weyrich (Univ. College London, UK)J. Kautz (Univ. College London, UK)A. Steed (Univ. College London, UK)

    PanoInserts is a novel teleconferencing system that uses smartphone cameras to create a surround representation of meeting places. We present PanoInserts: a novel teleconferencing system that uses smartphone cameras to create a surround representation of meeting places. We take a static panoramic image of a location into which we insert live videos from smartphones. We use a combination of marker- and image-based tracking to position the video inserts within the panorama, and transmit this representation to a remote viewer. We conduct a user study comparing our system with fully-panoramic video and conventional webcam video conferencing for two spatial reasoning tasks. Results indicate that our system performs comparably with fully-panoramic video, and better than webcam video conferencing in tasks that require an accurate surrounding representation of the remote space. We discuss the representational properties and usability of varying video presentations, exploring how they are perceived and how they influence users when performing spatial reasoning tasks.

  • PBCPaper: Putting Things in Focus: Establishing Co-Orientation Through Video in Context
    J. Norris (The Univ. of Nottingham, UK), H. Schnädelbach, P. Luff
    J. Norris (The Univ. of Nottingham, UK)H. Schnädelbach (The Univ. of Nottingham, UK)P. Luff (King’s College, London, UK)

    The CamBlend video collaboration system is used to assess how participants co-orientate around objects, both local or remote, virtual or physical, as well as around people, showing new interactional fractures.In collaborative video communication systems, establishing co-orientation around physical objects, virtual objects and people is a critical requirement. This is problematic as the technical limitations of video fractures the display of conduct in the connected environments. We present the results of a study of one collaborative system, CamBlend, which aims to alleviate some of these problems by using screen based pointing tools to both physical spaces and virtual resources. We report on how participants achieved co-orientation when using this system. We relate these findings to previous research into the fractured ecologies of collaborative spaces, describing how the form and nature of fractures in CamBlend differ from earlier reported work.

  • TLQTOCHI: Embedded Interaction: the accomplishment of actions in everyday and video-mediated environments
    P. Luff (King’s College, London, UK), M. Jirotka, N. Yamashita, H. Kuzuoka, C. Heath, G. Eden
    P. Luff (King’s College, London, UK)M. Jirotka (Univ. of Oxford, UK)N. Yamashita (NTT Communication Science Laboratories, JP)H. Kuzuoka (Univ. of Tsukuba, JP)C. Heath (King’s College, London, UK)G. Eden (Univ. of Oxford, UK)

    This paper suggests how interactional studies of everyday interaction can both help shape the development of complex technologies for collaboration and also be informed by experiments with prototype systems.A concern with ‘embodied action’ has informed both the analysis of everyday action through technologies and also suggested ways of designing innovative systems. In this paper, we consider how these two programmes, the analysis of everyday embodied interaction on the one hand, and the analysis of technically-mediated embodied interaction on the other, are interlinked. We draw on studies of everyday interaction to reveal how embodied conduct is embedded in the environment. We then consider a collaborative technology that attempts to provide a coherent way of presenting life-sized embodiments of participants alongside particular features of the environment. These analyses suggest that conceptions of embodied action should take account of the interactional accomplishment of activities and how these are embedded in the material environment.

  • NFJNote: HomeProxy: Exploring a Physical Proxy for Video Communication in the Home
    J. Tang (Microsoft Research, USA), R. Xiao, A. Hoff, G. Venolia, P. Therien, A. Roseway
    J. Tang (Microsoft Research, USA)R. Xiao (Carnegie Mellon Univ., USA)A. Hoff (Microsoft Research, USA)G. Venolia (Microsoft Research, USA)P. Therien (Microsoft Research, USA)A. Roseway (Microsoft Research, USA)

    HomeProxy is a prototype system that supports video messaging in the home. It explores a “no-touch” user experience that allows transitioning from recorded to live video messages. HomeProxy is a research prototype that explores supporting video communication in the home among distributed family members through a physical proxy. It leverages a physical artifact dedicated to representing remote family members to make it easier to share activities with them. HomeProxy combines a form factor designed for the home environment with a “no-touch” user experience and an interface that responsively transitions between recorded and live video messages. We designed and implemented a prototype and conducted a pilot study with eight pairs of users. Our study demonstrated the challenges of a no-touch interface and the promise of offering quick video messaging in the home.

343Course C10, unit 2/2

  • CSJC10: Cognitive Crash Dummies: Predicting Performance from Early Prototypes
    B. John (IBM T.J. Watson Research Center, USA)
    B. John (IBM T.J. Watson Research Center, USA)

    Presents a free tool that integrates rapid UI prototyping with predictive human performance modeling. Participants use their own laptop, learn to mock-up interactive systems, and create models of skilled performance.Prototyping tools are making it easier to explore a design space so many different ideas can be generated and discussed, but evaluating those ideas to understand whether they are better, as opposed to just different, is still an intensely human task. User testing, concept validation, focus groups, design walkthroughs, all are expensive in both people’s time and real dollars. Just as crash dummies in the automotive industry save lives by testing the physical safety of automobiles before they are brought to market, cognitive crash dummies save time, money, and potentially even lives, by allowing designers to automatically test their design ideas before implementing them. Cognitive crash dummies are models of human performance that make quantitative predictions of human behavior on proposed systems without the expense of empirical studies on running prototypes. When cognitive crash dummies are built into prototyping tools, design ideas can be rapidly expressed and easily evaluated. This course reviews the state of the art of predictive modeling and presents a tool that integrates rapid prototyping with modeling. Participants will use their own laptops to mock-up an interactive system and create a model of skilled performance on that mock-up. The course ends with a review of other tools and a look to the future of predictive modeling.

361Special Interest Group

  • GFLResearch-Practice Interaction: Building Bridges, Closing the Gap
    E. Buie (Northumbria Univ., UK), C. Hooper, A. Houssian
    E. Buie (Northumbria Univ., UK)C. Hooper (Univ. of Southampton, UK)A. Houssian (Philips Research, NL)

    Previous work in the CHI community has identified and explored gaps between theory and practice in HCI research [2]. The recently formed SIGCHI Community on Research-Practice Interaction aims to help bridge the gap between research and practice, by for example supporting practitioner-friendly dissemination of results, and serving as a conduit for feedback from practitioners to researchers. This SIG is an opportunity for interested CHI attendees to meet members of the SIGCHI RPI community, and engage in discussions on RPI issues including the CHI format, dissemination of results, and supporting practice-based research

362/363Special Interest Group

  • GUNDigital Art: Challenging Perspectives
    D. England (Liverpool John Moores Univ., UK), J. Fantauzzacoffin, T. Schiphorst, C. Latulipe, L. Candy
    D. England (Liverpool John Moores Univ., UK)J. Fantauzzacoffin (Georgia Institute of Technology, USA)T. Schiphorst (Simon Fraser Univ., CA)C. Latulipe (Univ. of North Carolina at Charlotte, USA)L. Candy (Univ. of Technology, Sydney, AU)

    In this SIG for the Digital Arts Community, we respond to the conference theme of changing perspectives by offering challenging perspectives. The challenge comes in a two-way exchange between Digital Art and HCI. On the one side we have the making of new and unique forms, i.e. synthesis. Whilst on the other, we have knowledge-making grounded in the human sciences and engineering, in other words, predicting and validating analysis. In this SIG session we will provoke a discussion on these contrasting challenging perspectives. How does knowledge emerge between synthesis and analysis?

HavanePapers: Ideation Methods

SEZSession chair: Amy Hurst
  • PKUPaper: Brainstorm, Chainstorm, Cheatstorm, Tweetstorm: New Ideation Strategies for Distributed HCI Design
    H. Faste (Carnegie Mellon Univ., USA), N. Rachmel, R. Essary, E. Sheehan
    H. Faste (Carnegie Mellon Univ., USA)N. Rachmel (Carnegie Mellon Univ., USA)R. Essary (Carnegie Mellon Univ., USA)E. Sheehan (Carnegie Mellon Univ., USA)

    In this paper we describe the results of a design-driven study of “cheatstorming,” a new collaborative ideation technique, to demonstrate how ideation need not require the generation of new ideas.In this paper we describe the results of a design-driven study of collaborative ideation. Based on preliminary findings that identified a novel digital ideation paradigm we refer to as chainstorming, or online communication brainstorming, two exploratory studies were performed. First, we developed and tested a distributed method of ideation we call cheatstorming, in which previously generated brainstorm ideas are delivered to targeted local contexts in response to a prompt. We then performed a more rigorous case study to examine the cheatstorming method and consider its possible implementation in the context of a distributed online ideation tool. Based on observations from these studies, we conclude with the somewhat provocative suggestion that ideation need not require the generation of new ideas. Rather, we present a model of ideation suggesting that its value has less to do with the generation of novel ideas than the cultural influence exerted by unconventional ideas on the ideating team. Thus brainstorming is more than the pooling of “invented” ideas, it involves the sharing and interpretation of concepts in unintended and (ideally) unanticipated ways.

  • TJETOCHI: An Empirical Study of the“Prototype Walkthrough”: A Studio-Based Activity for HCI Education
    C. Hundhausen (Washington State Univ., USA), D. Fairbrother, M. Petre
    C. Hundhausen (Washington State Univ., USA)D. Fairbrother (Washington State Univ., USA)M. Petre (The Open Univ., UK)

    Presents video analysis of the prototype walkthrough, a studio-based learning activity for HCI education. Results suggest that the activity provides valuable opportunities for students to actively learn HCI design.For over a century, studio-based instruction has served as an effective pedagogical model in architecture and fine arts education. Because of its design orientation, human-computer interaction (HCI) education is an excellent venue for studio-based instruction. In an HCI course, we have been exploring a studio-based learning activity called the prototype walkthrough, in which a student project team simulates its evolving user interface prototype while a student audience member acts as a test user. The audience is encouraged to ask questions and provide feedback. We have observed that prototype walkthroughs create excellent conditions for learning about user interface design. In order to better understand the educational value of the activity, we performed a content analysis of a video corpus of 16 prototype walkthroughs held in two HCI courses. We found that the prototype walkthrough discussions were dominated by relevant design issues. Moreover, mirroring the justification behavior of the expert instructor, students justified over 80 percent of their design statements and critiques, with nearly one-quarter of those justifications having a theoretical or empirical basis. Our findings suggest that PWs provide valuable opportunities for students to actively learn HCI design by participating in authentic practice, and provide insight into how such opportunities can be best promoted.

  • TAUTOCHI: The Impact of Interface Affordances on Human Ideation, Problem Solving and Inferential Reasoning
    S. Oviatt (Incaa Designs, USA), A. Cohen, A. Miller, K. Hodge, A. Mann
    S. Oviatt (Incaa Designs, USA)A. Cohen (Duke Univ., USA)A. Miller (Stanford Univ., USA)K. Hodge (Stanford Univ., USA)A. Mann (Massachusetts Institute of Technology, USA)

    Computer input capabilities have communications affordances that can substantially facilitate people’s ability to produce ideas, solve problems correctly, and make accurate inferences about information, with the magnitude of improvement 9-38%.Two studies investigated how computer interface affordances influence basic cognition, including ideational fluency, problem solving, and inferential reasoning. In one study comparing interfaces with different input capabilities, students expressed 56% more nonlinguistic representations (diagrams, symbols, numbers) when using pen interfaces. A linear regression confirmed that nonlinguistic communication directly mediated a substantial increase (38.5%) in students’ ability to produce appropriate science ideas. In contrast, students expressed 41% more linguistic content when using a keyboard-based interface, which mediated a drop in science ideation. A follow-up study pursued the question of how interfaces that prime nonlinguistic communication so effectively facilitate cognition. This study examined the relation between students’ expression of nonlinguistic representations and their inference accuracy when using analogous digital and non-digital pen tools. Perhaps surprisingly, the digital pen interface stimulated construction of more diagrams, more correct Venn diagrams, and more accurate domain inferences. Students’ construction of multiple diagrams to represent a problem also directly suppressed overgeneralization errors, the most common inference failure. These research results reveal that computer interfaces have communications affordances, which elicit communication patterns that can substantially stimulate or impede basic cognition. Implications are discussed for designing new digital tools for thinking, with an emphasis on nonlinguistic and especially spatial representations that are most poorly supported by current keyboard-based interfaces.

  • PRMPaper: Shape Switching Mobile Devices- Explorations in Outfit-Centric Design
    O. Juhlin (Mobile Life @ Stockholm Univ., SE), Y. Zhang, C. Sundbom, Y. Fernaeus
    O. Juhlin (Mobile Life @ Stockholm Univ., SE)Y. Zhang (Stockholm Univ., SE)C. Sundbom (KTH – Royal Institute of Technology, SE)Y. Fernaeus (Stockholm Univ., SE)

    Fashionable people will adore their mobile phones much more, when the devices organically change to a shape and colors that relate their chosen dressed ensemble for the day. We present a design exercise illustrating how fashion practices and the fashion design process can be used to create new opportunities both in the mobile domain and in product design, as well as in wearable computing. We investigate the concept of outfit-centric design by extending the support for social and visual interaction with digital devices beyond the currently available shells and stickers, and drawing on the ways in which people vary their dress ensembles. We designed a set of mock-up samples in a local fashion style, as a first step in understanding possible applications of the emerging technology of organic interfaces. Initial user feedback shows how fashion-conscious participants creatively experimented with the set’s variations of shape and color in outfits created from their personal wardrobes, which revealed the importance of the objects’ size and location on the body. It also points out that a lack of integration with the fashion system’s processes reduces the attractiveness of the samples.

351Papers: Pointing and Fitts Law

SLQSession chair: Tomer Moscovich
  • PNBPaper: FFitts Law: Modeling Finger Touch with Fitts’ Law
    X. Bi (Google, Inc., USA), Y. Li, S. Zhai
    X. Bi (Google, Inc., USA)Y. Li (Google Research, USA)S. Zhai (Google, Inc., USA)

    Proposed and validated a dual Gaussian distribution hypothesis, from which we derived FFitts law, a novel expansion of Fitts’ law to more reliably model touchscreen target acquisition with finger.Fitts’ law has proven to be a strong predictor of pointing performance under a wide range of conditions. However, it has been insufficient in modeling small-target acquisition with finger-touch based input on screens. We propose a dual-distribution hypothesis to interpret the distribution of the endpoints in finger touch input. We hypothesize the movement endpoint distribution as a sum of two independent normal distributions. One distribution reflects the relative precision governed by the speed-accuracy tradeoff rule in the human motor system, and the other captures the absolute precision of finger touch independent of the speed-accuracy tradeoff effect. Based on this hypothesis, we derived the FFitts model—an expansion of Fitts’ law for finger touch input. We present three experiments in 1D target acquisition, 2D target acquisition and touchscreen keyboard typing tasks respectively. The results showed that FFitts law is more accurate than Fitts’ law in modeling finger input on touchscreens. At 0.91 or a greater R2 value, FFitts’ index of difficulty is able to account for significantly more variance than conventional Fitts’ index of difficulty based on either a nominal target width or an effective target width in all the three experiments.

  • PJPPaper: The Effect of Time-based Cost of Error in Target-directed Pointing Tasks
    N. Banovic (Carnegie Mellon Univ., USA), T. Grossman, G. Fitzmaurice
    N. Banovic (Carnegie Mellon Univ., USA)T. Grossman (Autodesk Research, CA)G. Fitzmaurice (Autodesk Research, CA)

    This paper present a model based on Fitts’ law that predicts the impact of the error cost on the user’s task completion time for target-directed pointing tasks.One of the fundamental operations in today’s user interfaces is pointing to targets, such as menus, buttons, and text. Making an error when selecting those targets in real-life user interfaces often results in some cost to the user. However, the existing target-directed pointing models do not consider the cost of error when predicting task completion time. In this paper, we present a model based on expected value theory that predicts the impact of the error cost on the user’s completion time for target-directed pointing tasks. We then present a target-directed pointing user study, which results show that time-based costs of error significantly impact the user’s performance. Our results also show that users perform according to an expected completion time utility function and that optimal performance computed using our model gives good prediction of the observed task completion times.

  • TBQTOCHI: Two-Part Models Capture the Impact of Gain on Pointing Performance
    G. Shoemaker (Univ. of British Columbia, CA), T. Tsukitani, Y. Kitamura, K. Booth
    G. Shoemaker (Univ. of British Columbia, CA)T. Tsukitani (Osaka Univ., JP)Y. Kitamura (Tohoku Univ., JP)K. Booth (Univ. of British Columbia, CA)

    The paper provides empirical evidence of limitations in Fitts’s Law and demonstrates how a two-part formulation by Welford’s provides a model that naturally takes into account control-display gain.We establish that two-part models of pointing performance (Welford’s model) describe pointing on a computer display significantly better than traditional one-part models (Fitts’s Law). We explore the space of pointing models and describe how independent contributions of movement amplitude and target width to pointing time can be captured in a parameter k. Through a reanalysis of data from related work we demonstrate that one-part formulations are fragile in describing pointing performance, and that this fragility is present for various devices and techniques. We show that this same data can be significantly better described using two-part models. Finally, we demonstrate through further analysis of previous work and new experimental data that k increases linearly with gain. Our primary contribution is the demonstration that Fitts’s Law is more limited in applicability than previously appreciated, and that more robust models, such as Welford’s formulation, should be adopted in many cases of practical interest.

  • NQBNote: How Low Can You Go? Human Limits in Small Unidirectional Mouse Movements
    J. Aceituno (Inria Lille, FR), G. Casiez, N. Roussel
    J. Aceituno (Inria Lille, FR)G. Casiez (LIFL & INRIA Lille, Univ. of Lille, FR)N. Roussel (Inria, FR)

    Presents an experimental protocol and corresponding findings for the mouse for measuring the smallest unidirectional movement people can perform. Details recommendation guidelines for user interfaces and devices design.Computer mouse sensors keep increasing in resolution. The smallest displacement they can detect gets smaller, but little is known on our ability to control such small movements. Small target acquisition has been previously tackled, but the findings do not apply to the problem of finding the useful resolution of a user with a mouse, which corresponds to the smallest displacement (s)he can reliably produce with that device. We detail this definition and provide an associated experimental protocol to measure it. We then report on the results of a study suggesting that high-end mice are not likely to be used to their full potential. We further comment on the different strategies used by participants to acheive best performance, and derive implications for user interfaces.

  • NFENote: Can We Beat the Mouse with MAGIC?
    R. Fares (Texas State Univ., USA), S. Fang, O. Komogortsev
    R. Fares (Texas State Univ., USA)S. Fang (Texas State Univ., USA)O. Komogortsev (Texas State Univ., USA)

    Animated MAGIC is a novel interaction method that improves the throughput of the mouse by incorporating eye-tracking as a complementary input.MAGIC pointing techniques combine eye tracking with manual input. Since the mouse performs exceptionally well in a desktop setting, previous research on MAGIC pointing either resulted in minor improvements, or the techniques were applied to alternative devices or environments. We design Animated MAGIC, a novel, target-agnostic MAGIC pointing technique, for the specific goal of beating the mouse in a desktop setting. To improve the eye-tracking accuracy, we develop a dynamic local calibration method that uses each selection as a local calibration point. We compare Animated MAGIC to mouse-only and Conservative MAGIC, one of the two original MAGIC pointing methods, in a Fitts’ Law experiment. We conduct a user questionnaire to evaluate the usability of the interaction methods. Results suggest that Dynamic Local Calibration improves eye-tracking accuracy and, consequently, MAGIC pointing performance. Powered with Dynamic Local Calibration, Animated MAGIC outperformed mouse-only by 8% in terms of throughput. Both MAGIC pointing methods reduced the amount of hand movement by more than half.

352ABPapers: Sensing Touch

SHCSession chair: Chris Harrison
  • PFHPaper: GaussBits: Magnetic Tangible Bits for Portable and Occlusion-Free Near-Surface Interactions
    R. Liang (National Taiwan Univ., TW), K. Cheng, L. Chan, C. Peng, M. Chen, R. Liang, D. Yang, B. Chen
    R. Liang (National Taiwan Univ., TW)K. Cheng (National Taiwan Univ., TW)L. Chan (Academia Sinica, TW)C. Peng (National Taiwan Univ. of Science and Technology, TW)M. Chen (National Taiwan Univ., TW)R. Liang (National Taiwan Univ. of Science and Technology, TW)D. Yang (Academia Sinica, TW)B. Chen (National Taiwan Univ., TW)

    This work presents a system of the passive magnetic tangible designs that enables occlusion-free tangible interactions in the near-surface space of portable displays.We present GaussBits, which is a system of the passive magnetic tangible designs that enables 3D tangible interactions in the near-surface space of portable displays. When a thin magnetic sensor grid is attached to the back of the display, the 3D position and partial 3D orientation of the GaussBits can be resolved by the proposed bi-polar magnetic field tracking technique. This portable platform can therefore enrich tangible interactions by extending the design space to the near-surface space. Since non-ferrous materials, such as the user’s hand, do not occlude the magnetic field, interaction designers can freely incorporate a magnetic unit into an appropriately shaped non-ferrous object to exploit the metaphors of the real-world tasks, and users can freely manipulate the GaussBits by hands or using other non-ferrous tools without causing interference. The presented example applications and the collected feedback from an explorative workshop revealed that this new approach is widely applicable.

  • PPEPaper: Swiss-Cheese Extended: An Object Recognition Method for Ubiquitous Interfaces based on Capacitive Proximity Sensing
    T. Grosse-Puppendahl (Fraunhofer IGD, DE), A. Braun, F. Kamieth, A. Kuijper
    T. Grosse-Puppendahl (Fraunhofer IGD, DE)A. Braun (Fraunhofer IGD, DE)F. Kamieth (Fraunhofer IGD, DE)A. Kuijper (Fraunhofer IGD, DE)

    Swiss-Cheese Extended proposes a novel real-time method for recognizing continuous object parameters with capacitive proximity sensors. The method is evaluated with a study of a multi-hand interaction device.Swiss-Cheese Extended proposes a novel real-time method for recognizing objects with capacitive proximity sensors. Applying this technique to ubiquitous user interfaces, it is possible to detect the 3D-position of multiple human hands in different configurations above a surface that is equipped with a small number of sensors. The retrieved object configurations can significantly improve a user’s interaction experience or an application’s execution context, for example by detecting multi-hand zoom and rotation gestures or recognizing a grasping hand. We emphasize the broad applicability of the proposed method with a study of a multi-hand gesture recognition device.

  • PRRPaper: HACHIStack: Dual-Layer Photo Touch Sensing for Haptic and Auditory Tapping Interaction
    T. Hachisu (Univ., JP), H. Kajimoto
    T. Hachisu (Univ., JP)H. Kajimoto (Univ., JP)

    Extends photo touch sensor architecture that can measure the approaching velocity and predict its contact time with the surface. Demonstrates its applications including no-delay haptic feedback for tapping interaction.We present a novel photo touch sensing architecture, HACHIStack. It can measure the approaching velocity of an object and predict its contact time with the touch screen using two optical sensing layers above the surface. The photo sensing layers form three unique capabilities: high-speed sampling, velocity acquisition, and contact time prediction. This work quantitatively examines these capabilities through two laboratory experiments, and confirms that the capabilities of HACHIStack are sufficient for multimodal interaction, in particular, touch-based interaction with haptic enhancement. We then present three applications with HACHIStack: 1) chromatic percussions (xylophone and glockenspiel) with haptic feedback; 2) no-delay haptic feedback with the sensation of tapping on various simulated materials (e.g., rubber, wood and aluminum); and 3) a virtual piano instrument that allows players to perform weak and strong strokes by changing the tapping velocity.

  • PLEPaper: LongPad: A TouchPad Using the Entire Area below the Keyboard of a Laptop Computer
    J. Gu (KAIST (Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology), KR), S. Heo, J. Han, S. Kim, G. Lee
    J. Gu (KAIST (Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology), KR)S. Heo (KAIST (Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology), KR)J. Han (KAIST (Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology), KR)S. Kim (KAIST (Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology), KR)G. Lee (KAIST (Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology), KR)

    We implemented a proximity- and force-sensing touchpad and explored the feasibility and new possibilities of a long touchpad that utilizes the entire area below the keyboard on a laptop computer.In this paper, we explore the possibility of a long touchpad that utilizes the entire area below the keyboard of a laptop computer. An essential prerequisite for such a touchpad is a robust palm rejection method, which we satisfy using a proximity-sensing touchpad. We developed LongPad, a proximity-sensing optical touchpad that is as wide as a laptop keyboard, and implemented a palm rejection algorithm that utilizes proximity images from LongPad. In a user study conducted, we observed that LongPad rejected palm touches almost perfectly while participants were repeating typing and pointing tasks. We also summarize the new design space enabled by LongPad and demonstrate a few of the interaction techniques it facilitates.

221/221MLast-minute SIGs: Session 5

Tuesday – 14:00-15:20

BluePapers: Displays Everywhere

SFYSession chair: Anne Roudaut
  • PLQPaper: Reasons to Question Seven Segment Displays
    H. Thimbleby (Swansea Univ., UK)
    H. Thimbleby (Swansea Univ., UK)

    Seven segment displays are familiar and ubiquitous, yet their use is problematic. This paper reviews many readability and use problems, and provides a range design questions and fixes.Seven segment number displays are ubiquitous and popular. They are simple and familiar. They seem to make economic sense, and with only seven segments they require little wiring and electronics to support. They are cheap to buy and cheap to use; they make seemingly effective and unproblematic products. This paper illustrates many examples of problematic uses of seven segment displays that could have been avoided. More generally, the paper raises design questions and some solutions to be considered when designing numerical displays, and certainly before uncritically using seven segment displays. Although there are markets and applications where cost may be an overriding consideration, for safety critical and other dependable types of use (including general purpose devices that may sometimes be used for critical tasks) more legible alternatives than standard seven segment displays should be preferred.

  • PERPaper: Sublimate: State-Changing Virtual and Physical Rendering to Augment Interaction with Shape Displays
    D. Leithinger (Massachusetts Institute of Technology, USA), S. Follmer, A. Olwal, S. Luescher, A. Hogge, J. Lee, H. Ishii
    D. Leithinger (Massachusetts Institute of Technology, USA)S. Follmer (Massachusetts Institute of Technology, USA)A. Olwal (Massachusetts Institute of Technology, USA)S. Luescher (Massachusetts Institute of Technology, USA)A. HoggeJ. Lee (Media Lab, USA)H. Ishii (Massachusetts Institute of Technology, USA)

    Sublimate co-locates spatial 3D visuals with actuated shape displays. We introduce interfaces and applications that combine virtual graphics and physical form, and explores the transitions between those states.Recent research in 3D user interfaces pushes towards immersive graphics and actuated shape displays. Our work explores the hybrid of these directions, and we introduce sublimation and vaporization, as metaphors for the transitions between physical and virtual states. We discuss how digital models, handles and controls can be interacted with as virtual 3D graphics or dynamic physical shapes, and how user interfaces can rapidly and fluidly switch between those representations. To explore this space, we developed systems that integrate actuated shape displays and augmented reality (AR) for co-located physical shapes and 3D graphics. Our spatial optical see-through display provides a single user with head-tracked stereoscopic augmentation, whereas our handheld devices enable multi-user interaction through video see-through AR. We describe interaction techniques and applications that explore 3D interaction for these new modalities. We conclude by discussing the results from a user study that show how free- hand interaction with physical shape displays and co-located graphics can outperform wand-based interaction with virtual 3D graphics.

  • PNJPaper: WatchIt: Simple Gestures and Eyes-free Interaction for Wristwatches and Bracelets
    S. PERRAULT (Telecom ParisTech, FR), E. Lecolinet, J. Eagan, Y. GUIARD
    S. PERRAULT (Telecom ParisTech, FR)E. Lecolinet (Telecom ParisTech, FR)J. Eagan (Telecom ParisTech – CNRS LTCI UMR 5141 , FR)Y. GUIARD (Telecom ParisTech, FR)

    WatchIt is a prototype device that extends interaction from a watch screen to a wristband or bracelet. We evaluate its use for discrete gestures, continuous control, and eyes-free usage.We present WatchIt, a prototype device that extends interaction beyond the watch surface to the wristband, and two interaction techniques for command selection and execution. Because the small screen of wristwatch computers suffers from visual occlusion and the fat finger problem, we investigated the use of the wristband as an available interaction resource. Not only does WatchIt use a cheap, energy efficient and invisible technology, but it involves simple, basic gestures that allow good performance after little training, as suggested by the results of a pilot study. We propose a novel gesture technique and an adaptation of an existing menu technique suitable for wristband interaction. In a user study, we investigated their usage in eyes-free contexts, finding that they perform well. Finally, we present techniques where the bracelet is used in addition to the screen to provide precise continuous control over list scrolling. We also report on a preliminary survey of traditional and digital jewelry that points to the high frequency of watches and bracelets in both genders and gives a sense of the tasks people feel like performing on such devices.

  • NFBNote: NailDisplay: Bringing an Always Available Visual Display to Fingertips
    C. Su (National Taiwan Univ., TW), L. Chan, C. Weng, R. Liang, K. Cheng, B. Chen
    C. Su (National Taiwan Univ., TW)L. Chan (Academia Sinica, TW)C. Weng (National Taiwan Univ., TW)R. Liang (Academia Sinica, TW)K. Cheng (National Taiwan Univ., TW)B. Chen (National Taiwan Univ., TW)

    Explores the possibility of turing fingernails into places for system input and visual output by adding a nail-mounted display.This work presents a novel and always-available nail mounted display known as NailDisplay. The proposed display augments the use of a finger by allowing for always-available visual feedback owing to its fast accessibility and binding user controls with the display, i.e. what you control is what you see (through the display). Potential benefits of NailDisplay are demonstrated in three applications: from displaying to combining it with user controls. In the first application, NailDisplay can reveal what is occluded under a finger touch, making it a solution to operate small UI elements. In the second application, NailDisplay is complementary to an imaginary interface, helping users to learn an imaginary interface (e.g., on the users’ arms) and allowing them to reassure the interface when their memory of it becomes unclear. In the third application, NailDisplay is integrated with rich finger interactions, such as swiping in the air. We also report users’ feedbacks gathered from an explorative user study.

  • NKQNote: An Interactive Belt-worn Badge
    N. Pohl (Univ. of Stuttgart, DE), S. Hodges, J. Helmes, N. Villar, T. Paek
    N. Pohl (Univ. of Stuttgart, DE)S. Hodges (Microsoft Research, UK)J. Helmes (Microsoft Research, UK)N. Villar (Microsoft Research, UK)T. Paek (Microsoft Research, USA)

    This paper explores an interactive identity badge with an embedded LCD and an input mechanism based on sensing built into the retractable string which attaches it to the wearer’s belt.In this paper we explore a new type of wearable computing device, an interactive identity badge. An embedded LCD presents dynamic information to the wearer and interaction is facilitated by sensing movement of the retractable string which attaches the unit to the wearer’s belt. This form-factor makes it possible to interact using a single hand, providing lightweight and immediate access to a variety of information when it’s not convenient to pick up, unlock and interact directly with a device like a smartphone. In this paper we present our prototype interactive badge, demonstrate the underlying technology and describe a number of usage scenarios and interaction techniques

241Panel

  • LRDIs My Doctor Listening to Me? Impact of Health IT Systems on Patient-Provider Interaction
    Yunan Chen (moderator), Karen Cheng, Charlotte Tang, Katie A. Siek, Jakob E. Bardram
    Yunan Chen (moderator)Karen ChengCharlotte TangKatie A. SiekJakob E. Bardram

    With the rapid development of information systems in healthcare practices, the traditional within-clinic, face-to-face mode of patient-provider interactions are increasingly facilitated, enriched, and mediated by new types of health technologies. These technologies are designed to bring better access to patient care information, resources, and a variety of communication channels. Yet, the use of these technologies may introduce unintended impacts on both patients and health providers. In this panel, drawing from our recent studies on patient-provider interaction, the panelists will discuss the emerging issues in this field. Specifically, we discuss the impacts of new technologies on synchronous co-located interaction and asynchronous remote interaction, as well as the shifts in patient-provider interaction that will emerge as ubiquitous health technologies becomes more prevalent.

242ABPapers: Clinical Settings

STCSession chair: Xiaomu Zhou
  • TVQTOCHI: Teamwork Errors in Trauma Resuscitation
    A. Sarcevic (Drexel Univ., USA), I. Marsic, R. Burd
    A. Sarcevic (Drexel Univ., USA)I. Marsic (Rutgers Univ., USA)R. Burd (Children’s National Medical Center, USA)

    Proposes a model of teamwork and a classification of team errors based on an observational study of emergency medical teams. Identifies key information structures for computerized support of team cognition.Human errors in trauma resuscitation can have cascading effects leading to poor patient outcomes. To determine the nature of teamwork errors, we conducted an observational study in a trauma center over a two-year period. While eventually successful in treating the patients, trauma teams had problems tracking and integrating information in a longitudinal trajectory, which resulted in inefficiencies and near-miss errors. As an initial step in system design to support trauma teams, we proposed a model of teamwork and a novel classification of team errors. Four types of team errors emerged from our analysis: communication errors, vigilance errors, interpretation errors, and management errors. Based on these findings, we identified key information structures to support team cognition and decision making. We believe that displaying these information structures will support distributed cognition of trauma teams. Our findings have broader applicability to other collaborative and dynamic work settings that are prone to human error.

  • PGPPaper: SimMed: Combining Simulation and Interactive Tabletops for Medical Education
    U. von Zadow (Archimedes Exhibitions GmbH, DE), S. Buron, T. Harms, F. Behringer, K. Sostmann, R. Dachselt
    U. von Zadow (Archimedes Exhibitions GmbH, DE)S. Buron (Charité-Univ., DE)T. Harms (Charité-Univ., DE)F. Behringer (Charité-Univ., DE)K. Sostmann (Charité-Univ., DE)R. Dachselt (Technische Univ. Dresden, DE)

    SimMed supports collaborative medical education using a life-sized virtual patient on a multitouch tabletop. We address the interplay between realism, immersion and training goals in this context.A large body of work asserts that interactive tabletops are well suited for group work, and numerous studies have examined these devices in educational contexts. However, few of the described systems support simulations for collaborative learning, and none of them explicitly address immersion. We present SimMed, a system allowing medical students to collaboratively diagnose and treat a virtual patient using an interactive tabletop. The hybrid user interface combines elements of virtual reality with multitouch input. The paper delineates the development process of the system and rationale behind a range of interface design decisions. Thereby, the role of realism in gaining procedural knowledge is discussed – in particular, the interplay between realism, immersion and training goals. We implemented several medical test cases and evaluated our approach with a user study that suggests the great potential of the system. Results show a high level of immersion, cooperation and engagement by the students.

  • PTSPaper: Imaging the Body: Embodied Vision in Minimally Invasive Surgery
    H. Mentis (Microsoft Research, UK), A. Taylor
    H. Mentis (Microsoft Research, UK)A. Taylor (Microsoft Research, UK)

    Presents findings concerning the constructed and embodied use of images during neurosurgery. Lends itself to a discussion of the directions for new imaging interaction technologies. Recent years have seen the possibilities of new imaging and interaction technologies for minimally invasive surgery such as touchless interaction and high definition renderings of three-dimensional anatomy. With this paper we take a step back to review the historical introduction and assimilation of imaging technologies in the surgical theatre in parallel with the productive and cross-referential nature of surgical practice and image use. We present findings from a field study of image use during neurosurgery where we see that the work to see medical images is highly constructed and embodied with the action of manipulating the body. This perspective lends itself to a discussion of the directions for new imaging interaction technologies.

  • PALPaper: A Matter of Life and Death: Practical and Ethical Constraints in the Development of a Mobile Verbal Autopsy Tool
    J. Bird (Univ. College London, UK), P. Byass, K. Kahn, P. Mee, E. Fottrell
    J. Bird (Univ. College London, UK)P. Byass (Umeå Univ., SE)K. Kahn (Univ. of the Witwatersrand, ZA)P. Mee (Univ. of the Witwatersrand, ZA)E. Fottrell (Univ. College London, UK)

    We describe the ethical issues raised by the field study of a mobile verbal autopsy device that identifies the probable cause of death from interviewing relatives of the deceased. Verbal autopsy (VA) involves interviewing relatives of the deceased to identify the probable cause of death and is typically used in settings where there is no official system for recording deaths or their causes. Following the interview, physician assessment to determine probable cause can take several years to complete. The World Health Organization (WHO) recognizes that there is a pressing need for a mobile device that combines direct data capture and analysis if this technique is to become part of routine health surveillance. We conducted a field test in rural South Africa to evaluate a mobile system that we designed to meet WHO requirements (namely, simplicity, feasibility, adaptability to local contexts, cost-effectiveness and program relevance). If desired, this system can provide immediate feedback to respondents about the probable cause of death at the end of a VA interview. We assessed the ethical implications of this technological development by interviewing all the stakeholders in the VA process (respondents, fieldworkers, physicians, population scientists, data managers and community engagement managers) and highlight the issues that this community needs to debate and resolve.

243Course C12, unit 1/2

  • CTGC12: Practical Statistics for User Experience Part II
    J. Sauro (Measuring Usability LLC, USA), J. Lewis
    J. Sauro (Measuring Usability LLC, USA)J. Lewis (IBM, USA)

    Learn how to: compute sample sizes for user research studies (comparing designs, finding usability problems and surveys); determine if a benchmark was exceeded; and practice conducting and interpreting statistical tests.If you don’t measure it you can’t manage it. User-research is about more than rules of thumb, good design and intuition: it’s about making better decisions with data. Did we meet our goal of a 75% completion rate? What sample size should we plan on for a survey, or for comparing products? Will five users really find 85% of all problems? Learn how to conduct and interpret appropriate statistical tests on usability data, compute sample sizes and communicate your results in easy to understand terms to stakeholders. Features — Determine your sample size for comparing two designs, a benchmarking study, survey analysis or finding problems in an interface. — Determine if a usability test has met or exceeded a goal (e.g. users can complete the transaction is less than 2 minutes). — Get practice knowing what statistical test to perform and how to interpret the results (p-values and confidence intervals). Audience Open to anyone who’s interested in quantitative usability tests. Participants should be familiar with the process of conducting usability tests as well as be familiar with major statistical topics such as normal theory, confidence intervals and t-tests. Participants should also have access to Microsoft Excel to use the provided calculators.

251Papers: Game Design

SQLSession chair: Regan Mandryk
  • PMCPaper: How Does It Play Better? Exploring User Testing and Biometric Storyboards in Games User Research
    P. Mirza-Babaei (Univ. of Sussex, Brighton, East Sussex, UK), L. Nacke, J. Gregory, N. Collins, G. Fitzpatrick
    P. Mirza-Babaei (Univ. of Sussex, Brighton, East Sussex, UK)L. Nacke (Univ. of Ontario Institute of Technology, CA)J. Gregory (Univ. of Ontario Institute of Technology, CA)N. Collins (Univ. of Sussex, UK)G. Fitzpatrick (Vienna Univ. of Technology, AT)

    Our paper is the first study of its kind presented at CHI to report on the value of game user testing and physiological evaluation in providing formative feedback for game development. Improving game design is a hard task. Few methods are available in games user research (GUR) to test formally how game designs work for players. In particular, the usefulness of user tests (UTs) for game designers has not been fully studied in the CHI community. We propose a novel GUR method called Biometric Storyboards (BioSt) and present a study demonstrating how a Classic UT and a BioSt UT both help designers create a better gameplay experience. In addition, we show that BioSt can help designers deliver significantly better visuals, more fun, and higher gameplay quality than designing without UTs and that classic UTs do not provide this significant advantage. Our interviews support the idea that BioSt provides more nuanced game design improvement. The design implication is that a game designed with the BioSt method will result in high gameplay quality.

  • PFGPaper: Design Metaphors for Procedural Content Generation in Games
    R. Khaled (Univ. of Malta, MT), M. Nelson, P. Barr
    R. Khaled (Univ. of Malta, MT)M. Nelson (IT Univ. of Copenhagen, DK)P. Barr (Univ. of Malta, MT)

    We present procedural content generation (PCG) design metaphors that help designers understand and appropriate PCG, and advance research by highlighting assumptions implicit in existing systems and discourse.Procedural content generation (PCG), the algorithmic creation of game content with limited or indirect user input, has much to offer to game design. In recent years, it has become a mainstay of game AI, with significant research being put towards the investigation of new PCG systems, algorithms, and techniques. But for PCG to be absorbed into the practice of game design, it must be contextualised within design-centric as opposed to AI or engineering perspectives. We therefore provide a set of design metaphors for understanding potential relationships between a designer and PCG. These metaphors are: tool, material, designer, and domain expert. By examining PCG through these metaphors, we gain the ability to articulate qualities, consequences, affordances, and limitations of existing PCG approaches in relation to design. These metaphors are intended both to aid designers in understanding and appropriating PCG for their own contexts, and to advance PCG research by highlighting the assumptions implicit in existing systems and discourse.

  • PKLPaper: Prototyping in PLACE: A Scalable Approach to Developing Location-Based Apps and Games
    A. Bowser (Univ. of Maryland, USA), D. Hansen, J. Raphael, M. Reid, R. Gamett, Y. He, D. Rotman, J. Preece
    A. Bowser (Univ. of Maryland, USA)D. Hansen (Brigham Young Univ., USA)J. Raphael (Brigham Young Univ., USA)M. Reid (Brigham Young Univ., USA)R. Gamett (Brigham Young Univ., USA)Y. He (Univ. of Maryland, USA)D. Rotman (Univ. of Maryland, USA)J. Preece (Univ. of Maryland, USA)

    PLACE is a framework for prototyping location-based apps and games that considers location, activities, and collective experience over time. PLACE is evaluated with Floracaching, a Geocaching game for citizen science. The rising popularity of location-based applications and games (LBAGs) that break spatial, temporal, and social boundaries creates new challenges for designers. This paper introduces PLACE, an iterative, mixed-fidelity approach to Prototyping Location, Activities, Collective experience, and Experience over time in LBAGs. PLACE consists of 6 design principles: start small and scale up the fidelity, treat participants as co-designers, test in a representative space, focus on activities more than interfaces, respect authentic social experience, and represent time authentically. The effectiveness of PLACE was evaluated by prototyping Floracaching, a geocaching game for citizen science. This revealed the types of insights that PLACE provides, best practices for implementing PLACE, and how PLACE com-pares to other prototyping methods.

  • PLKPaper: Designing Reusable Alternate Reality Games
    D. Hansen (Brigham Young Univ., USA), E. Bonsignore, M. Ruppel, A. Visconti, K. Kraus
    D. Hansen (Brigham Young Univ., USA)E. Bonsignore (Univ. of Maryland, USA)M. Ruppel (National Endowment for the Humanities, USA)A. Visconti (Univ. of Maryland, USA)K. Kraus (Univ. of Maryland, USA)

    This paper presents a framework for making Alternate Reality Games reusable, including replayable, adaptable, and extensible, and presents design strategies for implementing them.Successful Alternate Reality Games (ARGs), such as The Lost Experience, I Love Bees and Urgent EVOKE have solicited thousands of active participants and, often, millions of spectators from around the world. ARGs require significant resources not only in terms of initial design, but also in implementation, since live, dynamic interplay between players and designers is an inherent aspect of their interactive storylines. This paper outlines a novel design framework for creating reusable ARGs that will help extend the lifespan of ARGs and allow them to permeate new domains such as education. The framework includes three key reusable design objectives (replayability, adaptability, extensibility), each of which can be enacted at different levels of depth. We also identify barriers to reusable ARGs and design strategies for overcoming those barriers, drawing upon ARG designer interviews and existing ARGs.

252ACourse C15, unit 1/2

  • CFLC15: Card Sorting for Navigation Design
    W. Hudson (Syntagm Ltd, UK)
    W. Hudson (Syntagm Ltd, UK)

    This half-day hands-on course covers the theory and practice of card sorting. It includes hands-on experience of performing a paper-based card sort, data capture and analysis.Benefits: This half-day hands-on course covers the theory and practice of card sorting. It includes hands-on experience of performing and evaluating a paper-based card sort of an e-commerce site (although the techniques are applicable to many other problem domains). Origins: This is a major update of an earlier course (‘Innovations in Card Sorting’) that has been run for several years at HCI and usability conferences (HCI 2006 & 2007, CADUI 2008, HCI 2009, CHI 2009-2012). A one-day version of this course was presented as part of Nielsen-Norman Group’s Usability Week in 2009. The updated, half-day version appeared at CHI 2011. Features: On completion of this tutorial you will be able to choose an appropriate card sorting method explain cluster analysis and dendrograms to colleagues and clients apply appropriate techniques for getting the best information from participants and the resulting data perform quick and reliable data capture Audience: Web and intranet designers, information architects, usability and HCI professionals interested in the practical application of card sorting. No specialist skills or knowledge are required. Presentation: The course is approximately 60% tutorials and 40% practical card-sorting activities or group discussions. Instructor Background:: William Hudson has nearly 40 years’ experience in the development of interactive systems. He is the founder of Syntagm, a consultancy specializing in user-centered design and has conducted more than 300 intranet and web site expert evaluations. William has written over 30 articles, papers and studies including the InteractionDesign.org Encyclopedia entry on card sorting. He is also an Adjunct Professor at Hult International Business School. Web Site: Further information about the instructor and this course can be found at www.syntagm.co.uk/design

252BCase studies: Changing How We Work

SBNSession chair: Kathy Baxter
  • YVHBest Practices for Enterprise Social Software Adoption: A Case Study of Deploying IBM Connections within IBM
    M. Yang (IBM, USA), M. Warner, D. Millen
    M. Yang (IBM, USA)M. Warner (IBM, USA)D. Millen (IBM Research, USA)

    Best-practices to drive enterprise social software adoption.In this case study, we present the results of a longitudinal study of the end-user adoption of social software within a large global enterprise. Existing Technology Adoption Models (e.g., UTAUT) were extended and used as a general framework for studying user adoption. Several “best practices” to promote end-user adoption are identified and discussed, including: integration with company intranet, email notifications, evangelism programs, executive support, mandatory migration and usage, and corporate-sponsored campaigns or events.

  • YZSMinimizing Change Aversion for the Google Drive Launch
    A. Sedley (Google, Inc., USA), H. Müller
    A. Sedley (Google, Inc., USA)H. Müller (Google, Inc., AU)

    Case study describing change aversion and the application of change management principles to the Google Drive launch. Can assist in launching interface changes to minimize user discomfort and effort.Change aversion is a natural response, which technology often exacerbates. Evolutionary changes can be subtle and occur over many generations. But Internet users must sometimes deal with sudden, significant product changes to applications they rely on and identify with. Despite the best intentions of designers and product managers, users often experience anxiety and confusion when faced with a new interface or changed functionality. While some change aversion is often inevitable, it can also be managed and minimized with the right steps. This case study describes how our understanding of change aversion helped minimize negative effects for the transition of the Google Docs List to Google Drive, a product for file storage in the cloud. We describe actions that allowed for a launch with no aversion.

  • YXLDo You Enjoy Getting Gifts? Keeping Personas Alive Through Marketing Materials
    C. Hochleitner (CURE – Center for Usability Research & Engineering, AT), C. Graf, M. Tscheligi
    C. Hochleitner (CURE – Center for Usability Research & Engineering, AT)C. Graf (CURE – Center for Usability Research & Engineering, AT)M. Tscheligi (Univ. of Salzburg, AT)

    This case study researches the potential of persona marketing materials to improve the persona method. We present and research the effects and likeability of long-living marketing materials and consumables.Personas are a design tool to ensure a strong user-focus within projects. In this case study we compare and discuss seven different persona marketing materials used to increase the acceptance of the personas by the project team. The marketing materials are a mixture of consumables (e.g., wine or cake) and long-living marketing materials (e.g., posters or savings box). The insights gained are encouraging and confirm that marketing materials can be useful for increasing the acceptance and usage of personas.

  • YRXThe Fingerstroke-Level Model Strikes Back: A modified Keystroke-Level Model in developing a gaming UI for 4G networks
    K. Song (Hanyang Univ., KR), J. Kim, Y. Cho, A. Lee, H. Ryu
    K. Song (Hanyang Univ., KR)J. Kim (Hanyang Univ., KR)Y. Cho (Hanyang Univ., KR)A. Lee (Hanyang Univ., KR)H. Ryu (Hanyang Univ., KR)

    we suggested a new gaming style with FLM, and confirmed that FLM serves well as the predictive model in the touch-sensitive mobile UIs.With the 4G mobile technology, LG U+ established a new business model, inter-network mirroring game service, that allows PC and mobile game users to play against each other. However, due to an unsolicited input command design for touch-sensitive UIs, it is hard to adjust competitive levels between them. The traditional Keystroke-Level Model (KLM) was not applicable to predict the task performance in the touch-sensitive user interface. This case study thus proposed Fingerstroke Level Model (FLM), and analyzed the inter-network mirroring game – ‘Freestyle II™’ with FLM. The empirical study confirmed the effectiveness and efficiency of FLM, and suggested how HCI methods can improve the design of mobile gaming user interface.

253Course C13, unit 1/2

  • CKCC13: Expert Reviews – For Experts
    R. Molich (DialogDesign, DK)
    R. Molich (DialogDesign, DK)

    Expert reviews are often conducted with poor or unsystematic methodology and thus don’t always live up to their full potential. This course teaches proven methods for conducting expert reviews.Title of the Course Expert Reviews – For Experts Names and Affiliations of the Instructors Rolf Molich, DialogDesign Benefits Expert reviews, such as heuristic evaluations and other design inspections, are the second most widely used usability method. Nonetheless, they’re often conducted with poor or unsystematic methodology and thus don’t always live up to their full potential. This course teaches proven methods for conducting and reporting expert reviews of a user interface design. Origins The instructor presented a similar course at CHI 2007, where 37 participants rated it 6.54 on a 7-point scale in response to the question “The course was worth my time.” It is an updated version of two 90-minute sessions in the instructor’s popular full-day course “Expert Reviews – For Experts”, which has been highly rated by several hundred attendees at Nielsen-Norman Group conferences. Features – A survey of commonly used expert review techniques and resources accompanied by a discussion of their strengths and weaknesses. – Two practical exercises in expert reviews. Participants do an expert review of a dialog and build consensus with their peers. Participants match their review skills with their peers and learn from them. Audience Usability professionals who have usability testing experience and who have conducted some expert reviews. Although this course is not intended as an introduction to expert reviews, past participants with no expert review experience have rated it highly. Prerequisites Basic understanding of usability and the benefits of usability evaluation. Presentation Interactive lectures and exercises. The exercises takes about 50% of the total course time. Instructor Background Rolf Molich owns and manages DialogDesign, a small Danish usability consultancy. Rolf coordinates the Comparative Usability Evaluation (CUE) studies where more than 100 professional usability teams tested or reviewed the same applications. He is the co-inventor of the heuristic inspection method (with Jakob Nielsen).

BordeauxPapers: Design for the Home

SCMSession chair: Albrecht Schmidt
  • PRYPaper: Designing for the Living Room: Long-Term User Involvement in a Living Lab
    C. Ogonowski (Univ. of Siegen, DE), B. Ley, J. Hess, L. Wan, V. Wulf
    C. Ogonowski (Univ. of Siegen, DE)B. Ley (Univ. of Siegen, DE)J. Hess (Univ. of Siegen, DE)L. Wan (Univ. of Siegen, DE)V. Wulf (Univ. of Siegen, DE)

    We present lessons learned from a 2.5 year period of a Living Lab project and discuss aspects that need to be considered when setting up such a research framework.Living Labs provide a research infrastructure for long-term user involvement in Participatory Design processes. Users take part in software co-creation during context analysis, for concept development, reflecting on early-stage prototypes and evaluations in the field. In this paper we describe lessons learned from our Living Lab in the area of home entertainment, with 27 participants from 16 households, over a 2.5 year period. We show that this kind of long-term participation of users involves various challenges over the lifetime of the project. We highlight several aspects that need to be considered carefully when setting up such a Living Lab, concerning the selection of participants, maintenance of participants’ motivation, establishment of a trust relationship, and the coordination of collaboration.

  • PGBPaper: Leaving the Wild: Lessons from Community Technology Handovers
    N. Taylor (Newcastle Univ., UK), K. Cheverst, P. Wright, P. Olivier
    N. Taylor (Newcastle Univ., UK)K. Cheverst (Lancaster Univ., UK)P. Wright (Newcastle Univ., UK)P. Olivier (Newcastle Univ., UK)

    We examine two cases where research prototypes were handed over to participants at the end of projects and suggest best practices for leaving technologies in the wild.As research increasingly turns to work ‘in the wild’ to design and evaluate technologies under real-world conditions, little consideration has been given to what happens when research ends. In many cases, users are heavily involved in the design process and encouraged to integrate the resulting technologies into their lives before they are withdrawn, while in some cases technologies are being left in place after research concludes. Often, little is done to assess the impact and legacy of these deployments. In this paper, we return to two examples in which we designed technologies with the involvement of communities and examine what steps were taken to ensure their long-term viability and what happened following the departure of researchers. From these examples, we provide guidelines for planning and executing technology handovers when conducting research with communities.

  • PSVPaper: How Groups of Users Associate Wireless Devices
    M. Chong (Lancaster Univ., UK), H. Gellersen
    M. Chong (Lancaster Univ., UK)H. Gellersen (Lancaster Univ., UK)

    Presents a guessability study of eliciting device association techniques from groups of non-technical users. Can inform designers of how people conceptualise device association in group scenarios.Group association, the process of connecting a group of devices, opens up new opportunities for users to spontaneously share resources. Research has shown numerous techniques and protocols for group association; however, what people intuitively do to associate a group of devices remains an open question. We contribute a study of eliciting device association techniques from groups of non-technical people. In all, we collected and analysed 496 techniques from 61 participants. Our results show that mobility and physicality of devices influence how people perceive groups association. We present a complete set of user-defined techniques with subjective ratings and popularity scores. We examined people’s rationale and the effects of different device form factors. We analysed the techniques based on the roles that users assume with respect to device association. Our findings draw out insights from the perspective of users for design of group association.

  • PEUPaper: MultiNet: Reducing Interaction Overhead in Domestic Wireless Networks
    A. Brown (The Univ. of Nottingham, UK), R. Mortier, T. Rodden
    A. Brown (The Univ. of Nottingham, UK)R. Mortier (The Univ. of Nottingham, UK)T. Rodden (The Univ. of Nottingham, UK)

    A novel method for securely associating devices with domestic wireless networks. Where the interaction is lightweight and consistent across all devices; improving usability, decreasing interaction overhead and enabling access revocation.We present MultiNet, a novel method for securely associating devices with a domestic wireless network. We show that MultiNet has usability benefits over currently deployed commercial solutions while being backwards compatible with existing devices. MultiNet reduces the interaction overhead of secure association by focusing on users’ interactions rather than the network’s requirements. This leads to a novel architectural arrangement of the home network infrastructure: the network is dynamically re-configured to accept each pre-configured device, rather than the current norm where each device is configured to be acceptable to the pre-configured network. Assuming devices are pre-configured for a unique, device-specific network name and passphrase, MultiNet constructs an out-of-band visual channel via an intermediary network controller device to convey the device’s configuration to the network. This makes the interaction to join a device to the wireless network lightweight and identical across all devices, considerably reducing the interaction overheads for users.

342APapers: Novel Programming

SNDSession chair: Margaret Burnett
  • PTMPaper: Use of an Agile Bridge in the Development of Assistive Technology
    S. Prior (Univ. of Abertay Dundee, UK), A. Waller, T. Kroll, R. Black
    S. Prior (Univ. of Abertay Dundee, UK)A. Waller (Univ. of Dundee, UK)T. Kroll (Univ. of Dundee, UK)R. Black (Univ. of Dundee, UK)

    In this paper we present a means for adults with complex communication disabilities to be involved in the User-Centred Design process through the use of a user advocateEngaging with end users in the development of assistive technologies remains one of the major challenges for researchers and developers in the field of accessibility and HCI. Developing usable software systems for people with complex disabilities is problematic, software developers are wary of using user-centred design, one of the main methods by which usability can be improved, due to concerns about how best to work with adults with complex disabilities, in particular Severe Speech and Physical Impairments (SSPI) and how to involve them in research. This paper reports on how the adoption of an adapted agile approach involving the incorporation of a user advocate on the research team helped in meeting this challenge in one software project and offers suggestions for how this could be used by other development teams.

  • PLRPaper: Codeable Objects: Computational Design and Digital Fabrication for Novice Programmers
    J. Jacobs (Massachusetts Institute of Technology, USA), L. Buechley
    J. Jacobs (Massachusetts Institute of Technology, USA)L. Buechley (Massachusetts Institute of Technology, USA)

    The combination of programing and digital fabrication offers compelling new opportunities for creative expression. Codeable Objects is a computational-design tool to support novice programmers in production of personal, physical artifacts.The combination of computational design and digital fabrication offers many exciting possibilities for art, design, and creative expression. We seek to make computational design accessible by developing tools that allow novices to use programming and digital fabrication to produce personal and functional objects. In this paper, we describe our development of Codeable Objects, a preliminary computational-design programing tool developed to work in conjunction with digital-fabrication machines. We also present our evaluation of the tool based on a set of user studies in which people built computationally generated crafts, clothing, and accessories. These studies illuminated the viability (and challenges) of engaging novice programmers through design and digital fabrication, and provide a platform for future work in developing programming tools to support personal expression.

  • PPQPaper: I Can Do Text Analytics! Designing Development Tools for Novice Developers
    H. Yang (IBM Research, USA), D. Pupons-Wickham, L. Chiticariu, Y. Li, B. Nguyen, A. Carreno-Fuentes
    H. Yang (IBM Research, USA)D. Pupons-Wickham (IBM Silicon Valley Lab, USA)L. Chiticariu (IBM Research, USA)Y. Li (IBM Research, USA)B. Nguyen (IBM Silicon Valley Lab, USA)A. Carreno-Fuentes (IBM Research, USA)

    Describe a user centered iterative design process that developed a tool for text analytics, which enables novice developers to write high quality information extractors on par with state of the art with minimal training.Text analytics, an increasingly important application domain, is hampered by the high barrier to entry due to the many conceptual difficulties novice developers encounter. This work addresses the problem by developing a tool to guide novice developers to adopt the best practices employed by expert developers in text analytics and to quickly harness the full power of the underlying system. Taking a user centered task analytical approach, the tool development went through multiple design iterations and evaluation cycles. In the latest evaluation, we found that our tool enables novice developers to develop high quality extractors on par with the state of art within a few hours and with minimal training. Finally, we discuss our experience and lessons learned in the context of designing user interfaces to reduce the barriers to entry into complex domains of expertise.

  • PPUPaper: Debugging Support for End User Mashup Programming
    S. Kuttal (Univ. of Nebraska-Lincoln , USA), A. Sarma, G. Rothermel
    S. Kuttal (Univ. of Nebraska-Lincoln , USA)A. Sarma (Univ. of Nebraska, Lincoln, USA)G. Rothermel (Univ. of Nebraska, Lincoln, USA)

    Debugging mashups is difficult and error-prone. We identify classes of faults in Yahoo! Pipes, present a prototype for automated fault localization, and illustrate its effectiveness via a user study. Programming for the web can be an intimidating task,particularly for non-professional (“end-user”) programmers. Mashup programming environments attempt to remedy this by providing support for such programming. It is well known, however, that mashup programmers create applications that contain bugs. Furthermore, mashup programmers learn from examples and reuse other mashups, which causes bugs to propagate to other mashups. In this paper we classify the bugs that occur in a large corpus of Yahoo! Pipes mashups. We describe support we have implemented in the Yahoo! Pipes environment to provide automatic error detection techniques that help mashup programmers localize and correct these bugs. We present the results of a think-aloud study comparing the experiences of end-user mashup programmers using and not using our support. Our results show that our debugging enhancements do help these programmers localize and correct bugs more effectively and efficiently.

343Course C14, unit 1/2

  • CXXC14: Make This! Introduction to Electronics Prototyping Using Arduino
    W. Ju (Stanford Univ., USA), D. Sirkin
    W. Ju (Stanford Univ., USA)D. Sirkin (Stanford Univ., USA)

    Course is a hands-on introduction to interactive electronics prototyping for people with a variety of backgrounds. Participants learn basic electronics, microcontroller programming and physical prototyping using the Arduino platform.Benefits: Course is a hands-on introduction to interactive electronics prototyping for people with a variety of backgrounds, including those with no prior experience in electronics. Familiarity with programming is recommended, but not required. Participants will learn basic electronics, microcontroller programming and physical prototyping using the Arduino platform. Participants will use digital and analog sensors, LED lights and motors to build, program and customize a small “paper robot.” Topics Include: * Basics of microcontroller architecture and firmware programming. * Use of potentiometers, light sensors and force sensitive resistors. * Controlling LEDs, displays and actuators from analog sensor input. The first session introduces the Arduino environment and basic electronics. The second session applies this knowledge to the task of building an interactive robot. Instructors will share prototyping tools for participants to use, as well as a variety of LEDs, wires, connectors and sensors to augment the basic robot design. Presentation: Content is presented as short lectures interleaved with self-guided tutorials. Instructors will answer questions and debug problems on-on-one. At different intervals, participants can share progress and trade ideas, allowing beginners to take their time and ask questions, and more advanced participants to work on creative variations of the basic tutorial. Instructor Background: Wendy Ju teaches physical interaction design in Stanford’s EE and Music departments. She also teaches at UC Berkeley’s Architecture department, and is academic coordinator for the Cal Design Lab. David Sirkin teaches interactive device design in Stanford’s EE department, and is a researcher at Stanford’s Communication between Humans and Interactive Media lab and Center for Design Research. Resources: Course includes a kit (yours to keep) comprising an Arduino, breadboard, LEDs, analog sensors, actuators, connecting cables and batteries. Participants are required to bring a laptop, on which they will install the Arduino software.

361Special Interest Group

  • GXSManaging UX Teams
    J. Rohn (Leads360, USA), C. Thompson
    J. Rohn (Leads360, USA)C. Thompson (zSpace, USA)

    This SIG will serve two purposes: as a forum to share the results from previous CHI management workshops and current trends, and also as a forum for the management community to discuss topics of interest.

362/363Special Interest Group

  • GPCChanging Perspectives on Sustainability: Healthy Debate or Divisive Factions?
    D. Busse (Samsung, USA), S. Mann, L. Nathan, C. Preist
    D. Busse (Samsung, USA)S. Mann (Otago Polytechnic, NZ)L. Nathan (Univ. of British Columbia, CA)C. Preist (Univ. of Bristol, UK)

    This year’s Sustainability SIG invites participants to apply the conference theme “changing perspectives” to sustainability research and practice within the human computer interaction community. As the number of sustainability-oriented endeavors in the field continues to grow, so does the number of critiques on the work undertaken. Perspectives continue to shift concerning how the HCI community “should” attend to the monumental ecosystem changes societies face in the coming decades. For such an enormous problem, is it best to concentrate our limited resources (time, money, people) on compatible approaches in order to build on each other’s findings? Do recent critiques risk sundering a nascent community of scholars? Or is it misguided to privilege a limited number of approaches to addressing a complex, problematic situation?

HavaneSpecial session: Social Impact Award

Session chair: Loren Terveen
  • SIAAward winner: Sara J. Czaja, University of Miami, USA

351Papers: Temporal Design

SEVSession chair: Ann Blandford
  • PTUPaper: Authoring Personal Histories: Exploring the Timeline as a Framework for Meaning Making
    E. Thiry (Pennsylvania State Univ., USA), S. Lindley, R. Banks, T. Regan
    E. Thiry (Pennsylvania State Univ., USA)S. Lindley (Microsoft Research, UK)R. Banks (Microsoft Research, UK)T. Regan (Microsoft Research, UK)

    We present a study of how older people made digital timelines using Project Greenwich. We explore how the constraints of the timeline metaphor offer a framework for authoring and making.It has been argued that technologies for ‘memory’ should be designed to support creativity and meaning building, rather than the passive capture of cues for remembering [25]. We report findings from a study inspired by this insight, in which older people made personal digital timelines using a new tool called Project Greenwich. We explore how the constraints of the timeline metaphor offer a framework for authoring, and examine how timelines can be used to underpin meaning building in relation to personal content. We highlight the importance of making, this being a vehicle for connecting with others in the present, and a potential means of emphasizing those elements of the past felt to be most salient when looking back.

  • PQJPaper: Looking Past Yesterday’s Tomorrow: Using Futures Studies Methods to Extend the Research Horizon
    J. Mankoff (Carnegie Mellon Univ., USA), H. Faste, J. Rode
    J. Mankoff (Carnegie Mellon Univ., USA)H. Faste (Carnegie Mellon Univ., USA)J. Rode (Drexel Univ., USA)

    A review of futures studies methods used to forecast and think critically about alternative futures and their relevance for HCI research.Doing research is, in part, an act of foresight. Even though it is not explicit in many projects, we especially value research that is still relevant five, ten or more years after it is completed. However, published research in the field of interactive computing (and technology research in general) often lacks evidence of systematic thinking about the long-term impacts of current trends. For example, trends on an exponential curve change much more rapidly than intuition predicts. As a result, research may accidentally emphasize near-term thinking. When thinking about the future is approached systematically, we can critically examine multiple potential futures, expand the set of externalities under consideration, and address both negative and positive forecasts of the future. The field of Futures Studies provides methods that can support analysis of long-term trends, support the identification of new research areas and guide design and evaluation. We survey methods for futuristic thinking and discuss their relationship to Human Computer Interaction. Using the sustainability domain an example, we present a case study of a Futures Studies approach–the Delphi Method. We show how Futures Studies can be incorporated into Human Computer Interaction and highlight future work such as rethinking the role of externalities in the validation process.

  • PHBPaper: Toying with Time: Considering Temporal Themes in Interactive Artifacts
    S. Lundgren (Chalmers Univ. of Technology, SE)
    S. Lundgren (Chalmers Univ. of Technology, SE)

    This paper proposes: 1) A framework describing use of time in interactive artifacts, and 2) An ideation method for deliberately and systematically exploring potential temporal behaviors of an interactive artifact. This paper argues that there is a value in deliberately and systematically exploring potential temporal behaviors of an interactive artifact, either as a means to add new functions, or to change the interaction with it. An improved version of Temporal Themes – a vocabulary describing how software can “use” time or sequences of events – will be presented, alongside a series of design cases. These exemplify how adding or changing temporal themes in existing applications can enhance functionality and/or interaction. Moreover, the cases also serve as a basis for a discussion of the issues coupled to temporality, control and interaction strategies. Finally, a design approach with focus on temporal aspects is outlined. As a result, the paper opens up for a more conscious use of time and temporality in interaction design.

  • PJVPaper: Designing with Traces
    D. Rosner (Stanford Univ., USA), M. Ikemiya, D. Kim, K. Koch
    D. Rosner (Stanford Univ., USA)M. Ikemiya (California College of the Arts, USA)D. Kim (California College of the Arts, USA)K. Koch (California College of the Arts, USA)

    This paper introduces the analytic category of “material traces,” which with design students envision poignant relationships to the non-human, engaged physics learning, and reflection around breakage. This paper draws on new materialist perspectives to introduce the analytic category of “material traces” to the field of human-computer interaction (HCI). Material traces reveal the dynamic and evocative nature of form by concretizing a unique location in time and space. Traces of skill, use, and time, for example, are valued for their emotional resonance in addition to the pragmatic goals in which they are embedded. Using this category, we develop a framework for design pedagogy that offers the lenses of attributes, entanglements, and trajectories as tools for gaining critical purchase on the objects produced. Mobilizing this framework within a classroom, design students envision poignant relationships to the non-human, engaged physics learning, and opportunities for reflection around breakage and repair. These design examples reveal how the category of material traces comes alive in practice and pedagogy. We end by discussing how this study of traces points to new opportunities for critical reflection in HCI.

352ABPapers: Tactile Experiences

SHMSession chair: Marilyn McGee-Lennon
  • PFFPaper: Talking about Tactile Experiences
    M. Obrist (Newcastle Univ., UK), S. Seah, S. Subramanian
    M. Obrist (Newcastle Univ., UK)S. Seah (Univ. of Bristol, UK)S. Subramanian (Univ. of Bristol, UK)

    A common problem with designing applications with tactile interfaces is the lack of a vocabulary that allows one to communicate about haptics. We present a human-experiential vocabulary for tactile experiences.A common problem with designing and developing applications with tactile interfaces is the lack of a vocabulary that allows one to describe or communicate about haptics. Here we present the findings from a study exploring participants’ verbalizations of their tactile experiences across two modulated tactile stimuli (16Hz and 250Hz) related to two important mechanoreceptors in the human hand. The study, with 14 participants, applied the explicitation interview technique to capture detailed descriptions of the diachronic and synchronic structure of tactile experiences. We propose 14 categories for a human-experiential vocabulary based on the categorization of the findings and tie them back to neurophysiological and psychophysical data on the human hand. We finally discuss design opportunities created through this experiential understanding in relation to the two mechanoreceptors.

  • PHMPaper: Tactile Perceptions of Digital Textiles: A Design Research Approach
    D. Atkinson (Brunel Univ., UK), P. Orzechowski, B. Petreca, N. Bianchi-Berthouze, P. Watkins, S. Baurley, S. Padilla, M. Chantler
    D. Atkinson (Brunel Univ., UK)P. Orzechowski (Heriot-Watt Univ., UK)B. Petreca (Brunel Univ., UK)N. Bianchi-Berthouze (Univ. College London, UK)P. Watkins (Brunel Univ., UK)S. Baurley (Brunel Univ., UK)S. Padilla (Heriot-Watt Univ., UK)M. Chantler (Heriot-Watt Univ., UK)

    This paper contributes a methodology to explore the real-life gestures used to understand tactile qualities of deformable materials and re-create their visual and proprioceptive experience in multi-gesture interactive video. Current interactive media presentations of textiles provide an impoverished communication of their ‘textile hand’, that is their weight, drape, how they feel to touch. These are complex properties experienced through the visual, tactile, auditory and proprioceptive senses and are currently lost when textile materials are presented in interactive video. This paper offers a new perspective from which the production of multi-touch interactive video representations of the tactile qualities of materials is considered. Through an understanding of hand properties of textiles and how people inherently touch and handle them, we are able to develop methods to animate and bring these properties alive using design methods. Observational studies were conducted, noting gestures consumers used to evaluate textile hand. Replicating the appropriate textile deformations for these gestures in interactive video was explored as a design problem. The resulting digital textile swatches and their interactive behavior were then evaluated for their ability to communicate tactile qualities similar to those of the real textiles.

  • PTEPaper: The Roles of Touch during Phone Conversations: Long-Distance Couples’ Use of POKE in Their Homes
    Y. Park (KAIST (Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology), KR), K. Baek, T. Nam
    Y. Park (KAIST (Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology), KR)K. Baek (KAIST (Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology), KR)T. Nam (KAIST (Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology), KR)

    Describes the roles of touch during phone conversations by observing couples’ one month use of POKE in their homes. The results show a potential new application for tactile phone conversations.We report the roles of touch during phone conversations by observing long-distance couples’ one month use of POKE in their homes. POKE enables users to deliver touches through an inflatable surface on the front of the device that receives index finger pressure inputs on the back of another device, while allowing the callers to maintain a conventional phone-calling posture. After a month of use by three couples, we found unexpected roles of touch in that it supported the couples in developing and sharing their tactile vocabularies by applying POKE during various conversational situations. Moreover, the findings confirmed the roles that touch play in face-to-face communication. In particular, POKE was useful for expressing and understanding emotions, resolving conversations smoothly by replacing the words, feeling close to the partner at a distance, and concentrating on the phone conversations. We conclude by discussing the unused situations, privacy issues, and usable targets to improve POKE as a way of future tactile phone conversations.

  • PSLPaper: The Design and Field Observation of a Haptic Notification System for Timing Awareness During Oral Presentations
    D. Tam (Univ. of British Columbia, CA), K. MacLean, J. McGrenere, K. Kuchenbecker
    D. Tam (Univ. of British Columbia, CA)K. MacLean (Univ. of British Columbia, CA)J. McGrenere (Univ. of British Columbia, CA)K. Kuchenbecker (Univ. of Pennsylvania, USA)

    A novel presentation timing approach (automated tactile cues augment chair-speaker communication) is explored with iterative design and observation in live conference settings. Qualitative evaluation generates stakeholder needs and design recommendations.To moderate oral presentations a chair must manage time, and communicate time parameters to speakers through a variety of means. But speakers often miss time cues, chairs cannot confirm their receipt, and the broken dialogue can be a sideshow for the audience. We developed HaNS, a wireless wrist-worn chair-speaker Haptic Notification System that delivers tactile cues for time-managing oral presentations, and performed field observations at university research seminars and two mid-sized academic conferences (input from 66 speakers, 21 chairs, and 65 audience members). Results indicate that HaNS can improve a user’s awareness of time, facilitate chair-speaker coordination, and reduce distraction of speaker and audience through its private communication channel. Eliminating overruns will require improvement in speaker ‘internal’ control, which our results suggest HaNS can also support given practice. We conclude with design guidelines for both conference-deployed and personal timing tools, using touch or another notification modality.

221/221MLast-minute SIGs: Session 6

Tuesday – 16:00-17:20

BluePapers: Public Displays

SKYSession chair: Hans Gellersen
  • PKEPaper: What Makes You Click: Exploring Visual Signals to Entice Interaction on Public Displays
    H. Kukka (Univ. of Oulu, FI), H. Oja, V. Kostakos, J. Gonçalves, T. Ojala
    H. Kukka (Univ. of Oulu, FI)H. Oja (Univ. of Oulu, FI)V. Kostakos (Univ. of Oulu, FI)J. Gonçalves (Univ. of Oulu, FI)T. Ojala (Univ. of Oulu, FI)

    We investigate mechanisms for enticing interaction on public displays. Eight visual signals were developed and deployed on a university campus to study which visual elements work best at enticing interaction.Most studies take for granted the critical first steps that prelude interaction with a public display: awareness of the interactive affordances of the display, and enticement to interact. In this paper we investigate mechanisms for enticing interaction on public displays, and study the effectiveness of visual signals in overcoming the ‘first click’ problem. We combined 3 atomic visual elements (color/greyscale, animation/static, and icon/text) to form 8 visual signals that were deployed on 8 interactive public displays on a university campus for 8 days. Our findings show that text is more effective in enticing interaction than icons, color more than greyscale, and static signals are more effective than animated. Further, we identify gender differences in the effectiveness of these signals. Finally, we identify a behavior termed “display avoidance” that people exhibit with interactive public displays.

  • PGGPaper: Interaction Techniques for Creating and Exchanging Content with Public Displays
    F. Alt (Univ. of Stuttgart, DE), A. Sahami, T. Kubitza, A. Schmidt
    F. Alt (Univ. of Stuttgart, DE)A. Sahami (Univ. of Stuttgart, DE)T. Kubitza (Univ. of Stuttgart, DE)A. Schmidt (Univ. of Stuttgart, DE)

    This paper presents Digifieds, a digital public notice area. We compare interaction techniques for exchanging content with public displays and show that user preferences are based on situation and privacy awareness.Falling hardware prices and ever more displays being connected to the Internet will lead to large public display networks, potentially forming a novel communication medium. We envision that such networks are not restricted to display owners and advertisers anymore, but allow also passersby (e.g., customers) to exchange content, similar to traditional public notice areas, such as bulletin boards. In this context it is crucial to understand emerging practices and provide easy and straight forward interaction techniques to be used for creating and exchanging content. In this paper, we present Digifieds, a digital public notice area we built to investigate and compare possible interaction techniques. Based on a lab study we show that using direct touch at the display as well as using the mobile phone as a complementing interaction technology are most suitable. Direct touch at the display closely resembles the interaction known from classic bulletin boards and provides the highest usability. Mobile phones preserve the users’ privacy as they exchange (sensitive) data with the display and at the same time allow content to be created on-the-go or to be retrieved.

  • PTVPaper: Screenfinity: Extending the Perception Area of Content on Very Large Public Displays
    C. Schmidt (Telekom Innovation Laboratories, TU Berlin, DE), J. Müller, G. Bailly
    C. Schmidt (Telekom Innovation Laboratories, TU Berlin, DE)J. Müller (Univ. of the Arts, DE)G. Bailly (Telekom Innovation Laboratories, TU Berlin, DE)

    Presents a model for the perception area of visual interfaces, and a novel public display increasing the perception area and allowing interaction while walking. Useful for designers of large displays.We propose and validate a model of the perception area of content on public displays in order to predict from where users can read. From this model, we derive Screenfinity, a technique to rotate, translate, and zoom content in order to enable reading while passing by very large displays. Screenfinity is comfortable to read when close, supports different content for different users, does not waste screen real estate and allows expert passers-by to read content while walking. A laboratory study shows that expert users are able to perceive content when it moves. A field study evaluates the effect of Screenfinity on novice users in an ecologically valid setting. We find 1) first time users can read content without slowing down or stopping; 2) Passers-by stopping did so to explore the technology. Users explore the interaction, the limits of the system, manipulate the technology, and look behind the screen.

  • PTDPaper: Squaring the Circle: How Framing Influences User Behavior around a Seamless Cylindrical Display
    G. Beyer (Univ. of Munich (LMU), DE), F. Köttner, M. Schiewe, I. Haulsen, A. Butz
    G. Beyer (Univ. of Munich (LMU), DE)F. Köttner (Univ. of Munich (LMU), DE)M. Schiewe (Fraunhofer FOKUS, DE)I. Haulsen (Fraunhofer FOKUS, DE)A. Butz (Univ. of Munich (LMU), DE)

    Analyzes user behavior around a cylindrical and seamless interactive column display in the wild. Helps to better understand how framing influences user positions around more complex non-planar display shapes.Recent research has presented large public displays in novel non-flat shapes such as spheres, curved planes and cylinders, and looked at the influence of the form factor on user behavior. Yet, the basic shape cannot be considered in isolation when interpreting the behavior of passers-by around such displays. In this paper we investigate two further display factors, framedness and seamlessness, that have to be considered in conjunction with the form factor to understand user behavior in front of large non-flat displays. We present the findings from a field study with an interactive column display and take a closer look at how these factors influence actor and bystander behavior. Our results show that rectangular frames act as a sort of funnel for user position and can easily override effects of the non-flat shape on user position and interaction, even though the users didn’t recall the presence of these frames.

241Panel

  • LBRGamification @ Work
    Janaki Kumar (moderator), Mario Herger, Sebastian Deterding, Scott Schnaars, Matt Landes, Erika Webb
    Janaki Kumar (moderator)Mario HergerSebastian DeterdingScott SchnaarsMatt LandesErika Webb

    Gamification is a buzz word in the businesses these days. Is this just the latest hype, or a meaningful trend worth paying attention to, or a bit of both? Most importantly, what promises or benefits does gamification hold for the enterprise, and what are the challenges or dangers? We will address these questions and more in this interactive panel discussion on “Gamification @ Work”. We have assembled a distinguished and diverse panel of gamification experts who will share industry, academic and vendor perspectives.

242ABPapers: Communicating Health

STFSession chair: Yunan Chen
  • PLUPaper: Messaging to Your Doctors: Understanding Patient-Provider Communications via a Portal System
    S. Sun (Rutgers Univ., USA), X. Zhou, J. Denny, T. Rosenbloom, H. Xu
    S. Sun (Rutgers Univ., USA)X. Zhou (Rutgers Univ., USA)J. Denny (Vanderbilt Univ., USA)T. Rosenbloom (Vanderbilt Univ., USA)H. Xu (Vanderbilt Univ., USA)

    The paper presents a qualitative study on patient-provider communication messages via a patient portal system. We analyze communication themes and investigate portal’s impacts on healthcare delivery and information management issues.The patient portal is a relatively new healthcare information technology that enables patients more convenient access to their healthcare information and allows them to send messages to their doctors. Our study examines the themes discussed in these messages and the different ways in which patients communicate with their providers via a portal employed in a large medical center. We also explore the differences between the patient portal and more traditional communication media, and investigated the advantages and potential problems of the portal system. Our findings show a wide variety of topics discussed in the communication messages (such as medication, appointments, laboratory tests, etc.) and how patients provide information, consult with their providers, and express psychosocial and emotional needs. We argue that the patient portal improves the accuracy of communication and could facilitate illness management for patients, especially over a longer term. However, messaging through the patient portal is not popular among patients and the simultaneous use of multiple communication media may create information gaps. More research is needed to better elucidate barriers to the use of patient portals and the optimal methods of communication and information integration given different contexts.

  • PGMPaper: HeartLink: Open Broadcast of Live Biometric Data to Social Networks
    F. Curmi (Lancaster Univ., UK), M. Ferrario, J. Southern, J. Whittle
    F. Curmi (Lancaster Univ., UK)M. Ferrario (Lancaster Univ., UK)J. Southern (Lancaster Univ., UK)J. Whittle (Lancaster Univ., UK)

    The key novelty of HeartLink is the analysis of changes in social connectedness through bio data sharing and the proposed two-way communication between the runner and the viewer. A number of studies in the literature have looked into the use of real-time biometric data to improve one’s own physiological performance and wellbeing. However, there is limited research that looks into the effects that sharing biometric data with others could have on one’s social network. Following a period of research on existing mobile applications and prototype testing, we developed a system, HeartLink, which collects real-time personal biometric data such as heart rate and broadcasts this data online. Insights gained on designing systems to broadcast real-time biometric data are presented. In this paper we also report emerging results from testing HeartLink in a pilot study and a user study that were conducted during sport events. The results showed that sharing heart rate data does influence the relationship of the persons involved and that the degree of influence seems related to the tie strength prior to visualizing the data.

  • PQZPaper: Technology Preferences and Routines for Sharing Health Information during the Treatment of a Chronic Illness
    C. Pang (Simon Fraser Univ., CA), C. Neustaedter, B. Riecke, E. Oduor, S. Hillman
    C. Pang (Simon Fraser Univ., CA)C. Neustaedter (Simon Fraser Univ., CA)B. Riecke (Simon Fraser Univ., CA)E. Oduor (Simon Fraser Univ., CA)S. Hillman (Simon Fraser Univ., CA)

    Describes design implications for technologies to support sharing health information within families coping with a chronic illness. Using a mixed-method approach, presents findings outlining affective benefits and costs of communication tools.When a patient has a chronic illness, such as heart disease or cancer, it can be challenging for distributed family members to stay aware of the patient’s health status. A variety of technologies are available to support health information sharing (e.g., phone, video chat, social media), yet we still do not have a detailed understanding of which technologies are preferred and what challenges people still face when sharing information with them. To explore this, we conducted a mixed-method study—involving a survey and in-depth interviews—with people about their health information sharing routines and preferences for different technologies. Regardless of physical distance between distributed family members, synchronous methods of communication afforded the opportunity to provide affective support while asynchronous methods of communication were deemed to be the least intrusive. With family members adopting certain roles during the treatment of chronic illnesses, our findings suggest the need to design tools that mediate sharing health information across distance and age gaps, with consideration to respecting patient privacy while sharing health information.

  • PTNPaper: A Text Message a Day Keeps the Pulmonologist Away
    T. Yun (Samsung Electronics, KR), R. Arriaga
    T. Yun (Samsung Electronics, KR)R. Arriaga (Georgia Institute of Technology, USA)

    This paper encourages the use of ubiquitous technology for the primary stakeholder, and promotes designing technology to both replicate and extend results by using a social theory of behavior change.The goal of this study was to extend and replicate an SMS health intervention for pediatric asthma patients. This intervention was designed using the Health Belief Model (HBM). Thirty patients were randomly assigned to one of three conditions. In the Knowledge condition patients were queried about their asthma knowledge every other day. In the Knowledge and Symptoms condition patients received a daily text message. They were queried about their symptoms and knowledge of asthma on alternate days. The Control group received no texts. Our main finding is that daily text messages lead to improved health outcomes. We explain our results in the context of interview data and the HBM. We conclude by suggesting that the HBM can be used to inform and evaluate system design for chronic care beyond asthma and by considering the role that replication studies can play in HCI research.

243Course C12, unit 2/2

  • CTGC12: Practical Statistics for User Experience Part II
    J. Sauro (Measuring Usability LLC, USA), J. Lewis
    J. Sauro (Measuring Usability LLC, USA)J. Lewis (IBM, USA)

    Learn how to: compute sample sizes for user research studies (comparing designs, finding usability problems and surveys); determine if a benchmark was exceeded; and practice conducting and interpreting statistical tests.If you don’t measure it you can’t manage it. User-research is about more than rules of thumb, good design and intuition: it’s about making better decisions with data. Did we meet our goal of a 75% completion rate? What sample size should we plan on for a survey, or for comparing products? Will five users really find 85% of all problems? Learn how to conduct and interpret appropriate statistical tests on usability data, compute sample sizes and communicate your results in easy to understand terms to stakeholders. Features — Determine your sample size for comparing two designs, a benchmarking study, survey analysis or finding problems in an interface. — Determine if a usability test has met or exceeded a goal (e.g. users can complete the transaction is less than 2 minutes). — Get practice knowing what statistical test to perform and how to interpret the results (p-values and confidence intervals). Audience Open to anyone who’s interested in quantitative usability tests. Participants should be familiar with the process of conducting usability tests as well as be familiar with major statistical topics such as normal theory, confidence intervals and t-tests. Participants should also have access to Microsoft Excel to use the provided calculators.

251Papers: Reading and Writing

SSDSession chair: Aaron Quigley
  • PJUPaper: Community Enhanced Tutorials: Improving Tutorials with Multiple Demonstrations
    B. Lafreniere (Univ. of Waterloo, CA), T. Grossman, G. Fitzmaurice
    B. Lafreniere (Univ. of Waterloo, CA)T. Grossman (Autodesk Research, CA)G. Fitzmaurice (Autodesk Research, CA)

    We propose a novel web-based tutorial system that gathers video demonstrations from its users. An initial study shows the presence of multiple demonstrations can help users when following a tutorial.Web-based tutorials are a popular help resource for learning how to perform unfamiliar tasks in complex software. However, in their current form, web tutorials are isolated from the applications that they support. In this paper we present FollowUs, a web-tutorial system that integrates a fully-featured application into a web-based tutorial. This novel architecture enables community enhanced tutorials, which continuously improve as more users work with them. FollowUs captures video demonstrations of users as they perform a tutorial. Subsequent users can use the original tutorial, or choose from a library of captured community demonstrations of each tutorial step. We conducted a user study to test the benefits of making multiple demonstrations available to users, and found that users perform significantly better using our system with a library of multiple demonstrations in comparison to its equivalent baseline system with only the original authored content.

  • PSBPaper: Kolibri – Tiny and Fast Gestures for Large Pen-based Surfaces
    J. Leitner (Univ. of Applied Sciences Upper Austria, AT), F. Perteneder, C. Liu, C. Rendl, M. Haller
    J. Leitner (Univ. of Applied Sciences Upper Austria, AT)F. Perteneder (Univ. of Applied Sciences Upper Austria, AT)C. Liu (Univ. of Applied Sciences Upper Austria, AT)C. Rendl (Univ. of Applied Sciences Upper Austria, AT)M. Haller (Univ. of Applied Sciences Upper Austria, AT)

    We introduce Kolibri – a pen-based gesture system that brings shortcuts to interactive white-boards. Users can draw tiny gestures anywhere on the surface without interfering with normal inking.Triggering commands on large interactive surfaces is less efficient than on desktop PCs. It requires either large physical movements to reach an interaction area (e.g., buttons) or additional operations to call context menus (e.g., dwell). There is a lack of efficient ways to trigger shortcuts. We introduce Kolibri – a pen-based gesture system that allows fast access of commands on interactive whiteboards. Users can draw tiny gestures (approx. 3 mm) anywhere on the surface to trigger commands without interfering with normal inking. This approach does neither require entering a gesture mode, nor dedicated gesture areas. The implementation relies on off-the-shelf hardware only. We tested the feasibility and explored the properties of this technique with several studies. The results from a controlled experiment show significant benefits of Kolibri comparing to an existing approach.

  • PNHPaper: Graduate Student Use of a Multi-Slate Reading System
    N. Chen (Microsoft Research, UK), F. Guimbretière, A. Sellen
    N. Chen (Microsoft Research, UK)F. Guimbretière (Cornell Univ., USA)A. Sellen (Microsoft Research, UK)

    We conducted month-long deployments of a multi-slate active reading system with graduate students in the humanities. Results confirm the importance of added display space, mobility, and support for writing.In laboratory studies, multi-surface slate-based reading systems have shown great promise as platforms for active reading. However, the true utility of such a system can only be ascertained through the rigors of real world use. We conducted month-long deployments of a multi-slate reading system to support the active reading activities of graduate students in the humanities. During these deployments we documented how the added display area and increased micro-mobility of multiple devices enhanced navigation and reading comfort. We also noted the essential role of writing and annotation. Finally, we observed how electronic affordances like synchronization across devices helped provide functionality that would not have been possible with paper documents. This paper contributes new information about how electronic reading solutions fit into real world reading workflows.

  • NPGNote: The Wheels are Turning: Content Rotation on Steering Wheel Displays
    D. Wilfinger (Univ. of Salzburg, AT), M. Murer, S. Osswald, A. Meschtscherjakov, M. Tscheligi
    D. Wilfinger (Univ. of Salzburg, AT)M. Murer (Univ. of Salzburg, AT)S. Osswald (Univ. of Salzburg, AT)A. Meschtscherjakov (Univ. of Salzburg, AT)M. Tscheligi (Univ. of Salzburg, AT)

    This paper investigates how the content of steering wheel mounted displays should react to a rotation of the wheel. Three alternatives are tested and compared with a dashboard display.The steering wheel is a promising space for the integration of displays since in the car there is very limited space for integrating interactive modalities for the driver that are close to the preferred field of view as well as in an easy to reach position. When the wheel is turned, the screen content could change its orientation to increase the readability and therefore reduce the distraction from the road. Thus, this paper describes three different content rotation behaviors for steering wheel displays. To investigate what effect these behaviors have on the driver in terms of visual distraction from the road we conducted a user study with eye tracking asking participants to read the current speed. We found no differences in terms of distraction and response time between the different rotation behaviors. Compared to a similar display in a dashboard position the visual distraction was reduced.

252ACourse C15, unit 2/2

  • CFLC15: Card Sorting for Navigation Design
    W. Hudson (Syntagm Ltd, UK)
    W. Hudson (Syntagm Ltd, UK)

    This half-day hands-on course covers the theory and practice of card sorting. It includes hands-on experience of performing a paper-based card sort, data capture and analysis.Benefits: This half-day hands-on course covers the theory and practice of card sorting. It includes hands-on experience of performing and evaluating a paper-based card sort of an e-commerce site (although the techniques are applicable to many other problem domains). Origins: This is a major update of an earlier course (‘Innovations in Card Sorting’) that has been run for several years at HCI and usability conferences (HCI 2006 & 2007, CADUI 2008, HCI 2009, CHI 2009-2012). A one-day version of this course was presented as part of Nielsen-Norman Group’s Usability Week in 2009. The updated, half-day version appeared at CHI 2011. Features: On completion of this tutorial you will be able to choose an appropriate card sorting method explain cluster analysis and dendrograms to colleagues and clients apply appropriate techniques for getting the best information from participants and the resulting data perform quick and reliable data capture Audience: Web and intranet designers, information architects, usability and HCI professionals interested in the practical application of card sorting. No specialist skills or knowledge are required. Presentation: The course is approximately 60% tutorials and 40% practical card-sorting activities or group discussions. Instructor Background:: William Hudson has nearly 40 years’ experience in the development of interactive systems. He is the founder of Syntagm, a consultancy specializing in user-centered design and has conducted more than 300 intranet and web site expert evaluations. William has written over 30 articles, papers and studies including the InteractionDesign.org Encyclopedia entry on card sorting. He is also an Adjunct Professor at Hult International Business School. Web Site: Further information about the instructor and this course can be found at www.syntagm.co.uk/design

252BPapers: Studying Digital Artifacts

SKNSession chair: Siân Lindley
  • PAEPaper: Digital Artifacts as Legacy: Exploring the Lifespan and Value of Digital Data
    R. Gulotta (Carnegie Mellon Univ., USA), W. Odom, H. Faste, J. Forlizzi
    R. Gulotta (Carnegie Mellon Univ., USA)W. Odom (Carnegie Mellon Univ., USA)H. Faste (Carnegie Mellon Univ., USA)J. Forlizzi (Carnegie Mellon Univ., USA)

    We designed interactive systems to investigate how digital materials might be passed down. Sessions revealed parents desired to treat their digital information in ways not fully supported by technology. Legacy is the meaningful and complex way in which information, values, and possessions are passed on to others. As digital systems and information become meaningfully parts of people’s everyday and social relationships, it is essential to develop new insights about how technology intersects with legacy and inheritance practices. We designed three interactive systems to investigate how digital materials might be passed down in the future. We conducted in-home interviews with ten parents using the systems to provoke discussion about how technology might support or complicate their existing practices. Sessions revealed parents desired to treat their digital information in ways not fully supported by technology. Findings are interpreted to describe design considerations for future work in this emerging space.

  • PRHPaper: Design for Forgetting: Disposing of Digital Possessions after a Breakup
    C. Sas (Lancaster Univ., UK), S. Whittaker
    C. Sas (Lancaster Univ., UK)S. Whittaker (Univ. of California at Santa Cruz, USA)

    This paper examines the challenges of digital possessions and their disposal following a romantic breakup. We found that digital possessions are often evocative and upsetting leading to distinct disposal strategies.People are increasingly acquiring huge collections of digital possessions. Despite some pleas for ‘forgetting’, most theorists argue for retaining all these possessions to enhance ‘total recall’ of our everyday lives. However, there has been little exploration of the negative role of digital possessions when people want to forget aspects of their lives. We report on interviews with 24 people about their possessions after a romantic breakup. We found that digital possessions were often evocative and upsetting in this context, leading to distinct disposal strategies with different outcomes. We advance theory by finding strong evidence for the value of intentional forgetting and provide new data about complex practices associated with the disposal of digital possessions. Our findings led to a number of design implications to help people better manage this process, including automatic harvesting of digital possessions, tools for self-control, artifact crafting as sense-making, and digital spaces for shared possessions.

  • PSKPaper: Fragmentation and Transition: Understanding Perceptions of Virtual Possessions among Young Adults in Spain, South Korea and the United States
    W. Odom (Carnegie Mellon Univ., USA), J. Zimmerman, J. Forlizzi, A. López Higuera, M. Marchitto, J. Cañas, Y. Lim, T. Nam, D. Kim, M. Lee, Y. Lee, Y. Row, J. Seok, B. Sohn, H. Moore
    W. Odom (Carnegie Mellon Univ., USA)J. Zimmerman (Carnegie Mellon Univ., USA)J. Forlizzi (Carnegie Mellon Univ., USA)A. López Higuera (Univ. of Granada, ES)M. Marchitto (Univ. of Granada, ES)J. Cañas (Univ. of Granada, ES)Y. Lim (KAIST (Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology), KR)T. Nam (KAIST (Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology), KR)D. Kim (KAIST (Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology), KR)M. Lee (KAIST (Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology), KR)Y. Lee (Department of Industrial Design, KAIST, KR)Y. Row (KAIST (Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology), KR)J. Seok (KAIST (Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology), KR)B. Sohn (KAIST (Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology), KR)H. Moore (Vodafone Group Services, DE)

    Contributes an investigation of young adults’ value construction practices with their virtual possessions in South Korea, Spain and the United States and proposes design opportunities in this emerging design space.People worldwide are increasingly acquiring collections of virtual possessions. While virtual possessions have become ubiquitous, little work exists on how people value and form attachments to these things. To investigate, we conducted a study with 48 young adults from South Korea, Spain and the United States. The study probed on participants’ perceived value of their virtual possessions as compared to their material things, and the comparative similarities and differences across cultures. Findings show that young adults live in unfinished spaces and that they often experience a sense of fragmentation when trying to integrate their virtual possessions into their lives. These findings point to several design opportunities, such as tools for life story-oriented archiving, and insights on better forms of Cloud storage.

  • PTLPaper: Instagram at the Museum: Communicating the Museum Experience through Social Photo Sharing
    A. Weilenmann (Univ. of Gothenburg, SE), T. Hillman, B. Jungselius
    A. Weilenmann (Univ. of Gothenburg, SE)T. Hillman (Univ. of Gothenburg, SE)B. Jungselius (Univ. of Gothenburg, SE)

    Analyzing both instagrams and practices of instagramming, we examine the resources and concerns that shape the user-driven creation, organisation and sharing of social, multi-layered, aesthetic documents of museum experiences.The everyday use of smartphones with high quality built-in cameras has lead to an increase in museum visitors’ use of these devices to document and share their museum experiences. In this paper, we investigate how one particular photo sharing application, Instagram, is used to communicate visitors’ experiences while visiting a museum of natural history. Based on an analysis of 222 instagrams created in the museum, as well as 14 interviews with the visitors who created them, we unpack the compositional resources and concerns contributing to the creation of instagrams in this particular context. By re-categorizing and re-configuring the museum environment, instagrammers work to construct their own narratives from their visits. These findings are then used to discuss what emerging multimedia practices imply for the visitors’ engagement with and documentation of museum exhibits. Drawing upon these practices, we discuss the connection between online social media dialogue and the museum site.

253Course C13, unit 2/2

  • CKCC13: Expert Reviews – For Experts
    R. Molich (DialogDesign, DK)
    R. Molich (DialogDesign, DK)

    Expert reviews are often conducted with poor or unsystematic methodology and thus don’t always live up to their full potential. This course teaches proven methods for conducting expert reviews.Title of the Course Expert Reviews – For Experts Names and Affiliations of the Instructors Rolf Molich, DialogDesign Benefits Expert reviews, such as heuristic evaluations and other design inspections, are the second most widely used usability method. Nonetheless, they’re often conducted with poor or unsystematic methodology and thus don’t always live up to their full potential. This course teaches proven methods for conducting and reporting expert reviews of a user interface design. Origins The instructor presented a similar course at CHI 2007, where 37 participants rated it 6.54 on a 7-point scale in response to the question “The course was worth my time.” It is an updated version of two 90-minute sessions in the instructor’s popular full-day course “Expert Reviews – For Experts”, which has been highly rated by several hundred attendees at Nielsen-Norman Group conferences. Features – A survey of commonly used expert review techniques and resources accompanied by a discussion of their strengths and weaknesses. – Two practical exercises in expert reviews. Participants do an expert review of a dialog and build consensus with their peers. Participants match their review skills with their peers and learn from them. Audience Usability professionals who have usability testing experience and who have conducted some expert reviews. Although this course is not intended as an introduction to expert reviews, past participants with no expert review experience have rated it highly. Prerequisites Basic understanding of usability and the benefits of usability evaluation. Presentation Interactive lectures and exercises. The exercises takes about 50% of the total course time. Instructor Background Rolf Molich owns and manages DialogDesign, a small Danish usability consultancy. Rolf coordinates the Comparative Usability Evaluation (CUE) studies where more than 100 professional usability teams tested or reviewed the same applications. He is the co-inventor of the heuristic inspection method (with Jakob Nielsen).

BordeauxPapers: Ethics in HCI

SPXSession chair: Michael Massimi
  • PJLPaper: Categorised Ethical Guidelines for Large Scale Mobile HCI
    D. McMillan (Mobile Life @ Stockholm Univ., SE), A. Morrison, M. Chalmers
    D. McMillan (Mobile Life @ Stockholm Univ., SE)A. Morrison (Univ. of Glasgow, UK)M. Chalmers (Univ. of Glasgow, UK)

    A discussion of ethical challenges in large scale mobile HCI trials. We identify anonymisation and user expectation as key factors and present proportional guidelines that reflect risks in these areas.The recent rise in large scale trials of mobile software using `app stores’ has moved current researcher practice beyond available ethical guidelines. By surveying this recent and growing body of literature, as well as established professional principles adopted in psychology, we propose a set of ethical guidelines for large scale HCI user trials. These guidelines come in two parts: a set of general principles and a framework into which individual app store-based trials can be assessed and ethical concerns exposed. We categorise existing literature using our scheme, and explain how researchers could use our framework to classify their future user trials to determine ethical responsibility, and the steps required to meet these obligations.

  • PGUPaper: Benevolent Deception in Human Computer Interaction
    E. Adar (Univ. of Michigan, USA), D. Tan, J. Teevan
    E. Adar (Univ. of Michigan, USA)D. Tan (Microsoft Research, USA)J. Teevan (Microsoft Research, USA)

    In this work we analyze deception intended to help the user. Using a criminology-inspired metaphor we describe the means, motive, and opportunities for deception and ideas for future research.Though it has been asserted that “good design is honest,” [42] deception exists throughout human-computer interaction research and practice. Because of the stigma associated with deception—in many cases rightfully so—the research community has focused its energy on eradicating malicious deception, and ignored instances in which deception is positively employed. In this paper we present the notion of benevolent deception, deception aimed at benefitting the user as well as the developer. We frame our discussion using a criminology-inspired model and ground components in various examples. We assert that this provides us with a set of tools and principles that not only helps us with system and interface design, but that opens new research areas. After all, as Cockton claims in his 2004 paper “Value-Centered HCI” [13], “Traditional disciplines have delivered truth. The goal of HCI is to deliver value.”

  • PBNPaper: HCI in the Press: Online Public Reactions to Mass Media Portrayals of HCI Research
    J. Vines (Newcastle Univ., UK), A. Thieme, R. Comber, M. Blythe, P. Wright, P. Olivier
    J. Vines (Newcastle Univ., UK)A. Thieme (Newcastle Univ., UK)R. Comber (Newcastle Univ., UK)M. Blythe (Northumbria Univ., UK)P. Wright (Newcastle Univ., UK)P. Olivier (Newcastle Univ., UK)

    Describes the use of mass-media to provoke online public commentaries of HCI projects. Will benefit those wanting to engage the public in their research and understand associated strengths and weaknesses.HCI researchers working in publically funded institutions are increasingly encouraged to engage the public in their research. Mass media is often seen as an effective medium with which to communicate research to large parts of the population. We present an account of three HCI projects that have used engagements with mass media in order to communicate research to the public. We describe the motivations for working with mass media and the mechanics of writing press releases. A grounded theory analysis of online public responses to the projects in the mass media leads us to identify a number of concerns about how research is portrayed by news outlets and thus interpreted by the public. Tensions about technologies and wider societal issues were revealed that might normally be hidden when using traditional user-centred methods. We critically reflect on the efficacy of using the mass media in research and provide guidance for HCI researchers wishing to engage in dialogues with the public in the future.

  • PRTPaper: The Emotional Wellbeing of Researchers: Considerations for Practice
    W. Moncur (Univ. of Dundee, UK)
    W. Moncur (Univ. of Dundee, UK)

    We consider the impact which research in sensitive contexts can have on researchers’ emotional wellbeing and on research validity, and ways to incorporate consideration for researchers’ wellbeing into research plans.As technology progressively pervades all aspects of our lives, members of the HCI community are engaging with increasingly sensitive contexts in their research – for example, end of life, genocide, computer-mediated communication under oppressive regimes. The considerations generated by research in such contexts can go well beyond those addressed by generic ethical approval processes and institutional practice. Whilst it is standard to ensure that the wellbeing of participants is taken into account in research design and the ethical approval process, it is much less common for the researcher’s own emotional wellbeing to be considered explicitly. This paper describes the role that a researcher’s emotions may play in research, and the impact which research in sensitive contexts can have on researchers’ emotional wellbeing and on research validity. A qualitative survey is described which investigated the support mechanisms which HCI researchers have in place in case they are distressed/ troubled as a result of their research. The results of the survey are used, in combination with insights into how other disciplines address the topic, to synthesize suggestions for ways in which the HCI community can proactively incorporate consideration for the emotional wellbeing of the researcher into the research process.

342APapers: Embodied Interaction 2

SJPSession chair: Lian Loke
  • PGEPaper: The Effects of Tactile Feedback and Movement Alteration on Interaction and Awareness with Digital Embodiments
    A. Doucette (Univ. of Saskatchewan, CA), R. Mandryk, C. Gutwin, M. Nacenta, A. Pavlovych
    A. Doucette (Univ. of Saskatchewan, CA)R. Mandryk (Univ. of Saskatchewan, CA)C. Gutwin (Univ. of Saskatchewan, CA)M. Nacenta (Univ. of St Andrews, UK)A. Pavlovych (Univ. of Saskatchewan, CA)

    Presents and evaluates methods for affecting group behaviour in tabletop groupware by providing cues of physical boundaries in digital space.Collaborative tabletop systems can employ direct touch, where people’s real arms and hands manipulate objects, or indirect input, where people are represented on the table with digital embodiments. The input type and the resulting embodiment dramatically influence tabletop interaction: in particular, the touch avoidance that naturally governs people’s touching and crossing behavior with physical arms is lost with digital embodiments. One result of this loss is that people are less aware of each others’ arms, and less able to coordinate actions and protect personal territories. To determine whether there are strategies that can influence group interaction on shared digital tabletops, we studied augmented digital arm embodiments that provide tactile feedback or movement alterations when people touched or crossed arms. The study showed that both augmentation types changed people’s behavior (people crossed less than half as often) and also changed their perception (people felt more aware of the other person’s arm, and felt more awkward when touching). This work shows how groupware designers can influence people’s interaction, awareness, and coordination abilities when physical constraints are absent.

  • PPHPaper: Designing for Perceptual Crossing: Designing and Comparing Three Behaviors
    E. Deckers (Eindhoven Univ. of Technology, NL), S. Wensveen, P. Levy, R. Ahn
    E. Deckers (Eindhoven Univ. of Technology, NL)S. Wensveen (Univ. of Southern Denmark, DK)P. Levy (Eindhoven Univ. of Technology, NL)R. Ahn (Eindhoven Univ. of Technology, NL)

    We show how to design for perceptual crossing between person and artifact. An experiment shows that person and artifact engage in this strong reciprocal interplay of perceiving and being perceived. Perceptual crossing is the reciprocal interplay of perceiving while being perceived. In this paper we discuss the last iteration of our ongoing research project on designing for perceptive qualities in systems of interactive products. We describe the design of explorative behavior in an artifact to enable the artifact and a person to engage in perceptual crossing. The explorative behavior is compared to the following and active behavior, the results of two earlier iterations. Through the iterations we formulated, applied and evaluated design relevant knowledge in the form of seven design notions. These notions inform design-researchers and design-practitioners on how to design for perceptive qualities in systems of interactive products. Here we specifically focus on how the artifact detects active perceptive behavior of a person, and how the artifact becomes aware of bygone perception and anticipates on future perception. An experiment shows how participants preferred the resulting explorative behavior that is closest to our theoretical framework based on phenomenology.

  • PSQPaper: I See You There! Developing Identity-Preserving Embodied Interaction for Museum Exhibits
    F. Cafaro (Univ. of Illinois at Chicago, USA), A. Panella, L. Lyons, J. Roberts, J. Radinsky
    F. Cafaro (Univ. of Illinois at Chicago, USA)A. Panella (Univ. of Illinois at Chicago, USA)L. Lyons (Univ. of Illinois at Chicago, USA)J. Roberts (Univ. of Illinois at Chicago, USA)J. Radinsky (Univ. of Illinois at Chicago, USA)

    Describes a system that merges input from RFID and Kinect using a probabilistic model: combines fine-grained tracking with identity preservation, supporting the design of personalized embodied interaction for museum exhibitsMuseums are increasingly embracing technologies that provide highly-individualized and highly-interactive experiences to visitors. With embodied interaction experiences, increased localization accuracy supports greater nuance in interaction design, but there is usually a tradeoff between fast, accurate tracking and the ability to preserve the identity of users. Customization of experience relies on the ability to detect the identity of visitors, however. We present a method that combines fine-grained indoor tracking with robust preservation of the unique identities of multiple users. Our model merges input from an RFID reader with input from a commercial camera-based tracking system. We developed a probabilistic Bayesian model to infer at run-time the correct identification of the subjects in the camera’s field of view. This method, tested in a lab and at a local museum, requires minimal modification to the exhibition space, while addressing several identity-preservation problems for which many indoor tracking systems do not have robust solutions.

  • PPBPaper: In-body Experiences: Embodiment, Control, and Trust in Robot-Mediated Communication
    I. Rae (Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, USA), L. Takayama, B. Mutlu
    I. Rae (Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, USA)L. Takayama (Willow Garage, USA)B. Mutlu (Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, USA)

    Presents empirical results of a controlled experiment on the effects of embodiment and control on trust in user interactions. Offers design guidelines and theoretical implications for robot-mediated communication systems.Communication technologies are becoming increasingly diverse in form and functionality, making it important to identify which aspects of these technologies actually improve geographically distributed communication. Our study examines two potentially important aspects of communication technologies which appear in robot-mediated communication—physical embodiment and control of this embodiment. We studied the impact of physical embodiment and control upon interpersonal trust in a controlled laboratory experiment using three different videoconferencing settings: (1) a handheld tablet controlled by a local user, (2) an embodied system controlled by a local user, and (3) an embodied system controlled by a remote user (n = 29 dyads). We found that physical embodiment and control by the local user increased the amount of trust built between partners. These results suggest that both physical embodiment and control of the system influence interpersonal trust in mediated communication and have implications for future system designs.

343Course C14, unit 2/2

  • CXXC14: Make This! Introduction to Electronics Prototyping Using Arduino
    W. Ju (Stanford Univ., USA), D. Sirkin
    W. Ju (Stanford Univ., USA)D. Sirkin (Stanford Univ., USA)

    Course is a hands-on introduction to interactive electronics prototyping for people with a variety of backgrounds. Participants learn basic electronics, microcontroller programming and physical prototyping using the Arduino platform.Benefits: Course is a hands-on introduction to interactive electronics prototyping for people with a variety of backgrounds, including those with no prior experience in electronics. Familiarity with programming is recommended, but not required. Participants will learn basic electronics, microcontroller programming and physical prototyping using the Arduino platform. Participants will use digital and analog sensors, LED lights and motors to build, program and customize a small “paper robot.” Topics Include: * Basics of microcontroller architecture and firmware programming. * Use of potentiometers, light sensors and force sensitive resistors. * Controlling LEDs, displays and actuators from analog sensor input. The first session introduces the Arduino environment and basic electronics. The second session applies this knowledge to the task of building an interactive robot. Instructors will share prototyping tools for participants to use, as well as a variety of LEDs, wires, connectors and sensors to augment the basic robot design. Presentation: Content is presented as short lectures interleaved with self-guided tutorials. Instructors will answer questions and debug problems on-on-one. At different intervals, participants can share progress and trade ideas, allowing beginners to take their time and ask questions, and more advanced participants to work on creative variations of the basic tutorial. Instructor Background: Wendy Ju teaches physical interaction design in Stanford’s EE and Music departments. She also teaches at UC Berkeley’s Architecture department, and is academic coordinator for the Cal Design Lab. David Sirkin teaches interactive device design in Stanford’s EE department, and is a researcher at Stanford’s Communication between Humans and Interactive Media lab and Center for Design Research. Resources: Course includes a kit (yours to keep) comprising an Arduino, breadboard, LEDs, analog sensors, actuators, connecting cables and batteries. Participants are required to bring a laptop, on which they will install the Arduino software.

361Special Interest Group

  • GMZHCI with Sports
    F. Mueller (RMIT Univ., AU), R. Khot, A. Chatham, S. Pijnappel, C. Toprak, J. Marshall
    F. Mueller (RMIT Univ., AU)R. Khot (RMIT Univ., AU)A. Chatham (RMIT Univ. , AU)S. Pijnappel (RMIT Univ., AU)C. Toprak (RMIT Univ., AU)J. Marshall (The Univ. of Nottingham, UK)

    Recent advances in cheap sensor technology has made technology support for sports and physical exercise increasingly commonplace, which is evident from the growing popularity of heart rate monitors and GPS sports watches. This rise of technology to support sports activities raises many interaction issues, such as how to interact with these devices while moving and physically exerting. This special interest group brings together industry practitioners and researchers who are interested in designing and understanding human-computer interaction where the human is being physically active, engaging in exertion activities. Fitting with the theme, this special interest group will be “run” while running: participants will be invited to a jog together during which we will discuss technology interaction that is specific to being physically active whilst being physically active ourselves.

362/363Special Interest Group

  • GBCSIG: NVI (Non-Visual Interaction)
    A. Brock (Univ. Toulouse 3 & CNRS, FR), S. Kammoun, H. Nicolau, T. Guerreiro, S. Kane, C. Jouffrais
    A. Brock (Univ. Toulouse 3 & CNRS, FR)S. Kammoun (IRIT, CNRS & Univ. of Toulouse, FR)H. Nicolau (INESC-ID, PT)T. Guerreiro (Univ. of Lisbon, PT)S. Kane (Univ. of Maryland, Baltimore County, USA)C. Jouffrais (Univ. Toulouse 3 & CNRS, FR)

    In recent years there has been a surge in the development of non-visual interaction techniques targeting two application areas: making content accessible to visually impaired people, and supporting minimal attention user interfaces for situationally impaired users. This SIG aims to bring together the community of researchers working around non-visual interaction techniques for people of all abilities. It will unite members of this burgeoning community in a lively discussion and brainstorming session. Attendees will work to identify and report current and future research challenges as well as new research avenues.

HavanePapers: Design Research

SEPSession chair: Daniela Busse
  • TMLTOCHI: Strong Concepts: Intermediate-level Knowledge in Interaction Design Research
    K. Höök (KTH – Royal Institute of Technology, SE), J. Löwgren
    K. Höök (KTH – Royal Institute of Technology, SE)J. Löwgren (School of Arts and Communication, SE)

    Design-oriented research can construct knowledge that is more abstracted than particular instances, without being at the scope of generalized theories. We propose an intermediate design knowledge form: strong concepts.Design-oriented research practices create opportunities to construct knowledge that is more abstracted than particular instances, without aspiring to be at the scope of generalized theories. We propose an intermediate design knowledge form that we name strong concepts with the following properties: generative, carries a core design idea, cuts across particular use situations and even application domains; concerns interactive behaviour, not static appearance; is a design element, a part of an artefact, and at the same time speaks of a use practice and behaviour over time; and finally, residing on an abstraction level above particular instances. We exemplify with two strong concepts: social navigation and seamfulness, and discuss how these fulfil criteria we might have on knowledge, such as being contestable, defensible and substantive. Our aim is to foster an academic culture of discursive knowledge construction of intermediate-level knowledge and how it can be produced and assessed in design-oriented HCI research.

  • PNSPaper: Crossing the Bridge over Norman’s Gulf of Execution: Revealing Feedforward’s True Identity
    J. Vermeulen (Hasselt Univ. – tUL – iMinds, BE), K. Luyten, E. van den Hoven, K. Coninx
    J. Vermeulen (Hasselt Univ. – tUL – iMinds, BE)K. Luyten (Hasselt Univ. – tUL – iMinds, BE)E. van den Hoven (Univ. of Technology, Sydney, AU)K. Coninx (Hasselt Univ. – tUL – iMinds, BE)

    We reframe feedforward and disambiguate it from feedback and perceived affordances. We describe a reference framework for designers that allows them to explore and recognize different opportunities for feedforward.Feedback and affordances are two of the most well-known principles in interaction design. Unfortunately, the related and equally important notion of feedforward has not been given as much consideration. Nevertheless, feedforward is a powerful design principle for bridging Norman’s Gulf of Execution. We reframe feedforward by disambiguating it from related design principles such as feedback and perceived affordances, and identify new classes of feedforward. In addition, we present a reference framework that provides a means for designers to explore and recognize different opportunities for feedforward.

  • PBUPaper: Q-Methodology as a Research and Design Tool for HCI
    K. O’Leary (Univ. of Washington, USA), J. Wobbrock, E. Riskin
    K. O’Leary (Univ. of Washington, USA)J. Wobbrock (Univ. of Washington, USA)E. Riskin (Univ. of Washington, USA)

    HCI-Q provides statistically valid and qualitatively rich perspectives of the personal significance of designs. HCI-Q provides design constraints by leveraging statistical methods to reveal consensus and conflict among those perspectives. A “discount” version of Q-methodology for HCI, called “HCI-Q,” can be used in iterative design cycles to explore, from the point of view of users and other stakeholders, what makes technologies personally significant. Initially, designers critically reflect on their own assumptions about how a design may affect social and individual behavior. Then, designers use these assumptions as stimuli to elicit other people’s points of view. This process of critical self-reflection and evaluation helps the designer to assess the fit between a design and its intended social context of use. To demonstrate the utility of HCI-Q for research and design, we use HCI-Q to explore stakeholders’ responses to a prototype Alternative and Augmentative Communication (AAC) application called Vid2Speech. We show that our adaptation of Q-methodology is useful for revealing the structure of consensus and conflict among stakeholder perspectives, helping to situate design within the context of relevant value tensions and norms.

  • NGRNote: Design Research at CHI and its Applicability to Design Practice
    D. Roedl (Indiana Univ. Bloomington, USA), E. Stolterman
    D. Roedl (Indiana Univ. Bloomington, USA)E. Stolterman (Indiana Univ. Bloomington, USA)

    We present an analysis of papers from CHI 2011 and draw on interviews with professional designers to suggest ways that CHI research can better support practice.This note describes our analysis of 35 papers from CHI 2011 that aim to improve or support interaction design practice. In our analysis, we characterize how these CHI authors conceptualize design practice and the types of contributions they propose. This work is motivated by the recognition that design methods proposed by HCI researchers often do not fit the needs and constraints of professional design practice. As a complement to the analysis of the CHI papers we also interviewed 13 practitioners about their attitudes towards learning new methods and approaches. We conclude the note by offering some critical reflections about how HCI research can better support actual design practice.

  • NHJNote: DesignLibs: A Scenario-Based Design Method for Ideation
    J. Bauer (Univ. of Washington, USA), J. Kientz
    J. Bauer (Univ. of Washington, USA)J. Kientz (Univ. of Washington, USA)

    This note provides a study of a new design method we developed called “DeisgnLibs”. DesignLibs is an ideation technique with potential users inspired by the children’s game Mad Libs.Generating potential design ideas through ideation often benefits from the spontaneity of random ideas. Having po-tential users participate in this process can be beneficial, but is often difficult to implement. We present a new method for generating design ideas with potential users. The meth-od uses scenarios with missing words, which potential users fill in to generate ideas for features and attributes of new technology designs, similar to the children’s game of Mad Libs. We developed three different formats of DesignLibs, including 1) “Mad Libs-style:” blanks presented before seeing the scenario, 2) “Fill-in-the-Blanks:” blanks present-ed within the context of the scenario, and 3) “Q&A:” blanks presented as questions and answers. We found that Design-Libs generated a number of new ideas, with the Fill-in-the-Blanks method providing the highest ratings for usefulness, feasibility, and diversity of answers. All three formats pro-vided equal ratings for creativity.

351Papers: Developing the World

SMESession chair: Jon Froehlich
  • PPTPaper: Powering the Cellphone Revolution: Findings from Mobile Phone Charging Trials in Off-Grid Kenya
    S. Wyche (Michigan State Univeristy, USA), L. Murphy
    S. Wyche (Michigan State Univeristy, USA)L. Murphy (Tulane Univ., USA)

    We provide empirical evidence demonstrating the potential for human-powered devices to meet the phone charging needs of rural, off-grid, mobile phone users in Africa. Can human-powered devices solve the electricity gap for the millions of rural Africans adopting mobile phones? Findings from our long-term evaluation of two personal crank-based charging systems in Kenya reveal that small hand and leg-powered devices do have potential to meet the needs of rural mobile phone users. Unfortunately, device breakage, theft and incompatibility with handsets, coupled with lack of consumer credit and poorly functioning markets for these goods mean these represent only a partial solution to the mobile phone charging problem. Drawing from our fieldwork, we motivate a HCI4D/ICTD design and evaluation agenda that better accounts for unique individuals’ geographic, financial, and economic circumstances or their “human computer ecosystem”. Key strategies for implementing this agenda are engaging with diverse users on their own terms and conducting long-term qualitative evaluations to reveal how acceptance and usability change over time.

  • PPLPaper: Deep Conservation in Urban India and its Implications for the Design of Conservation Technologies
    Y. Shrinivasan (IBM Research, IN), M. Jain, D. Seetharam, A. Choudhary, E. Huang, T. Dillahunt, J. Mankoff
    Y. Shrinivasan (IBM Research, IN)M. Jain (IBM Research, IN)D. Seetharam (IBM Research, IN)A. Choudhary (IBM Research, IN)E. Huang (Univ. of Zurich, CH)T. Dillahunt (Carnegie Mellon Univ., USA)J. Mankoff (Carnegie Mellon Univ., USA)

    We present a study of energy, water and fuel conservation practices in urban India to highlight a culture of deep conservation and identify new opportunities for relevant resource conservation technologies.Rapid depletion of fossil fuels and water resources has become an international problem. Urban residential households are among the primary consumers of resources and are deeply affected by resource shortages. Despite the global nature of these problems, most of the solutions being developed to address these issues are based on studies done in the developed world. We present a study of energy, water and fuel conservation practices in urban India. Our study highlights a culture of deep conservation and the results raise questions about the viability of typical solutions such as home energy monitors. We identify new opportunities for design such as point-of-use feedback technologies, modular solutions, distributed energy storage, harnessing by-products and automated load shifting.

  • PLZPaper: Fighting against the Wall: Social Media use by Political Activists in a Palestinian Village
    V. Wulf (Univ. of Siegen, DE), K. Aal, I. Abu Kteish, M. Atam, K. Schubert , G. Yerousis, D. Randall, M. Rohde
    V. Wulf (Univ. of Siegen, DE)K. Aal (Univ. of Siegen, DE)I. Abu Kteish (Birzeit Univ., IL)M. Atam (Univ. of Siegen, DE)K. Schubert (Univ. of Siegen, DE)G. Yerousis (Birzeit Univ., PS)D. Randall (Univ. of Siegen, DE)M. Rohde (Univ. of Siegen, DE)

    We analyze practices of political activists in a Palestinian village, who demonstrate against Israel’s settlement policy and the separation wall. We describe how social media is appropriated to facilitate interaction ‘on the ground’.We analyze practices of political activists in a Palestinian village located in the West Bank. Activists organize weekly demonstrations against Israel’s settlement policy and the separation wall. Over a period of 28 months, we conducted a field study consisting of eight days ‘on the ground’ observation and interviewing, and extensive monitoring of Internet communication. We describe the activists’ background and their efforts to organize these demonstrations under conditions of military occupation. Over time, we observe the role both digital and material factors play in the organization of protest. Specifically, we analyze how Email and Facebook were appropriated to facilitate interaction ‘on the ground’.

  • PEHPaper: The Mobile Media Actor-Network in Urban India
    N. Kumar (Univ. of California, Berkeley, USA), N. Rangaswamy
    N. Kumar (Univ. of California, Berkeley, USA)N. Rangaswamy (Microsoft Research India, IN)

    This paper describes the vast, growing mobile media consumption culture in urban India, which relies on the ubiquity of informal socioeconomic practices for reproducing, sharing, and distributing pirated digital media. Building on a growing body of human-computer interaction (HCI) literature on information and communication technology (ICT) use in the developing world, this paper describes the vast, growing mobile media consumption culture in India, which relies on the ubiquity of informal socioeconomic practices for reproducing, sharing, and distributing pirated digital media. Using an Actor-Network Theory (ANT) based approach, we show how piracy not only fuels media consumption, but also drives further technology adoption and promotes digital literacy. To do this, we first uncover the role of piracy as a legitimate actor that brings ICT capability to underserved communities and reveal the heterogeneous character of the pirated mobile media distribution and consumption infrastructure in India. We then emphasize the benefits of an ANT-based theory-driven analysis to HCI’s efforts in this arena. In particular, ANT enables us to one, draw attention to the ties in the pirate media network that facilitate the increased decentralization of piracy in India; two, highlight the progressive transition from the outsourcing to the self-sourcing of users’ media needs as this network evolves; and three, recognize the agency of human and non-human entities in this inherently sociotechnical ecosystem.

352ABPapers: Collaborative Creation

SEBSession chair: Xianghua Ding
  • PGFPaper: Cascade: Crowdsourcing Taxonomy Creation
    L. Chilton (Univ. of Washington, USA), G. Little, D. Edge, D. Weld, J. Landay
    L. Chilton (Univ. of Washington, USA)G. Little (oDesk, USA)D. Edge (Microsoft Research Asia, CN)D. Weld (Univ. of Washington, USA)J. Landay (Univ. of Washington, USA)

    Cascade is a novel crowd algorithm that produces a global understanding of large datasets. Cascade is an online algorithm. The tasks given to workers are quick and parallelizable. Taxonomies are a useful and ubiquitous way of organizing information. However, creating organizational hierarchies is difficult because the process requires a global understanding of the objects to be categorized. Usually one is created by an individual or a small group of people working together for hours or even days. Unfortunately, this centralized approach does not work well for the large, quickly changing datasets found on the web. Cascade is an automated workflow that allows crowd workers to spend as little at 20 seconds each while collectively making a taxonomy. We evaluate Cascade and show that on three datasets its quality is 80-90% of that of experts. Cascade has a competitive cost to expert information architects, despite taking six times more human labor. Fortunately, this labor can be parallelized such that Cascade will run in as fast as four minutes instead of hours or days.

  • PQHPaper: Let’s Get Together: The Formation and Success of Online Creative Collaborations
    B. Settles (Carnegie Mellon Univ., USA), S. Dow
    B. Settles (Carnegie Mellon Univ., USA)S. Dow (Carnegie Mellon Univ., USA)

    We study an online music community by combining a novel path-based regression analysis of the social network with traditional member surveys, uncovering factors that affect online creative collaborations.In online creative communities, members work together to produce music, movies, games, and other cultural products. Despite the proliferation of collaboration in these communities, we know little about how these teams form and what leads to their ultimate success. Building on theories of social identity and exchange, we present an exploratory study of an online songwriting community. We analyze four years of longitudinal behavioral data using a novel path-based regression model that accurately predicts and reveals key variables about collab formation. Combined with a large-scale survey of members, we find that communication, nuanced complementary interest and status, and a balanced effort from both parties contribute to successful collaborations. We also discuss several applications of these findings for socio-technical infrastructures that support online creative production.

  • PKTPaper: A Tribute to Mad Skill: Expert Amateur Visuality and World of Warcraft Machinima
    T. Pace (Indiana Univ. Bloomington, USA), A. Toombs, S. Gross, T. Pattin, J. Bardzell, S. Bardzell
    T. Pace (Indiana Univ. Bloomington, USA)A. Toombs (Indiana Univ. Bloomington, USA)S. Gross (Indiana Univ. Bloomington, USA)T. Pattin (Indiana Univ. Bloomington, USA)J. Bardzell (Indiana Univ. Bloomington, USA)S. Bardzell (Indiana Univ. Bloomington, USA)

    Analyzing a canon of 300 World of Warcraft machinima, we present findings on the role of creativity support tools in fostering visual design skills among expert amateur machinimators.In this paper, we look at the prominent World of Warcraft machinima community as an expert amateur online com-munity and present a multi-part study of a canon of the most successful works (i.e., machinima videos) produced by this community. By focusing our study on its roughly 300 most successful examples, the determination of which we explain in the paper, we are able to highlight the evolv-ing visual practices, tools, and aesthetic sensibilities of the community. Chiefly, our study identifies how creativity support tools and visual practices are inextricably linked and mutually support the in-kind development of the other. For WoW machinima and its producers, the affordance of creativity tools and the cultivation of visual skill synced at key moments and in powerful ways to support the rapid growth, experimentation, and refinement of amateur exper-tise at the individual and community levels.

  • NESNote: Virtual Birding: Extending an Environmental Pastime into the Virtual World for Citizen Science
    M. Cottman-Fields (Queensland Univ. of Technology, AU), M. Brereton, P. Roe
    M. Cottman-Fields (Queensland Univ. of Technology, AU)M. Brereton (Queensland Univ. of Technology, AU)P. Roe (Queensland Univ. of Technology, AU)

    This paper investigates how to engage the experienced birder with local knowledge to extend their hobby online. We explore interaction designs for identifying bird vocalisations in large recorded audio datasets gathered through environmental acoustic monitoring.This paper investigates engaging experienced birders, as volunteer citizen scientists, to analyze large recorded audio datasets gathered through environmental acoustic monitoring. Although audio data is straightforward to gather, automated analysis remains a challenging task; the existing expertise, local knowledge and motivation of the birder community can complement computational approaches and provide distinct benefits. We explored both the culture and practice of birders, and paradigms for interacting with recorded audio data. A variety of candidate design elements were tested with birders. This study contributes an understanding of how virtual interactions and practices can be developed to complement existing practices of experienced birders in the physical world. In so doing this study contributes a new approach to engagement in e-science. Whereas most citizen science projects task lay participants with discrete real world or artificial activities, sometimes using extrinsic motivators, this approach builds on existing intrinsically satisfying practices.

  • NFDNote: Warping Time for More Effective Real-Time Crowdsourcing
    W. Lasecki (Univ. of Rochester, USA), C. Miller, J. Bigham
    W. Lasecki (Univ. of Rochester, USA)C. Miller (Univ. of Rochester, USA)J. Bigham (Univ. of Rochester, USA)

    We present TimeWarp, a crowdsourcing approach that allows workers to individually complete continuous tasks that involve streaming media at reduced speeds, while the crowd can collectively keep up with real-time. In this paper, we introduce the idea of ”warping time” to improve crowd performance on the difficult task of captioning speech in real-time. Prior work has shown that the crowd can collectively caption speech in real-time by merging the partial results of multiple workers. Because non-expert workers cannot keep up with natural speaking rates, the task is frustrating and prone to errors as workers buffer what they hear to type later. The TimeWarp approach automatically increases and decreases the speed of speech playback systematically across individual workers who caption only the periods played at reduced speed. Studies with 139 remote crowd workers and 24 local participants show that this approach improves median coverage (14.8%), precision (11.2%), and per-word latency (19.1%). Warping time may also help crowds outperform individuals on other difficult real-time performance tasks.

221/221MLast-minute SIGs: Session 7