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Wednesday | CHI 2013
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All communities Design (60) Engineering (21) Management (4)
User Experience (66) Child-Computer Interaction (13) Digital Arts (13) Games and Entertainment (17)
Health (11) Sustainability (9) HCI for Development (12)

Wednesday – 9:00-10:20

BluePapers: Aesthetics and the Web

SPJSession chair: Effie Law
  • PFYPaper: Predicting Users’ First Impressions of Website Aesthetics With a Quantification of Perceived Visual Complexity and Colorfulness
    K. Reinecke (Harvard Univ., USA), T. Yeh, L. Miratrix, Y. Zhao, R. Mardiko, J. Liu, K. Gajos
    K. Reinecke (Harvard Univ., USA)T. Yeh (Univ. of Colorado, USA)L. Miratrix (Harvard Univ., USA)Y. Zhao (Harvard Univ., USA)R. Mardiko (Univ. of Maryland, USA)J. Liu (Harvard Univ., USA)K. Gajos (Harvard Univ., USA)

    We collected colorfulness, complexity, and overall visual appeal ratings from 548 volunteers. Utilizing these data, we developed models that accurately predict perceived visual complexity and perceived colorfulness in websites based on computational image statistics.Users make lasting judgments about a website’s appeal within a split second of seeing it for the first time. This first impression is influential enough to later affect their opinions of a site’s usability and trustworthiness. In this paper, we demonstrate a means to predict the initial impression of aesthetics based on perceptual models of a website’s colorfulness and visual complexity. In an online study, we collected ratings of colorfulness, visual complexity, and visual appeal of a set of 450 websites from 548 volunteers. Based on these data, we developed computational models that accurately measure the perceived visual complexity and colorfulness of website screenshots. In combination with demographic variables such as a user’s education level and age, these models explain approximately half of the variance in the ratings of aesthetic appeal given after viewing a website for 500ms only.

  • PQRPaper: Love it or Hate it! Interactivity and User Types
    J. Hart (The Univ. of Manchester, UK), A. Sutcliffe, A. De Angeli
    J. Hart (The Univ. of Manchester, UK)A. Sutcliffe (The Univ. of Manchester, UK)A. De Angeli (Univ. of Trento, IT)

    Demonstrates a mixed methods approach that identifies the importance of interactivity and repeated exposure in positively influencing UX and shows that different levels of UX can be explained through use typesThis paper investigates general and individual evaluations of User Experience (UX) with interactive web sites. A series of studies investigate user judgment on web sites with different interactivity levels over repeated exposures. The more interactive websites produced more positive affect, had better design quality ratings, which improved with exposure, and were preferred. Differences between the more interactive sites indicated overall UX was influenced by users’ preferences for interactive styles, with both sites having enthusiast, potential adopter, and non-adopter users. The implications for models and frameworks of UX are discussed.

  • PFUPaper: SPRWeb: Preserving Subjective Responses to Website Colour Schemes through Automatic Recolouring
    D. Flatla (Univ. of Saskatchewan, CA), K. Reinecke, C. Gutwin, K. Gajos
    D. Flatla (Univ. of Saskatchewan, CA)K. Reinecke (Harvard Univ., USA)C. Gutwin (Univ. of Saskatchewan, CA)K. Gajos (Harvard Univ., USA)

    SPRWeb equalizes website experience for people with colour vision deficiency by improving colour differentiation (like previous recolouring tools), but also maintains the original colour scheme’s subjective properties (‘warmth’, ‘weight’, ‘activity’).Colours are an important part of user experiences on the Web. Colour schemes influence the aesthetics, first impressions and long-term engagement with websites. However, five percent of people perceive a subset of all colours because they have colour vision deficiency (CVD), resulting in an unequal and less-rich user experience on the Web. Traditionally, people with CVD have been supported by recolouring tools that improve colour differentiability, but do not consider the subjective properties of colour schemes while recolouring. To address this, we developed SPRWeb, a tool that recolours websites to preserve subjective responses and improve colour differentiability – thus enabling users with CVD to have similar online experiences. To develop SPRWeb, we extended existing models of non-CVD subjective responses to CVD, then used this extended model to steer the recolouring process. In a lab study, we found that SPRWeb did significantly better than a standard recolouring tool at preserving the temperature and naturalness of websites, while achieving similar weight and differentiability preservation. We also found that recolouring did not preserve activity, and hypothesize that visual complexity influences activity more than colour. SPRWeb is the first tool to automatically preserve the subjective and perceptual properties of website colour schemes thereby equalizing the colour-based web experience for people with CVD.

  • TPCTOCHI: User-Experience from an Inference Perspective
    P. van Schaik (Teesside Univ., UK), M. Hassenzahl, J. Ling
    P. van Schaik (Teesside Univ., UK)M. Hassenzahl (Folkwang Univ. of the Arts, DE)J. Ling (Univ. of Sunderland, UK)

    The research provides consistent evidence for how people infer specific user-experience attributes of an interactive product from other attributes or broader evaluations, such as beauty or an overall evaluation. In many situations, people make judgments on the basis of incomplete information, inferring unavailable attributes from available ones. These inference processes may also well operate when judgments about a product’s user-experience are made. To examine this, an inference model of user-experience, based on Hassenzahl and Monk’s [2010], was explored in three studies using Web sites. All studies supported the model’s predictions and its stability, with hands-on experience, different products, and different usage modes (action mode versus goal mode). Within a unified framework of judgment as inference [Kruglanski et al. 2007], our approach allows for the integration of the effects of a wide range of information sources on judgments of user-experience.

241Panel

  • LGSTheory and Practice in UX Research: Uneasy Bedfellows?
    Marianna Obrist (moderator), Peter C. Wright (moderator), Kari Kuutti, Yvonne Rogers, Kristina Höök, Pardha S Pyla, Jean-Louis Frechin
    Marianna Obrist (moderator)Peter C. Wright (moderator)Kari KuuttiYvonne RogersKristina HöökPardha S PylaJean-Louis Frechin

    We believe that it is time to talk about user experience and its theoretical roots as well as about the relationship between theory and practice in UX research. Although user experience is overused as a buzzword, it defines a main step change in the evolvement of the HCI field and deserves a proper (theoretical) attention. Within this panel we follow up on discussions on the theoretical foundations and the value of theory for HCI and UX research from over the last years. In particular we want to go a step further and strengthen the interdisciplinary dialogue on the relationship between theory and practice when talking about user experience. We invited panelists from academia and industry to join a fruitful dialogue talking about the different perspectives on user experience, theoretical roots, and the relevance of theory for practice and vice versa. Two moderators will ensure that the audience gets their beliefs and thoughts across to the panelists as well.

242ABPapers: Evaluation Methods 2

SQHSession chair: Manfred Tscheligi
  • THJTOCHI: Backtracking Events as Indicators of Usability Problems in Creation-Oriented Applications
    D. Akers (Univ. of Puget Sound, USA), R. Jeffries, M. Simpson, T. Winograd
    D. Akers (Univ. of Puget Sound, USA)R. Jeffries (Google, Inc., USA)M. Simpson (Google, Inc., USA)T. Winograd (Stanford Univ., USA)

    Three experiments demonstrate that backtracking events such as undo are useful indicators of usability problems for creation-oriented applications. This insight yields a new cost-effective usability evaluation method, backtracking analysis.A diversity of user goals and strategies make creation-oriented applications such as word processors or photo-editors difficult to comprehensively test. Evaluating such applications requires testing a large pool of participants to capture the diversity of experience, but traditional usability testing can be prohibitively expensive. To address this problem, this article contributes a new usability evaluation method called backtracking analysis, designed to automate the process of detecting and characterizing usability problems in creation-oriented applications. The key insight is that interaction breakdowns in creation-oriented applications often manifest themselves in backtracking operations that can be automatically logged (e.g., undo and erase operations). Backtracking analysis synchronizes these events to contextual data such as screen capture video, helping the evaluator to characterize specific usability problems. The results from three experiments demonstrate that backtracking events can be effective indicators of usability problems in creationoriented applications, and can yield a cost-effective alternative to traditional laboratory usability testing.

  • PGVPaper: Analyzing Users’ Narratives to Understand Experience with Interactive Products
    A. Tuch (Univ. of Copenhagen, DK), R. Trusell, K. Hornbæk
    A. Tuch (Univ. of Copenhagen, DK)R. Trusell (Univ. of Copenhagen, DK)K. Hornbæk (Univ. of Copenhagen, DK)

    Analyzes narratives of experience with interactive technology with manual and automatic methods. Helps understand the content of such experiences and the relative benefits of methods for studying them. Recent research in user experience (UX) has studied narratives, users’ account of their interaction with technology. It has emphasized specific constructs (e.g., affect, needs, hedonics) and their interrelation, but rarely analyzed the content of the narratives. We analyze the content and structure of 691 user-generated narratives on positive and negative experiences with technology. We use a multi-method approach consisting of manual (structural analysis of narratives) as well as of automated content analysis methods (psycholinguistic analysis and machine learning). These analyses show converging evidence that positive narratives predominantly concern social aspects such as family and friends. In addition, technology is positively experienced when it enables users to do things more efficiently or in a new way. In contrast, negative narratives often express anger and frustration due to technological failures. Our multi-method approach illustrates the potential of automated (as opposed to manual) content analysis methods for studying text-based experience reports.

  • PAGPaper: Extracting Usability and User Experience Information from Online User Reviews
    S. Hedegaard (Univ. of Copenhagen, DK), J. Simonsen
    S. Hedegaard (Univ. of Copenhagen, DK)J. Simonsen (Univ. of Copenhagen, DK)

    We chart the occurrences of usability and user experience dimensions and their associated vocabulary found in online reviews of software and video games. Internet review sites allow consumers to write detailed reviews of products potentially containing information related to user experience (UX) and usability. Using 5198 sentences from 3492 online reviews of software and video games, we investigate the content of online reviews with the aims of (i) charting the distribution of information in reviews among different dimensions of usability and UX, and (ii) extracting an associated vocabulary for each dimension using techniques from natural language processing and machine learning. We (a) find that 13%–49% of sentences in our online reviews pool contain usability or UX information; (b) chart the distribution of four sets of dimensions of usability and UX across reviews from two product categories; (c) extract a catalogue of important word stems for a number of dimensions. Our results suggest that a greater understanding of users’ preoccupation with different dimensions of usability and UX may be inferred from the large volume of self-reported experiences online, and that research focused on identifying pertinent dimensions of usability and UX may benefit further from empirical studies of user-generated experience reports.

  • NKRNote: UMUX-LITE – When There’s No Time for the SUS
    J. Lewis (IBM Software Group, USA), B. Utesch, D. Maher
    J. Lewis (IBM Software Group, USA)B. Utesch (IBM Software Group, USA)D. Maher (IBM Software Group, USA)

    The UMUX-LITE is a concise (two-item) usability satisfaction questionnaire. Psychometric evaluation indicates its potential usefulness when it is critical to quickly obtain a SUS-like measurement.In this paper we present the UMUX-LITE, a two-item questionnaire based on the Usability Metric for User Experience (UMUX) [6]. The UMUX-LITE items are “This system’s capabilities meet my requirements” and “This system is easy to use.” Data from two independent surveys demonstrated adequate psychometric quality of the questionnaire. Estimates of reliability were .82 and .83 – excellent for a two-item instrument. Concurrent validity was also high, with significant correlation with the SUS (.81, .81) and with likelihood-to-recommend (LTR) scores (.74, .73). The scores were sensitive to respondents’ frequency-of-use. UMUX-LITE score means were slightly lower than those for the SUS, but easily adjusted using linear regression to match the SUS scores. Due to its parsimony (two items), reliability, validity, structural basis (usefulness and usability) and, after applying the corrective regression formula, its correspondence to SUS scores, the UMUX-LITE appears to be a promising alternative to the SUS when it is not desirable to use a 10-item instrument.

  • NGTNote: Non-parametric Decision Trees and Online HCI
    T. Sko (Australian National Univ., AU), H. Gardner, M. Martin
    T. Sko (Australian National Univ., AU)H. Gardner (Australian National Univ., AU)M. Martin (Australian National Univ., AU)

    Through an online study of head interaction techniques, we show that classification and regression trees provide a practical way to analyse the large and complex datasets typical of online HCI.This paper proposes that online HCI studies (such as web-surveys and remotely monitored usability tests) can benefit from statistical data analysis using modern statistical learning methods such as classification and regression trees (CARTs). Applying CARTs to the often large amount of data yielded by online studies can easily provide clarity concerning the most important effects underlying experimental data in situations where myriad possible factors are under consideration. The feedback provided by such an analysis can also provide valuable reflection on the experimental methodology. We discuss these matters with reference to a study of 1300 participants in a structured experiment concerned with head-interaction techniques for first-person-shooter games.

243Course C16, unit 1/2

  • CNSC16: The Past 100 Years of the Future: CHI/HCI/UX in Sci-Fi Movies and Television
    A. Marcus (Aaron Marcus and Associates, Inc., USA)
    A. Marcus (Aaron Marcus and Associates, Inc., USA)

    We examine CHI/HCI/UX in sci-fi movies/television from the last 100 years and consider usability, usefulness, and appeal. Participants will learn how to analyze user-centered design in popular media.The Past 100 Years of the Future: CHI/HCI/UX in Sci-Fi Movies and Television will summarize and analyze the past 100 years of human-computer interaction as incorporated into science-fiction cinema and video, beginning with the advent of movies in the early 1900s (Méliés’ A Trip to the Moon, which was recently referenced in the movie Hugo). For many decades movies have shown technology in advance of its commercialization (for example, video phones and wall-sized television displays, hand-gesture systems, and virtual-reality displays). In some cases mistaken views about what is usable, useful, and appealing seem to be adopted, perhaps because of their benefits to cinematic storytelling. In any case, these media have served as informal “test-beds” for new technologies of human-computer interaction and communication. The course will explore issues of what is futuristic and what is not, gender-role differences, optimism/pessimism, and user-centered design characteristics in more than two dozen films and a half-dozen television shows. Examples from China, India, and Japan also will be referenced. Participants will be informally informally about their recognition/understanding of the media examples shown. Discussion with participants throughout the presentation will be encouraged.

251Papers: Design for the Blind

SSUSession chair: Shaun Kane
  • PTGPaper: Listen to it yourself! Evaluating Usability of “What’s Around Me?” for the Blind
    S. Panëels (McGill Univ., CA), A. Olmos, J. Blum, J. Cooperstock
    S. Panëels (McGill Univ., CA)A. Olmos (McGill Univ., CA)J. Blum (McGill Univ., CA)J. Cooperstock (McGill Univ., CA)

    We present the results of the usability evaluation, conducted in realistic settings, of a novel spatial awareness smartphone application that conveys surrounding points of interest to the blind. Although multiple GPS-based navigation applications exist for the visually impaired, these are typically poorly suited for in-situ exploration, require cumbersome hardware, lack support for widely accessible geographic databases, or do not take advantage of advanced functionality such as spatialized audio rendering. These shortcomings led to our development of a novel spatial awareness application that leverages the capabilities of a smartphone coupled with worldwide geographic databases and spatialized audio rendering to convey surrounding points of interest. This paper describes the usability evaluation of our system through a task-based study and a longer-term deployment, each conducted with six blind users in real settings. The findings highlight the importance of testing in ecologically valid contexts over sufficient periods to face real-world challenges, including balancing quality versus quantity for audio information, overcoming limitations imposed by sensor accuracy and quality of database information, and paying appropriate design attention to physical interaction with the device.

  • TGNTOCHI: Enabling the Blind to See Gestures
    F. Quek (Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State Univ., USA), F. Oliveira
    F. Quek (Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State Univ., USA)F. Oliveira (Ceará State Univ. , BR)

    Our contributions are on the understanding of how gestural interaction may be designed as part of a multimodal system and on applying Durish’s embodiment theory to solving practical issues. Human embodied discourse involves gesture and speech. Mathematics instruction involves communication using speech and graphical presentation. Vision gives sighted students `embodiment awareness’ to keep communication situated between visual material and speech. For blind students, haptic fingertip reading of embossed material can replace visual material. We developed a Haptic Deictic System to furnish blind students with awareness of the instructor’s deictic gestures. Our studies show that the HDS can support learning in inclusive classrooms comprising both blind and sighted students. We developed analysis methodologies to ascertain how theHDS supports embodied discourse. The HDS was advantageous to all parties increasing learning opportunities, mutual understanding and engagement.

  • PHXPaper: Visual Challenges in the Everyday Lives of Blind People
    E. Brady (Univ. of Rochester, USA), M. Morris, Y. Zhong, S. White, J. Bigham
    E. Brady (Univ. of Rochester, USA)M. Morris (Microsoft Research, USA)Y. Zhong (Univ. of Rochester, USA)S. White (Univ. of Rochester, USA)J. Bigham (Univ. of Rochester, USA)

    Our results improve the understanding of the visual problems blind people face everyday by examining a sample of the 40,000 questions asked by blind VizWiz Social users.The challenges faced by blind people in their everyday lives are not well understood. In this paper, we report on the findings of a large-scale study of the visual questions that blind people would like to have answered. As part of this year-long study, 5,329 blind users asked 40,748 questions about photographs that they took from their iPhones using an application called VizWiz Social. We present a taxonomy of the types of questions asked, report on a number of features of the questions and accompanying photographs, and discuss how individuals changed how they used VizWiz Social over time. These results improve our understanding of the problems blind people face, and may help motivate new projects more accurately targeted to help blind people live more independently in their everyday lives.

  • PHGPaper: Accessible Photo Album: Enhancing the Photo Sharing Experience for People with Visual Impairment
    S. Harada (IBM Research, JP), D. Sato, D. Adams, S. Kurniawan, H. Takagi, C. Asakawa
    S. Harada (IBM Research, JP)D. Sato (IBM Research, JP)D. Adams (Univ. of California, Santa Cruz, Santa Cruz)S. Kurniawan (Univ. of California, Santa Cruz, Santa Cruz)H. Takagi (IBM Research, JP)C. Asakawa (IBM Research, JP)

    Study of how to support people with visual impairments to partake in photo capturing and sharing activities. Results from online survey and user study evaluation of custom accessible iPhone app.While a photograph is a visual artifact, studies reveal that a number of people with visual impairments are also interested in being able to share their memories and experiences with their sighted counterparts in the form of a photograph. We conducted an online survey to better understand the challenges faced by people with visual impairments in sharing and organizing photos, and reviewed existing tools and their limitations. Based on our analysis, we developed an accessible mobile application that enables a visually impaired user to capture photos along with audio recordings for the ambient sound and memo description and to browse through them eyes-free. Five visually impaired participants took part in a study in which they used our app to take photographs in naturalistic settings and to share them later with a sighted viewer. The participants were able to use our app to identify each photograph on their own during the photo sharing session, and reported high satisfaction in having been able to take the initiative during the process.

252BAlt.chi: Design Lessons

SAESession chair: Mark Perry
  • AGJ“Sergey Brin is Batman”: Google’s Project Glass and the Instigation of Computer Adoption in Popular Culture
    I. Pedersen (Univ. of Ontario Institute of Technology, CA), D. Trueman
    I. Pedersen (Univ. of Ontario Institute of Technology, CA)D. Trueman (Univ. of Ontario Institute of Technology, CA)

    This humanities paper argues that Google’s Project Glass is an instigator for the adoption of a new HCI platform, the wearable eye display, operating in popular culture discourses.The emergence of Google Glass, a prototype for a transparent Heads-Up Display available for the everyday consumer, is the first public conceptualization of a mainstream augmented-reality wearable eye display. Google’s promotional material frames Glass as the brainchild of company co-founder Sergey Brin, who, by being associated with a state-of-the-art development lab, has been compared by the popular press to the iconic comic book character Batman. We contend that the hype surrounding Google Glass and the resulting social responses to “Brin-as-Batman” is a phenomenon that warrants attention. Using a humanities focus, we argue that Glass’s birth is not only a marketing phenomenon heralding a technical prototype, we also argue and speculate that Glass’s popularization is an instigator for the adoption of a new paradigm in human-computer interaction, the wearable eye display, operating very much in mainstream and popular culture discourses.

  • AGZTalkative Objects in Need of Interpretation. Re-Thinking Digital Badges in Education
    R. Rughinis (Univ. POLITEHNICA of Bucharest, RO)
    R. Rughinis (Univ. POLITEHNICA of Bucharest, RO)

    I examine debates concerning digital badges in education, and I propose two definitions of badges as ‘routes through an activity system’ and as ‘genres of hint-based multi-authored testimony of learning’.I examine current debates concerning digital badges in education, pointing to less remarked upon topics. By investigating badges as motivators, I conclude that a focus on badges as rewards has downplayed the importance of badge conditionalities (‘tails’) and entitlements (‘antennae’), and their always situated effectiveness. Current discussions of badges as evidence-based credentials understate the interpretive work required to make sense of badge collections. I propose two heuristic definitions of badges as ‘routes through an activity system’ and as ‘genres of hint-based multi-authored testimony of learning’. Alternative definitions are invited, as tools for thought.

  • AVSBeyond Recognition: Using Gesture Variation for Continuous Interaction
    B. Caramiaux (Goldsmiths, Univ. of London, UK), F. Bevilacqua, A. Tanaka
    B. Caramiaux (Goldsmiths, Univ. of London, UK)F. Bevilacqua (IRCAM, FR)A. Tanaka (Goldsmiths, Univ. of London, UK)

    The goal of this paper is to tap the richness of expressive variation in gesture to facilitate continuous interaction through novel techniques of adaptation and estimation of gesture characteristics.Gesture-based interaction is widespread in touch screen interfaces. The goal of this paper is to tap the richness of expressive variation in gesture to facilitate continuous interaction. We achieve this through novel techniques of adaptation and estimation of gesture characteristics. We describe two experiments. The first aims at understanding whether users can control certain gestural characteristics and if that control depends on gesture vocabulary. The second study uses a machine learning technique based on particle filtering to simultaneously recognize and measure variation in a gesture. With this technology, we create a gestural interface for a playful photo processing application. From these two studies, we show that 1) multiple characteristics can be varied independently in slower gestures (Study 1), and 2) users find gesture-only interaction less pragmatic but more stimulating than traditional menu-based systems (Study 2).

  • AMLDesign Activism in the HCI Classroom
    S. Hauser (Simon Fraser Univ., CA), A. Desjardins, R. Wakkary
    S. Hauser (Simon Fraser Univ., CA)A. Desjardins (Simon Fraser Univ., CA)R. Wakkary (Simon Fraser Univ., CA)

    This paper encourages future articulation and practice of design activism in HCI and HCI education.In HCI, design activism has been practiced but has not been well articulated or discussed. There are examples of activism in the HCI classroom, opening a new avenue of discussion and investigation for the role of design activism in HCI. We present two case studies that show design activism in the classroom as examples from which to learn. We highlight themes and observations to encourage future articulation and practice of design activism in HCI and HCI education.

  • ADUFillables: Everyday Vessels as Tangible Controllers with Adjustable Haptics
    C. Corsten (RWTH Aachen Univ., DE), C. Wacharamanotham, J. Borchers
    C. Corsten (RWTH Aachen Univ., DE)C. Wacharamanotham (RWTH Aachen Univ., DE)J. Borchers (RWTH Aachen Univ., DE)

    Tuning TUIs ad-hoc by filling water into everyday objects. Reports how users can discriminate different filling levels that make virtual granularity (video navigation, virtual brush size) perceptible eyes-free.We introduce Fillables: low-cost and ubiquitous everyday vessels that are appropriated as tangible controllers whose haptics are tuned ad-hoc by filling, e.g., with water. We show how Fillables can assist users in video navigation and drawing tasks with physical controllers whose adjustable output granularity harmonizes with their haptic feedback. As proof of concept, we implemented a drawing application that uses vessels to control a virtual brush whose stroke width corresponds to the filling level. Furthermore, we found that humans can distinguish nine levels of haptic feedback when sliding water-filled paper cups (300 ml capacity) over a wooden surface. This discrimination follows Weber’s Law and was facilitated by sloshing of water.

  • AULA Load of Cobbler’s Children: Beyond the Model Designing Processor
    G. Cockton (Northumbria Univ., UK)
    G. Cockton (Northumbria Univ., UK)

    Critiques common criteria applied when assessing research on innovative design and evaluation methods, and proposes resource function vocabularies as better lenses for focusing assessment of method effectiveness in interaction design HCI has developed rich understandings of people at work and at play with technology, moving beyond users’ minds to their moods, buddies and bodies. However, understandings of designers remain trapped within the information processing paradigm of first wave HCI, remaining focused on minds that execute design methods as if they were computer programs, and producing the same results on a range of architectures and hardware. Designers are people too, with minds, moods, buddies and bodies, which all interfere substantially (generally to good effects) with the ‘code’ of design methods. We need to take full account of designers’ humanity when assessing design and evaluation methods. This juried alt.chi paper moves from critique to a logocentric proposal based on resource function vocabularies as a more appropriate basis for understanding and assessing methods.

253Course C17, unit 1/2

  • CHGC17: Interactive Walking in Virtual Environments
    F. Steinicke (DE), Y. Visell, J. Campos, A. Lécuyer
    F. Steinicke (DE)Y. Visell (McGill Univ., CA)J. Campos (Toronto Rehab, CA)A. Lécuyer (INRIA, FR)

    In this course we will present an overview about interactive locomotion interfaces for computer generated virtual environments using state-of-the-art technology and approaches.In recent years many advances have enabled users to more and more naturally navigate large-scale graphical worlds. The entertainment industry is increasingly providing visual and body-based cues to their users to increase the naturalness of their navigational experience. However, so far none of the existing solutions fully supports the most natural ways of locomotion through virtual worlds, and thus techniques and technologies have to be considered, which take advantage of insights into human perceptual sensitivity. In this context, by far the most natural way to move through the real world is via a full body experience where we receive sensory stimulation to all of our senses, i.e., when walking, running, biking or driving. With some exciting technological advances, people are now beginning to get this same full body sensory experience when navigating computer generated three-dimensional environments. Enabling such an active and dynamic ability to navigate through large-scale virtual scenes is of great interest for many interactive 3D applications demanding locomotion, such as video games, edutainment, simulation, rehabilitation, military, tourism or architecture. In this course we will present an overview about the development of interactive locomotion interfaces for computer generated virtual environments ranging from desktop-based camera manipulations simulating walking, and different walking metaphors for the entertainment to state-of-the-art hardware-based solutions that enable omni-directional and unlimited real locomotion through virtual worlds. As the computer graphics industry advances towards increasingly more natural interaction, human-computer interaction researchers and professionals will benefit from this course by increasing their understanding of human perception and how this knowledge can be applied to enable the most natural interaction technique of all, i.e., navigating through the world by walking.

BordeauxPapers: Mobile Interaction

SLCSession chair: Scott Hudson
  • PSJPaper: A Study on Icon Arrangement by Smartphone Users
    M. Böhmer (German Research Center for Artificial Intelligence (DFKI), DE), A. Krüger
    M. Böhmer (German Research Center for Artificial Intelligence (DFKI), DE)A. Krüger (German Research Center for Artificial Intelligence (DFKI), DE)

    This paper studies peoples’ arrangements of icons in smartphone menus. From 1,400+ menu screenshots we distill five fundamental concepts for arranging icons. Implications are useful for designing mobile launcher menus.The number of available mobile applications is steadily increasing. People have rapidly adopted application stores as means to customize their devices with various functionalities that go beyond communication. Understanding the principles of mobile application usage is crucial for supporting users within this new ecosystem. In this paper, we investigate how people organize applications they have installed on their devices. We asked more than 130 participants for their habits for icon arrangement and collected more than 1,400 screenshots of their devices’ menus to further ground our findings. Based on this data we can distinguish five different concepts for arranging icons on smartphone menus, e.g. based on application usage frequency and applications’ functional relatedness. Additionally, we investigated how these concepts emerge in relation to frequency of application installations, removals and icon rearrangements, as well as users’ experience levels. Finally we discuss implications for the design of smartphone launchers, and highlight differences to icon arrangement on stationary computers.

  • PDTPaper: SeeSay and HearSay CAPTCHAs for Mobile Interaction
    S. Shirali-Shahreza (Univ. of Toronto, CA), G. Penn, R. Balakrishnan, Y. Ganjali
    S. Shirali-Shahreza (Univ. of Toronto, CA)G. Penn (Univ. of Toronto, CA)R. Balakrishnan (Univ. of Toronto, CA)Y. Ganjali (Univ. of Toronto, CA)

    We propose two alternative designs for CAPTCHAs in which the user says the answer instead of typing it. Output stimuli are provided visually (SeeSay) or auditorily (HearSay).Speech certainly has advantages as an input modality for smartphone applications, especially in scenarios where using touch or keyboard entry is difficult, on increasingly miniaturized devices where useable keyboards are difficult to accommodate, or in scenarios where only small amounts of text need to be input, such as when entering SMS texts or responding to a CAPTCHA challenge. In this paper, we propose two new alternative ways to design CAPTCHAs in which the user says the answer instead of typing it with (a) output stimuli provided visually (SeeSay) or (b) auditorily (HearSay). Our user study results show that SeeSay CAPTCHA requires less time to be solved and users prefer it over current text-based CAPTCHA methods.

  • PSCPaper: Phoneprioception: Enabling Mobile Phones to Infer Where They Are Kept
    J. Wiese (Carnegie Mellon Univ., USA), T. Saponas, A. Brush
    J. Wiese (Carnegie Mellon Univ., USA)T. Saponas (Microsoft Research, USA)A. Brush (Microsoft Research, USA)

    We examined where people keep their phones through interviews and an ESM study and demonstrate that reasonably accurate classifications are possible with industry-standard sensors, improved by several other low-cost sensors.Enabling phones to infer whether they are currently in a pocket, purse or on a table facilitates a range of new inter-actions from placement-dependent notifications setting to preventing “pocket dialing.” We collected data from 693 participants to understand where people keep their phone in different contexts and why. Using this data, we identified three placement personas: Single Place Pat, Consistent Ca-sey, and All-over Alex. Based on these results, we collected two weeks of labeled accelerometer data in-situ from 32 participants. We used this data to build models for inferring phone placement, achieving an accuracy of approximately 85% for inferring whether the phone is in an enclosed loca-tion and for inferring if the phone is on the user. Finally, we prototyped a capacitive grid and a multispectral sensor and collected data from 15 participants in a laboratory to under-stand the added value of these sensors.

  • NDZNote: Facilitating Parallel Web Browsing through Multiple-Page View
    W. Xu (Tsinghua Univ., CN), C. Yu, S. Zhao, J. Liu, Y. Shi
    W. Xu (Tsinghua Univ., CN)C. Yu (Tsinghua Univ., CN)S. Zhao (Tsinghua Univ., CN)J. Liu (Tsinghua Univ., CN)Y. Shi (Tsinghua Univ., CN)

    We propose the multiple-page view to provide users with the experience of visiting multiple web pages in one browser window and tab with extensions of prevalent desktop web browsers.Parallel web browsing describes the behavior where users visit web pages in multiple concurrent threads. Qualitative studies have observed this activity being performed with multiple browser windows or tabs. However, these solutions are not satisfying since a large amount of time is wasted on switch among windows and tabs. In this paper, we propose the multiple-page view to facilitate parallel web browsing. Specifically, we provide users with the experience of visiting multiple web pages in one browser window and tab with extensions of prevalent desktop web browsers. Through user study and survey, we found that 2-4 pages within the window size were preferred for multiple-page view in spite of the diverse screen sizes and resolutions. Analytical results of logs from the user study also showed an improvement of 26.3% in users’ efficiency of performing parallel web browsing tasks, compared to traditional browsing with multiple windows or tabs.

  • NBLNote: Swipe Vs. Scroll: Web Page Switching on Mobile Browsers
    A. Warr (Google, Inc., USA), E. Chi
    A. Warr (Google, Inc., USA)E. Chi (Google, Inc., USA)

    We present an experiment comparing Safari’s pages-based switching interface using horizontal swiping gestures with the stacked cards-based switching interface using vertical scrolling gestures, introduced by Chrome.Tabbed web browsing interfaces enable users to multi-task and easily switch between open web pages. However, tabbed browsing is difficult for mobile web browsers due to the limited screen space and the reduced precision of touch. We present an experiment comparing Safari’s pages-based switching interface using horizontal swiping gestures with the stacked cards-based switching interface using vertical scrolling gestures, introduced by Chrome. The results of our experiment show that cards-based switching interface allows for faster switching and is less frustrating, with no significant effect on error rates. We generalize these findings, and provide design implications for mobile information spaces.

342APapers: Performing Interaction

SLJSession chair: Leah Findlater
  • PCLPaper: Flights in my Hands: Coherence Concerns in Designing Strip’TIC, a Tangible Space for Air Traffic Controllers
    C. Letondal (ENAC, FR), C. Hurter, R. Lesbordes, J. Vinot, S. Conversy
    C. Letondal (ENAC, FR)C. Hurter (ENAC, FR)R. Lesbordes (DGAC DSNA, FR)J. Vinot (ENAC, FR)S. Conversy (ENAC, FR)

    We reflect upon the design of a paper-based tangible space to support air traffic control. We propose a new account of coherence for mixed interaction that integrates cognitive externalization mechanisms.We reflect upon the design of a paper-based tangible interactive space to support air traffic control. We have observed, studied, prototyped and discussed with controllers a new mixed interaction system based on Anoto, video projection, and tracking. Starting from the understanding of the benefits of tangible paper strips, our goal is to study how mixed physical and virtual augmented data can support the controllers’ mental work. The context of the activity led us to depart from models that are proposed in tangible interfaces research where coherence is based on how physical objects are representative of virtual objects. We propose a new account of coherence in a mixed interaction system that integrates externalization mechanisms. We found that physical objects play two roles: they act both as representation of mental objects and as tangible artifacts for interacting with augmented features. We observed that virtual objects represent physical ones, and not the reverse, and, being virtual representations of physical objects, should seamlessly converge with the cognitive role of the physical object. Finally, we show how coherence is achieved by providing a seamless interactive space.

  • PQUPaper: PixelTone: A Multimodal Interface for Image Editing
    G. Laput (Univ. of Michigan, USA), M. Dontcheva, G. Wilensky, W. Chang, A. Agarwala, J. Linder, E. Adar
    G. Laput (Univ. of Michigan, USA)M. Dontcheva (Adobe Research, USA)G. Wilensky (Adobe Research, USA)W. Chang (Adobe Research, USA)A. Agarwala (Adobe Research, USA)J. Linder (Adobe Research, USA)E. Adar (Univ. of Michigan, USA)

    PixelTone is a multimodal photo editing interface that combines speech and direct manipulation.Photo editing can be a challenging task, and it becomes even more difficult on the small, portable screens of mobile devices that are now frequently used to capture and edit images. To address this problem we present PixelTone, a multimodal photo editing interface that combines speech and direct manipulation. We observe existing image editing practices and derive a set of principles that guide our design. In particular, we use natural language for expressing desired changes to an image, and sketching to localize these changes to specific regions. To support the language commonly used in photo-editing we develop a customized natural language interpreter that maps user phrases to specific image processing operations. Finally, we perform a user study that evaluates and demonstrates the effectiveness of our interface.

  • PMYPaper: The Space Between the Notes: Adding Expressive Pitch Control to the Piano Keyboard
    A. McPherson (Queen Mary, Univ. of London, UK), A. Gierakowski, A. Stark
    A. McPherson (Queen Mary, Univ. of London, UK)A. Gierakowski (Queen Mary, Univ. of London, UK)A. Stark (Queen Mary, Univ. of London, UK)

    This paper presents an extended keyboard interface that engages with pianists’ existing training and expertise. Touch sensors add expressive vibrato and pitch bend capabilities without interfering with traditional technique.This paper addresses the question of how to extend the capabilities of a well-established interface in a way that respects users’ existing expertise. The piano-style keyboard is among the most widely used and versatile of digital musical interfaces. However, it lacks the ability to alter the pitch of a note after it has been played, a limitation which prevents the performer from executing common expressive techniques including vibrato and pitch bending. We present a system for controlling pitch from the keyboard surface using capacitive touch sensors to measure the locations of the player’s fingers on the keys. The large community of trained pianists makes the keyboard a compelling target for augmentation, but it also poses a challenge: how can a musical interface be extended while making use of the existing techniques performers have spent thousands of hours learning? In this paper, user studies with conservatory pianists explore the constraints of traditional keyboard technique and evaluate the usability of the continuous pitch control system. The paper also discusses implications for the extension of other established interfaces in musical and non-musical contexts.

  • NGNNote: Reflexive Loopers for Solo Musical Improvisation
    F. Pachet (Sony CSL Paris, FR), P. Roy, J. Moreira, M. d’Inverno
    F. Pachet (Sony CSL Paris, FR)P. Roy (Sony CSL, FR)J. Moreira (Sony CSL, FR)M. d’Inverno (Sony CSL, FR)

    We describe a system that automatically learns the accompaniement style of a musician from a real-time jazz performance. The system can then be used to perform trios with themselves.Loop pedals are real-time samplers that playback audio played previously by a musician. Such pedals are routinely used for music practice or outdoor “busking”. However, loop pedals always playback the same material, which can make performances monotonous and boring both to the musician and the audience, preventing their widespread uptake in professional concerts. In response, we propose a new approach to loop pedals that addresses this issue, which is based on an analytical multi-modal representation of the audio input. Instead of simply playing back prerecorded audio, our system enables real-time generation of an audio accompaniment reacting to what is currently being performed by the musician. By combining different modes of performance – e.g. bass line, chords, solo – from the musician and system automatically, solo musicians can perform duets or trios with themselves, without engendering the so-called canned (boringly repetitive and unresponsive) music effect of loop pedals. We describe the technology, based on supervised classification and concatenative synthesis, and then illustrate our approach on solo performances of jazz standards by guitar. We claim this approach opens up new avenues for concert performance.

  • NKPNote: 8D: Interacting with a Relightable Glasses-Free 3D Display
    M. Hirsch (Massachusetts Institute of Technology, USA), S. Izadi, H. Holtzman, R. Raskar
    M. Hirsch (Massachusetts Institute of Technology, USA)S. Izadi (Microsoft Research, UK)H. Holtzman (Massachusetts Institute of Technology, USA)R. Raskar (Massachusetts Institute of Technology, USA)

    We contribute a real-time, relightable, glasses-free 3D display with horizontal and vertical parallax, two interaction scenarios: relightable objects and virtual x-ray, and propose an architecture for future light field interaction devices.Imagine a display that behaves like a window. Glancing through it, viewers perceive a virtual 3D scene with correct parallax, without the need to wear glasses or track the user. Light that passes through the display correctly illuminates both virtual objects on the display and physical objects in the environment. While researchers have considered such displays, or prototyped subsets of these capabilities, we contribute a relightable, interactive display which simultaneously captures a 4D light field and displays a 4D light field. This 8-dimensional display attains a new degree of realism by reacting to incident environmental and user controlled light sources. We demonstrate two interaction techniques enabled by our lens-array-based hardware prototype, and real-time GPU-accelerated software pipeline. Additionally, we present a path to deploying such displays in commodity hardware, using current Sensor-in-Pixel (SIP) LCD panels, which physically collocate sensing and display elements.

343Course C18, unit 1/3

  • CKZC18: Designing with and for Children in the 21st Century: Techniques and Practices
    A. Druin (Univ. of Maryland, USA), J. Fails, M. Guha, G. Walsh
    A. Druin (Univ. of Maryland, USA)J. Fails (Montclair State Univ., USA)M. Guha (Univ. of Maryland, USA)G. Walsh (Univ. of Baltimore, USA)

    This course will offer a balance of traditional lecture and hands-on design activities, and will cover techniques that balance the voices and contributions of adults and children.The CHI community has acknowledged children as important users by featuring a “Child-Computer Interaction” community. This course will offer a balance of traditional lecture and hands-on design activities, and will cover techniques that balance the voices and contributions of adults and children. A version of this course was taught at CHI 2008 through 2012. In CHI 2008 the course received the highest survey ratings of any CHI course and has been rated highly in subsequent years. We welcome and encourage attendance by industry professionals, academics, and students from a wide variety of communities. No prior experience is necessary. This course features a historical overview of co-designing with children, an overview of child development in relation to technology design, hands-on experiences using techniques for designing new technologies with and for children, and information about the role of the adult in co-design processes with children and practical issues of beginning a co-design team. The presentation includes hands-on design activities, small and whole-group discussion, short presentations with slides and video. Allison Druin is a Professor at the University of Maryland’s HCIL. Since 1998, she has led interdisciplinary, intergenerational research teams to create new technologies for children. (http://www.umiacs.umd.edu/~allisond/). Jerry Alan Fails is an Assistant Professor in Montclair State University’s Department of Computer Science. He has been working with children to design new technologies since 2003. His current focus is on technologies that support children and families. (http://hci.montclair.edu/fails/). Mona Leigh Guha is a Research Associate at the University of Maryland’s HCIL. Since 2002, she has focused on the impacts of technology design processes on children who participate in them. Greg Walsh is an Assistant Professor in the University of Baltimore’s Division of Science, Information Arts and Technologies. He focuses on creating new design techniques that include more voices in the design process. (http://research.gregwalsh.com/)

362/363Special Interest Group

  • GLXHCI for Peace Ideathon
    J. Hourcade (Univ. of Iowa, USA), L. Nathan, P. Zaphiris, M. Zancanaro, E. Kapros, J. Thomas, D. Busse
    J. Hourcade (Univ. of Iowa, USA)L. Nathan (Univ. of British Columbia, CA)P. Zaphiris (Cyprus Univ. of Technology, CY)M. Zancanaro (FBK-irst, IT)E. Kapros (Trinity College, The Univ. of Dublin, IE)J. Thomas (IBM T. J. Watson Research , USA)D. Busse (Samsung, USA)

    Computers are increasingly mediating the way people make decisions, including those that can have an effect on conflict and peace. In addition, recent research provides empirical data on the factors that affect the likelihood of armed conflict. These conditions provide an unprecedented opportunity to the human-computer interaction community to play a role in preventing, de-escalating, and recovering from conflicts. This SIG will be the first opportunity for CHI attendees to meet during the main part of the conference, share their ideas, and provide concrete ways to move forward with this line of research.

HavanePapers: Engagement

SKKSession chair: Eva Hornecker
  • PTJPaper: Exploring the Effects of Space and Place on Engagement with an Interactive Installation
    I. Akpan (Univ. College London, UK), P. Marshall, J. Bird, D. Harrison
    I. Akpan (Univ. College London, UK)P. Marshall (Univ. College London, UK)J. Bird (Univ. College London, UK)D. Harrison (Univ. College London, UK)

    We studied how people engaged with the same interactive installation in ten situations with varying spatial and social properties. The main finding across these studies is that place trumps spaceVery little research has concurrently explored the influence of both physical space and social context (or place) on the way people engage with a public interactive display. We addressed this issue with a novel approach: studying how people engaged with the same interactive installation in ten situations with varying spatial and social properties. The main finding across these studies is that place trumps space: a conducive social context could overcome a poor physical space and encourage interaction; conversely, an inappropriate social context could inhibit interaction in spaces that might normally facilitate engagement. We discuss this finding in terms of the salience of the display within the space, the visibility of incidental interactions with the installation, the different understandings of place that people can have in the same location and the role of emergent champions and comperes in encouraging interaction.

  • PQCPaper: Focused and Casual Interactions: Allowing Users to Vary Their Level of Engagement
    H. Pohl (Univ. of Hanover, DE), R. Murray-Smith
    H. Pohl (Univ. of Hanover, DE)R. Murray-Smith (Univ. of Glasgow, UK)

    Investigates how to enable users to vary their engagement in interactions, allowing them to use casual interactions for less precision but also with less effort when e.g. tired or busy.We describe the focused-casual continuum, a framework for describing interaction techniques according to the degree to which they allow users to adapt how much attention and effort they choose to invest in an interaction conditioned on their current situation. Casual interactions are particularly appropriate in scenarios where full engagement with devices is frowned upon socially, is unsafe, physically challenging or too mentally taxing. Novel sensing approaches which go beyond direct touch enable wider use of casual interactions, which will often be ‘around device’ interactions. We consider the degree to which previous commercial products and research prototypes can be considered as fitting the focused–casual framework, and describe the properties using control theoretic concepts. In an experimental study we observe that users naturally apply more precise and more highly engaged interaction techniques when faced with a more challenging task and use more relaxed gestures in easier tasks.

  • PEDPaper: Designing Engagement-aware Agents for Multiparty Conversations
    Q. Xu (Institute for Infocomm Research, A*STAR, SG), L. Li, G. Wang
    Q. Xu (Institute for Infocomm Research, A*STAR, SG)L. Li (Institute for Infocomm Research, ASTAR, SG)G. Wang (Institute for Infocomm Research, ASTAR, SG)

    Presents quantitative methods to evaluate users’ engagement state and intentions from visual cues. Can assist the design of conversational agents for multiparty dialog in the public space.Recognizing users’ engagement state and intentions is a pressing task for computational agents to facilitate fluid conversations in situated interactions. We investigate how to quantitatively evaluate high-level user engagement and intentions based on low-level visual cues, and how to design engagement-aware behaviors for the conversational agents to behave in a sociable manner. Drawing on machine learning techniques, we propose two computational models to quantify users’ attention saliency and engagement intentions. Their performances are validated by a close match between the predicted values and the ground truth annotation data. Next, we design a novel engagement-aware behavior model for the agent to adjust its direction of attention and manage the conversational floor based on the estimated users’ engagement. In a user study, we evaluated the agent’s behaviors in a multiparty dialog scenario. The results show that the agent’s engagement-aware behaviors significantly improved the effectiveness of communication and positively affected users’ experience.

  • PQKPaper: Ownership and Control of Point of View in Remote Assistance
    J. Lanir (Univ. of Haifa, IL), R. Stone, B. Cohen, P. Gurevich
    J. Lanir (Univ. of Haifa, IL)R. Stone (IBM Research, IL)B. Cohen (IBM Research, IL)P. Gurevich (IBM Research, IL)

    This work investigates user performance and behavior related to the issue of who controls the point of view of a gesturing device in a remote assistance scenarioIn this paper we investigate user performance and user behavior, related to the issue of who controls the point of view in a remote assistance scenario. We describe an experiment that examined users completing two different tasks with the aid of a remote gesturing device under two conditions: when control of the camera and gesturing point of view was in the hands of the remote helper, and when it was in the hands of the worker. Results indicate that in general, when most of the knowledge is with the helper, it is preferable to leave control in the hands of the helper. However, these results may depend on the situation and task at hand.

351Papers: Knowledge Managment

SCTSession chair: Volker Wulf
  • PCFPaper: Effects of Peer Feedback on Contribution: A Field Experiment in Wikipedia
    H. Zhu (Carnegie Mellon Univ., USA), A. Zhang, J. He, R. Kraut, A. Kittur
    H. Zhu (Carnegie Mellon Univ., USA)A. ZhangJ. He (Carnegie Mellon Univ., USA)R. Kraut (Carnegie Mellon Univ., USA)A. Kittur (Carnegie Mellon Univ., USA)

    The paper furthers our understanding of the effects of peer feedback in online communities and provides practical guidance to design more effective peer feedback systems.One of the most significant challenges for many online communities is increasing members’ contributions over time. Prior studies on peer feedback in online communities have suggested its impact on contribution, but have been limited by their correlational nature. In this paper, we conducted a field experiment on Wikipedia to test the effects of different feedback types (positive feedback, negative feedback, directive feedback, and social feedback) on members’ contribution. Our results characterize the effects of different feedback types, and suggest trade-offs in the effects of feedback between the focal task and general motivation, as well as differences in how newcomers and experienced editors respond to peer feedback. This research provides insights into the mechanisms underlying peer feedback in online communities and practical guidance to design more effective peer feedback systems.

  • PQDPaper: Activity-Centric Support for Ad Hoc Knowledge Work – A Case Study of co-Activity Manager
    S. Houben (IT Univ. of Copenhagen, DK), J. Bardram, J. Vermeulen, K. Luyten, K. Coninx
    S. Houben (IT Univ. of Copenhagen, DK)J. Bardram (IT Univ. of Copenhagen, DK)J. Vermeulen (Hasselt Univ. – tUL – iMinds, BE)K. Luyten (Hasselt Univ. – tUL – iMinds, BE)K. Coninx (Hasselt Univ. – tUL – iMinds, BE)

    The core contribution of this paper is the design of a desktop manager that supports personal and collaborative activity-centric workflows with integrated activity-centric collaboration and interruption management tools.Modern knowledge work consists of both individual and highly collaborative activities that are typically composed of a number of configuration, coordination and articulation processes. The desktop interface today, however, provides very little support for these processes and rather forces knowledge workers to adapt to the technology. We introduce co-Activity Manager, an activity-centric desktop system that (i) provides tools for ad hoc dynamic configuration of a desktop working context, (ii) supports both explicit and implicit articulation of ongoing work through a built-in collaboration manager and (iii) provides the means to coordinate and share working context with other users and devices. In this paper, we discuss the activity theory informed design of co-Activity Manager and report on a 14 day field deployment in a multi-disciplinary software development team. The study showed that the activity-centric workspace supports different individual and collaborative work configuration practices and that activity-centric collaboration is a two-phase process consisting of an activity sharing and per-activity coordination phase.

  • PPMPaper: Turbulence in the Clouds: Challenges of Cloud-Based Information Work
    A. Voida (Univeristy of California, Irvine, USA), J. Olson, G. Olson
    A. Voida (Univeristy of California, Irvine, USA)J. Olson (Univ. of California, Irvine, USA)G. Olson (Univ. of California, Irvine, USA)

    Presents results of a qualitative study of information management in the cloud. Describes challenges that will be relevant to designers involved with both cloud-based services and federated identity management.We report on a qualitative study of the user experience of cloud-based information work. We characterize the information work practices and challenges that exist largely at the different intersections of three constructs—cloud-based services, collaborations, and digital identifiers. We also demonstrate how the misalignment of these three constructs is experienced as a “losing battle” that has led to miscommunication among collaborators, the abandonment of cloud-based services, and the irreparable blurring of digital identities.

  • NNCNote: Factors Impacting Community Response in an Interest-Sharing Network
    I. Howley (Carnegie Mellon Univ., USA), T. Newman
    I. Howley (Carnegie Mellon Univ., USA)T. Newman (Microsoft Research, USA)

    This study looks at archival data from a new interest-sharing network, So.cl, in order to better understand what user-shared content receives most interaction from others in the community. The arrival of a new interest-sharing network, So.cl, provides for a new opportunity to explore human behavior as it relates to constructing public contributions and receiving community response. This study looks at archival data in order to better understand how types of shared content receive interaction from others. The results suggest that a So.cl user should include more photos and less links on their post to increase the quantity of likes and comments the community gives to the post, among other discoveries.

  • NKNNote: Using an Open Card Sort with Children to Categorize Games in a Mobile Phone Application Store
    B. Cassidy (Univ. of Central Lancashire, UK), D. Antani, J. Read
    B. Cassidy (Univ. of Central Lancashire, UK)D. Antani (Univ. of Central Lancashire, UK)J. Read (Univ. of Central Lancashire, UK)

    The paper found that when compared with existing categories, children chose categories more aligned to a games goals/aims rather than the more abstract categories currently found in app stores.This paper presents a study aimed at better understanding how children categorize different games. The paper reports the results of an open card sort where participants were asked to categorize games from the Google Play Store (formerly the ‘Android Marketplace’). The key contribution of the paper is that when compared with existing categories in the Google Play Store, children used categorization criteria much more aligned to the goals of the game rather than more abstract categories currently found in mobile phone application stores. The paper provides examples of existing categories that are not generally used by children and provides new examples of categorization criteria that are used by children to categorize existing games.

352ABPapers: Touch Interaction

SFRSession chair: Emmanuel Pietriga
  • PCSPaper: How Fast is Fast Enough? A Study of the Effects of Latency in Direct-Touch Pointing Tasks
    R. Jota (Univ. of Toronto, CA), A. Ng, P. Dietz, D. Wigdor
    R. Jota (Univ. of Toronto, CA)A. Ng (Microsoft Applied Sciences Group, USA)P. Dietz (Microsoft Applied Sciences Group, USA)D. Wigdor (Univ. of Toronto, CA)

    Further explores the issue of the effects of latency on input performance. We find that, for pointing on direct-touch, even extremely low latencies reduce performance.Although advances in touchscreen technology have provided us with more precise devices, touchscreens are still laden with latency issues. Common commercial devices present with latency up to 125ms. Although these levels have been shown to impact users’ perception of the responsiveness of the system [16], relatively little is known about the impact of latency on the performance of tasks common to direct-touch interfaces, such as direct physical manipulation. In this paper, we study the effect of latency of a directtouch pointing device on dragging tasks. Our tests show that user performance decreases as latency increases. We also find that user performance is more severely affected by latency when targets are smaller or farther away. We present a detailed analysis of users’ coping mechanisms for latency, and present the results of a follow-up study demonstrating user perception of latency in the land-on phase of the dragging task.

  • PCXPaper: TouchViz: A Case Study Comparing Two Interfaces for Data Analytics on Tablets
    S. Drucker (Microsoft Research, USA), D. Fisher, R. Sadana, J. Herron, m. schraefel
    S. Drucker (Microsoft Research, USA)D. Fisher (Microsoft Research, USA)R. Sadana (Georgia Institute of Technology, USA)J. Herron (Microsoft Research, USA)m. schraefel (Univ. of Southampton, UK)

    Two different design approaches to touch based data analytics and an evaluation of relative advantages and benefits thereof.As more applications move from the desktop to touch devices like tablets, designers must wrestle with the costs of porting a design with as little revision of the UI as possible from one device to the other, or of optimizing the interaction per device. We consider the tradeoffs between two versions of a UI for working with data on a touch tablet. One interface is based on using the conventional desktop metaphor (WIMP) with a control panel, push buttons, and checkboxes – where the mouse click is effectively replaced by a finger tap. The other interface (which we call FLUID) eliminates the control panel and focuses touch actions on the data visualization itself. We describe our design process and evaluation of each interface. We discuss the significantly better task performance and preference for the FLUID interface, in particular how touch design may challenge certain assumptions about the performance benefits of WIMP interfaces that do not hold on touch devices, such as the superiority of gestural vs. control panel based interaction.

  • PRLPaper: W3Touch: Metrics-based Web Page Adaptation for Touch
    M. Nebeling (ETH Zurich, CH), M. Speicher, M. Norrie
    M. Nebeling (ETH Zurich, CH)M. Speicher (ETH Zurich, CH)M. Norrie (ETH Zurich, CH)

    W3Touch contributes a new method of adapting user interfaces for touch interaction, supporting automation based on usability metrics and the evidence of interaction problems on different forms of touch devices.Web designers currently face the increased proliferation and diversity of new touch devices which pose major challenges to the design task. This paper presents W3Touch–an interface instrumentation toolkit for web designers to collect user performance data for different device characteristics in order to help them identify potential design problems for touch interaction. Web designers can visualise the data aggregated by W3Touch and use simple metrics to automate the adaptation process for many different viewing and interaction contexts. In a series of experiments with web designers and users, we show that W3Touch is able to detect interaction problems that are hard to find using conventional methods and demonstrate how the tool was successfully used to automate the desktop-to-mobile migration of Wikipedia as an example.

  • NSDNote: FlashTouch: Data Communication through Touchscreens
    M. Ogata (Keio Univ., JP), Y. Sugiura, H. Osawa, M. Imai
    M. Ogata (Keio Univ., JP)Y. Sugiura (Keio Univ., JP)H. Osawa (Keio Univ., JP)M. Imai (Keio Univ., JP)

    FlashTouch is a new technology that enables data communication between touchscreen-based mobile devices and digital peripheral devices using visible light and capacitive touch.FlashTouch is a new technology that enables data communication between touchscreen-based mobile devices and digital peripheral devices. Touchscreen can be used as communication media using visible light and capacitive touch. In this paper, we designed a stylus prototype to describe the concept of FlashTouch. With this prototype, users can easily transfer data from one mobile device to another. It eliminates the complexity associated with data sharing among mobile users, which is currently achieved by online data sharing services or wireless connections for data sharing that need a pairing operation to establish connections between devices. Therefore, it can prove to be of particular significance to people who are not adept at current software services and hardware functions. Finally, we demonstrate the valuable applications in online settlements via mobile device, and data communication for mobile robots.

  • NNLNote: Augmented Letters: Mnemonic Gesture-Based Shortcuts
    Q. Roy (CNRS LTCI UMR 5141, FR), S. Malacria, Y. Guiard, E. Lecolinet, J. Eagan
    Q. Roy (CNRS LTCI UMR 5141, FR)S. Malacria (Univ. of Canterbury, NZ)Y. Guiard (Telecom ParisTech – CNRS LTCI UMR 5141, FR)E. Lecolinet (Telecom ParisTech, FR)J. Eagan (Telecom ParisTech – CNRS LTCI UMR 5141 , FR)

    Appending a tail to the first letter of a command: Augmented Letters allows users to memorize larger command shortcut vocabularies than Marking Menus, with no overall speed cost.We propose Augmented Letters, a new technique aimed at augmenting gesture-based techniques such as Marking Menus by giving them natural, mnemonic associations. Augmented Letters gestures consist of the initial of command names, sketched by hand in the Unistroke style, and affixed with a straight tail. We designed a tentative touch device interaction technique that supports fast interactions with large sets of commands, is easily discoverable, improves user’s recall at no speed cost, and supports fluid transition from novice to expert mode. An experiment suggests that Augmented Letters outperform Marking Menu in terms of user recall.

221/221MLast-minute SIGs: Session 8

Wednesday – 11:00-12:20

BluePapers: Data Navigation

SNRSession chair: Andrea Bunt
  • PSFPaper: Improving Navigation-Based File Retrieval
    S. Fitchett (Univ. of Canterbury, NZ), A. Cockburn, C. Gutwin
    S. Fitchett (Univ. of Canterbury, NZ)A. Cockburn (Univ. of Canterbury, NZ)C. Gutwin (Univ. of Saskatchewan, CA)

    Introduces three interfaces to improve navigation-based file retrieval. Empirical studies show they are subjectively preferred and decrease retrieval times for both new and revisited items.Navigating through a file hierarchy is one of the most common methods for accessing files, yet it can be slow and repetitive. New algorithms that predict upcoming file accesses have the potential to improve navigation-based file retrieval, but it is unknown how best to present their predictions to users. We present three design goals aiming to improve navigation-based file retrieval interfaces: minimise the time spent at each hierarchical level en route to the target file; reduce the number of levels traversed by providing shortcuts; and promote rehearsal of the retrieval mechanics to facilitate expertise. We introduce three interfaces that augment standard file browsers based on each of these goals: Icon Highlights give greater prominence to predicted items in the current folder; Hover Menus provide shortcuts to predicted folder content; and Search Directed Navigation uses predictive highlighting to guide users through the hierarchy in response to query terms. Results from a user evaluation show that all three interfaces improve file retrieval times, with Icon Highlights and Hover Menus best suited for frequently accessed items and Search Directed Navigation best suited for infrequent ones. We also show that the benefits are larger when folder content is spatially unstable. Finally, we discuss how the interfaces could be combined and deployed in existing file browsers.

  • PDDPaper: Carpe ́ Data: Supporting Serendipitous Data Integration in Personal Information Management
    M. Van Kleek (Univ. of Southampton, UK), D. Smith, H. Packer, J. Skinner, N. Shadbolt
    M. Van Kleek (Univ. of Southampton, UK)D. Smith (Univ. of Southampton, UK)H. Packer (Univ. of Southampton, UK)J. Skinner (Univ. of Southampton, UK)N. Shadbolt (Univ. of Southampton, UK)

    This paper focuses on the problem of user-driven data integration on the Web, with the objective of enabling end-users to use the emerging ecosystems of structured data APIs and feeds.The information processing capabilities of humans enable them to opportunistically draw and integrate knowledge from nearly any information source. However, the integration of digital, structured data from diverse sources remains difficult, due to problems of heterogeneity that arise when data modelled separately are brought together. In this paper, we present an investigation of the feasibility of extending Personal Information Management (PIM) tools to support lightweight, user-driven mixing of previously un-integrated data, with the objective of allowing users to take advantage of the emerging ecosystems of structured data currently becoming available. In this study, we conducted an exploratory, sequential, mixed-method investigation, starting with two pre-studies of the data integration needs and challenges, respectively, of Web-based data sources. Observations from these pre-studies led to DataPalette, an interface that introduced simple co-reference and group multi-path-selection mechanisms for working with terminologically and structurally heterogeneous data. Our lab study showed that participants readily understood the new interaction mechanisms which were introduced. Participants made more carefully justified decisions, even while weighing a greater number of factors, moreover expending less effort, during subjective-choice tasks when using DataPalette, than with a control set-up.

  • PBXPaper: The Challenges of Specifying Intervals and Absences in Temporal Queries: A Graphical Language Approach
    M. Monroe (Univ. of Maryland, USA), R. Lan, J. Morales del Olmo, B. Shneiderman, C. Plaisant, J. Millstein
    M. Monroe (Univ. of Maryland, USA)R. Lan (Univ. of Maryland, USA)J. Morales del Olmo (Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, ES)B. Shneiderman (Univ. of Maryland, USA)C. Plaisant (Univ. of Maryland, USA)J. Millstein (Oracle Corporation, USA)

    Our contributions incude an assessment of the primary user difficulties in specifying queries involving intervals and absences, and two novel temporal query interfaces, designed to offer intuitive access to a wide range of temporal relationships.In our burgeoning world of ubiquitous sensors and affordable data storage, records of timestamped events are being produced across nearly every domain of personal and professional computing. The resulting data surge has created an overarching need to search these records for meaningful patterns of events. This paper reports on a two-part user study, as well as a series of early tests and interviews with clinical researchers, that informed the development of two temporal query interfaces: a basic, menu-based interface and an advanced, graphic-based interface. While the scope of temporal query is very broad, this work focuses on two particularly complex and critical facets of temporal event sequences: intervals (events with both a start time and an end time), and the absence of an event. We describe how users encounter a common set of difficulties when specifying such queries, and propose solutions to help overcome them. Finally, we report on two case studies with epidemiologists at the US Army Pharmacovigilance Center, illustrating how both query interfaces were used to study patterns of drug use.

  • PCBPaper: Beyond the Filter Bubble: Interactive Effects of Perceived Threat and Topic Involvement on Selective Exposure to Information
    Q. Liao (Univ. of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, USA), W. Fu
    Q. Liao (Univ. of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, USA)W. Fu (Univ. of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, USA)

    Investigated whether information bubble can emerge from people’s preferential selection between attitude reinforcing versus attitude challenging information in an online environment, and the roles situational factors and personal factors play.We investigated participants’ preferential selection of information and their attitude moderation in an online environment. Results showed that even when opposing views were presented side-to-side, people would still preferentially select information that reinforced their existing attitudes. Preferential selection of information was, however, influenced by both situational (e.g., perceived threat) and personal (e.g., topic involvement) factors. Specifically, perceived threat induced selective exposure to attitude consistent information for topics that participants had low involvement. Participants had a higher tendency to select peer user opinions in topics that they had low than high involvement, but only when there was no perception of threat. Overall, participants’ attitudes were moderated after being exposed to diverse views, although high topic involvement led to higher resistance to such moderation. Perceived threat also weakened attitude moderation, especially for low involvement topics. Results have important implication to the potential effects of “information bubble” – selective exposure can be induced by situational and personal factors even when competing views are presented side-by-side.

241Panel

  • LFBDigital Arts: Did You Feel That?
    Ernest Edmonds (moderator), Steve Benford, Zafer Bilda, Jill Fantauzzacoffin, Roger Malina, Hughes Vinet
    Ernest Edmonds (moderator)Steve BenfordZafer BildaJill FantauzzacoffinRoger MalinaHughes Vinet

    This panel considers the relationships between the interactive arts, audience engagement and experience design. What might each offer the other? Engagement and experience are central to current HCI thinking. We will present and argue about the research issues of defining and understanding audience/user engagement and experience in the context of art.

242ABPapers: Passwords and Errors

SPTSession chair: Ian Oakley
  • PEYPaper: My Profile Is My Password, Verify Me! The Privacy/Convenience Tradeoff of Facebook Connect
    S. Egelman (Univ. of California, Berkeley, USA)
    S. Egelman (Univ. of California, Berkeley, USA)

    We experimentally measure informed consent across users of Facebook Connect, the most widely-used single sign-on (SSO) implementation, to examine whether users understand they are trading privacy for convenience.We performed a laboratory experiment to study the privacy tradeoff offered by Facebook Connect: disclosing Facebook profile data to third-party websites for the convenience of logging in without creating separate accounts. We controlled for trustworthiness and amount of information each website requested, as well as the consent dialog layout. We discovered that these factors had no observable effects, likely because participants did not read the dialogs. Yet, 15% still refused to use Facebook Connect, citing privacy concerns. A likely explanation for subjects ignoring the dialogs while also understanding the privacy tradeoff—our exit survey indicated that 88% broadly understood what data would be collected—is that subjects were already familiar with the dialogs prior to the experiment. We discuss how our results demonstrate informed consent, but also how habituation prevented subjects from understanding the nuances between individual websites’ data collection policies.

  • PDGPaper: Does My Password Go up to Eleven? The Impact of Password Meters on Password Selection
    S. Egelman (Univ. of California, Berkeley, USA), A. Sotirakopoulos, I. Muslukhov, K. Beznosov, C. Herley
    S. Egelman (Univ. of California, Berkeley, USA)A. Sotirakopoulos (Univ. of British Columbia, CA)I. MuslukhovK. Beznosov (Univ. of British Columbia, CA)C. Herley (Microsoft Research, USA)

    We show that password meters result in stronger passwords during changes to “important” accounts, whereas they do not have an observable effect when users create new passwords for “unimportant” accounts.Password meters tell users whether their passwords are “weak” or “strong.” We performed a laboratory experiment to examine whether these meters influenced users’ password selections when they were forced to change their real passwords, and when they were not told that their passwords were the subject of a study. We observed that the presence of meters yielded significantly stronger passwords. We performed a followup field experiment to test a different scenario: creating a password for an unimportant account. In this scenario, we found that the meters made no observable difference: participants simply reused weak passwords that they used to protect similar low-risk accounts. We conclude that meters result in stronger passwords when users are forced to change existing passwords on “important” accounts and that individual meter design decisions likely have a marginal impact.

  • PRVPaper: Back-of-Device Authentication on Smartphones
    A. De Luca (Univ. of Munich (LMU), DE), E. von Zezschwitz, N. Nguyen, M. Maurer, E. Rubegni, M. Scipioni, M. Langheinrich
    A. De Luca (Univ. of Munich (LMU), DE)E. von Zezschwitz (Univ. of Munich (LMU), DE)N. Nguyen (Univ. of Munich (LMU), DE)M. Maurer (Univ. of Munich (LMU), DE)E. Rubegni (Univ. of Lugano, CH)M. Scipioni (Univ. of Lugano, CH)M. Langheinrich (Univ. of Lugano, CH)

    Presents a system that uses gestures on the back of a mobile device to authenticate. Shoulder surfing resistance is significantly improved while remaining reasonably fast and easy to use.This paper presents BoD Shapes, a novel authentication method for smartphones that uses the back of the device for input. We argue that this increases the resistance to shoulder surfing while remaining reasonably fast and easy-to-use. We performed a user study (n=24) comparing BoD Shapes to PIN authentication, Android grid unlock, and a front version of our system. Testing a front version allowed us to directly compare performance and security measures between front and back authentication. Our results show that BoD Shapes is significantly more secure than the three other approaches. While performance declined, our results show that BoD Shapes can be very fast (up to 1.5 seconds in the user study) and that learning effects have an influence on its performance. This indicates that speed improvements can be expected in long-term use.

  • NRUNote: Using Fake Cursors to Secure On-Screen Password Entry
    A. De Luca (Univ. of Munich (LMU), DE), E. von Zezschwitz, L. Pichler, H. Hussmann
    A. De Luca (Univ. of Munich (LMU), DE)E. von Zezschwitz (Univ. of Munich (LMU), DE)L. Pichler (Univ. of Munich (LMU), DE)H. Hussmann (Univ. of Munich (LMU), DE)

    Presents a system that uses fake cursors to secure password entry on on-screen keyboards. An evaluation of the system shows that shoulder surfing resistance is significantly improved.In this paper, we present a concept using fake cursors to disguise on-screen password entry. We performed two user studies with different amounts of dummy cursors and differently colored cursors. The results show that dummy cursors significantly improve security. At the same time, decrease in performance is kept within an acceptable range. Depending on the required degree of security, the studies favor 8 or 16 differently colored cursors as the best trade-off between security and usability.

  • NTXNote: Using Redundancy to Detect Human Error
    S. Wiseman (Univ. College London, UK), A. Cox, D. Brumby, S. Gould, S. O’Carroll
    S. Wiseman (Univ. College London, UK)A. Cox (Univ. College London, UK)D. Brumby (Univ. College London, UK)S. Gould (Univ. College London, UK)S. O’Carroll (Univ. College London, UK)

    We explore ways in which a checksum may be used to prevent number entry errors. We look at two methods for implementing the system and highlight the benefits of each.Number entry is a common task in many domains. In safety-critical environments such as air traffic control or on hospital wards, incorrect number entry can have serious harmful consequences. Research has investigated how interface designs can help prevent users from making number entry errors. In this paper, we present an experimental evaluation of two possible interface designs aimed at helping users detect number entry errors using the idea of a checksum: an additional (redundant) number that is related to the to-be-entered numbers in such a way that it is sufficient to verify the correctness of the checksum, as opposed to checking each of the entered numbers. The first interface requires users to check their own work with the help of the checksum; the second requires the user to enter the checksum along with the other numbers so that the system can do the checking. In each case, two numbers needed to be entered, while the third number served as a checksum. With the first interface, users caught only 36% of their errors. The second interface resulted in all errors being caught, but the need to enter the checksum increased entry time by 46%. When participants were allowed to choose between the two interfaces, they chose the second interface in only 12% of the cases. Although these results cannot be generalized to other specific contexts, the results illustrate the strengths and weaknesses of each way of using checksums to catch number entry errors. Hence our study can serve as a starting point for efforts to improve each method.

243Course C16, unit 2/2

  • CNSC16: The Past 100 Years of the Future: CHI/HCI/UX in Sci-Fi Movies and Television
    A. Marcus (Aaron Marcus and Associates, Inc., USA)
    A. Marcus (Aaron Marcus and Associates, Inc., USA)

    We examine CHI/HCI/UX in sci-fi movies/television from the last 100 years and consider usability, usefulness, and appeal. Participants will learn how to analyze user-centered design in popular media.The Past 100 Years of the Future: CHI/HCI/UX in Sci-Fi Movies and Television will summarize and analyze the past 100 years of human-computer interaction as incorporated into science-fiction cinema and video, beginning with the advent of movies in the early 1900s (Méliés’ A Trip to the Moon, which was recently referenced in the movie Hugo). For many decades movies have shown technology in advance of its commercialization (for example, video phones and wall-sized television displays, hand-gesture systems, and virtual-reality displays). In some cases mistaken views about what is usable, useful, and appealing seem to be adopted, perhaps because of their benefits to cinematic storytelling. In any case, these media have served as informal “test-beds” for new technologies of human-computer interaction and communication. The course will explore issues of what is futuristic and what is not, gender-role differences, optimism/pessimism, and user-centered design characteristics in more than two dozen films and a half-dozen television shows. Examples from China, India, and Japan also will be referenced. Participants will be informally informally about their recognition/understanding of the media examples shown. Discussion with participants throughout the presentation will be encouraged.

251Special session: Interacting with CHI

Session chair: Wendy Mackay
  • IWCInteracting with CHI
    We have created various technologies for exploring the CHI 2013 program, including video previews, large-screen interactive schedules, the mobile app and even author sourcing the program. Find out how we did this and give us feedback for next year.

252ASpecial session: Student Research Competition

Session chairs: Shaowen Bardzell, Celine Latulipe
  • SRCJury: Geraldine Fitzpatrick, Andrea Forte, Youn-kyung Lim, Janet Read, Jens Riegelsberger, Orit Shaer
    The Student Research Competition (SRC) is a forum for undergraduate and graduate students to showcase their research, exchange ideas, and improve their communication skills while competing for prizes at CHI 2013. Sponsored by Microsoft Research, the CHI SRC competition is a branch of the ACM Student Research Competition which hosts similar competitions at other ACM conferences.

252BCase studies: Novel Settings

SBDSession chair: Elizabeth Dykstra-Erickson
  • YCGCounter Entropy: Visualizing Power Consumption in an Energy+ House
    F. Heller (RWTH Aachen Univ., DE), K. Tsoleridis, J. Borchers
    F. Heller (RWTH Aachen Univ., DE)K. Tsoleridis (RWTH Aachen Univ., DE)J. Borchers (RWTH Aachen Univ., DE)

    This Case Study presents the design and evaluation of a home automation control application that supports easy understanding and analysis of household energy consumption.This case study presents the design and evaluation of an end-user energy consumption display for an energy+ house. The goal of our application is to give an easy overview over the power balance and to provide the user with the necessary information to understand specific consumption patterns. We defined the unit of Counter Entropy points and used it to create several visualizations showing the consumption of appliances, climate control, and lighting. Our evaluation showed that users easily understand where the currently consumed power is sourced and which factors influence the overall power consumption.

  • YGUBiometric Interaction – a Case Study of Visual Feedback and Privacy Issues in New Face Recognition Solutions
    P. Kvarnbrink (Umea Univ., SE), K. Fahlquist, T. Mejtoft
    P. Kvarnbrink (Umea Univ., SE)K. Fahlquist (Umea Univ., SE)T. Mejtoft (Umea Univ., SE)

    This study brings a face recognition algorithm into a real-life gate system at an indoor training facility. The goal was to make the system efficient, easy to use and friendly.This case study describes how to convert a gate system from using magnetic keycards to face recognition. The gate is placed at one of Europe’s biggest indoor training facilities, IKSU. The goal with this case study was to make the system efficient, easy to use and friendly.

  • YDKA Software Development Methodology for Sustainable ICTD Solutions
    J. Doerflinger (SAP Research, DE), A. Dearden, T. Gross
    J. Doerflinger (SAP Research, DE)A. Dearden (Sheffield Hallam Univ., UK)T. Gross (Univ. of Bamberg, DE)

    Case study describing development of a software development methodology that supports development of sustainable and scalable long-term ICTD solutions. Can assist ICTD software development projects. Information and Communication Technology continue to be increasingly used in social development and poverty alleviation projects, known as Information and Communication Technology for Development (ICTD) projects. However, most interventions either fail completely as a result of attempting to use inappropriate software development approaches and technology concepts in the different ICTD context or they only execute small scale prototypes without positive long-term social impact. We present a case study on how we combined and adapted, using an iterative action research refinement approach, established interaction design methods into a software development methodology supporting scalable long-term ICTD software projects: the Technical ICTD Methodology (TIM). Our case study is based on the experiences of a series of ICTD projects executed within a major software corporation over a period of more than five years.

  • YUEWhat Should I Read Next? Awareness of Relevant Publications Through a Community of Practice
    G. Parra (KU Leuven – Univ. of Leuven, BE), J. Klerkx, E. Duval
    G. Parra (KU Leuven – Univ. of Leuven, BE)J. Klerkx (KU Leuven – Univ. of Leuven, BE)E. Duval (KU Leuven – Univ. of Leuven, BE)

    This case study presents the design and findings of TiNYARM, a Science 2.0 tool that enables researchers to share and suggest reading activities with their peers.Due to the dramatic growth in the number of scientific publications, evaluating what is more or less relevant to read (and why) is becoming a more challenging task. This case study presents the design and findings of TiNYARM, a Science 2.0 tool that enables researchers to share and suggest reading activities with their peers. Social Awareness Streams, Personal Information Management and Gamification concepts are applied in order to generate awareness and engage users.

253Course C17, unit 2/2

  • CHGC17: Interactive Walking in Virtual Environments
    F. Steinicke (DE), Y. Visell, J. Campos, A. Lécuyer
    F. Steinicke (DE)Y. Visell (McGill Univ., CA)J. Campos (Toronto Rehab, CA)A. Lécuyer (INRIA, FR)

    In this course we will present an overview about interactive locomotion interfaces for computer generated virtual environments using state-of-the-art technology and approaches.In recent years many advances have enabled users to more and more naturally navigate large-scale graphical worlds. The entertainment industry is increasingly providing visual and body-based cues to their users to increase the naturalness of their navigational experience. However, so far none of the existing solutions fully supports the most natural ways of locomotion through virtual worlds, and thus techniques and technologies have to be considered, which take advantage of insights into human perceptual sensitivity. In this context, by far the most natural way to move through the real world is via a full body experience where we receive sensory stimulation to all of our senses, i.e., when walking, running, biking or driving. With some exciting technological advances, people are now beginning to get this same full body sensory experience when navigating computer generated three-dimensional environments. Enabling such an active and dynamic ability to navigate through large-scale virtual scenes is of great interest for many interactive 3D applications demanding locomotion, such as video games, edutainment, simulation, rehabilitation, military, tourism or architecture. In this course we will present an overview about the development of interactive locomotion interfaces for computer generated virtual environments ranging from desktop-based camera manipulations simulating walking, and different walking metaphors for the entertainment to state-of-the-art hardware-based solutions that enable omni-directional and unlimited real locomotion through virtual worlds. As the computer graphics industry advances towards increasingly more natural interaction, human-computer interaction researchers and professionals will benefit from this course by increasing their understanding of human perception and how this knowledge can be applied to enable the most natural interaction technique of all, i.e., navigating through the world by walking.

BordeauxPapers: Social Tagging

SNNSession chair: Margot Brereton
  • PMNPaper: All the News that’s Fit to Read: A Study of Social Annotations for News Reading
    C. Kulkarni (Stanford Univ., USA), E. Chi
    C. Kulkarni (Stanford Univ., USA)E. Chi (Google, Inc., USA)

    Compares annotations for news in logged-in and logged-out contexts. When logged-out, annotations by companies are persuasive, but by strangers aren’t. When logged-in, friend annotations are persuasive and improve satisfaction.As news reading becomes more social, how do different types of annotations affect people’s selection of news articles? This paper reports on results from two experiments looking at social annotations in two different news reading contexts. The first experiment simulates a logged-out experience with annotations from strangers, a computer agent, and a branded company. Results indicate that, perhaps unsurprisingly, annotations by strangers have no persuasive effects. However, surprisingly, unknown branded companies still had a persuasive effect. The second experiment simulates a logged-in experience with annotations from friends, finding that friend annotations are both persuasive and improve user satisfaction over their article selections. In post-experiment interviews, we found that this increased satisfaction is due partly because of the context that annotations add. That is, friend annotations both help people decide what to read, and provide social context that improves engagement. Interviews also suggest subtle expertise effects. We discuss implications for design of social annotation systems and suggestions for future research.

  • PEPPaper: “Shared Joy is Double Joy”: The Social Practices of User Networks Within Group Shopping Sites
    S. Hillman (Simon Fraser Univ., CA), C. Neustaedter, C. Pang, E. Oduor
    S. Hillman (Simon Fraser Univ., CA)C. Neustaedter (Simon Fraser Univ., CA)C. Pang (Simon Fraser Univ., CA)E. Oduor (Simon Fraser Univ., CA)

    eCommerce has transformed with the emergence of social, apps and mobile. One emerging area is group shopping sites. We investigate these users’ routines, sharing networks, purpose and chosen mediums.Group shopping sites are beginning to rise in popularity amongst eCommerce users. Yet we do not know how or why people are using such sites, and whether or not the design of group shopping sites map to the real shopping needs of end users. To address this, we describe an interview study that investigates the friendship networks of people who participate in group shopping sites (e.g., Groupon) with the goal of understanding how to best design for these experiences. Our results show that group shopping sites are predominently used to support social activities; that is, users do not use them first and foremost to find ‘deals.’ Instead, group shopping sites are used for planning group activities, extending and building friendships, and constructing one’s social identity. Based on these findings, we suggest improved social network integration and impression management tools to improve user experience within group shopping sites.

  • PDMPaper: “I Need to Try This!”: A Statistical Overview of Pinterest
    E. Gilbert (Georgia Institute of Technology, USA), S. Bakhshi, S. Chang, L. Terveen
    E. Gilbert (Georgia Institute of Technology, USA)S. Bakhshi (Georgia Institute of Technology, USA)S. Chang (Univ. of Minnesota, USA)L. Terveen (Univ. of Minnesota, USA)

    We use a quantitative approach to study activity, gender and distinctiveness on Pinterest. This work serves as an early snapshot of Pinterest that later work can leverage.Over the past decade, social network sites have become ubiquitous places for people to maintain relationships, as well as loci of intense research interest. Recently, a new site has exploded into prominence: Pinterest became the fastest social network to reach 10M users, growing 4000% in 2011 alone. While many Pinterest articles have appeared in the popular press, there has been little scholarly work so far. In this paper, we use a quantitative approach to study three research questions about the site. What drives activity on Pinterest? What role does gender play in the site’s social connections? And finally, what distinguishes Pinterest from existing networks, in particular Twitter? In short, we find that being female means more repins, but fewer followers, and that four verbs set Pinterest apart from Twitter: use, look, want and need. This work serves as an early snapshot of Pinterest that later work can leverage.

  • TNGTOCHI: Beyond Recommendations: Local Review Websites and Their Impact
    B. Brown (Mobile Life @ Stockholm Univ., SE)
    B. Brown (Mobile Life @ Stockholm Univ., SE)

    Study of how reviews are used on the Yelp and Tripadvisor websites, develops new implications for recommendation systems.Online review websites have enabled new interactions between companies and their customers. In this paper we draw on interviews with users, reviewers, and establishments to explore how local review websites can change interactions around local places. Review websites such as Yelp and Tripadvisor allow customers to ‘pre-visit’ establishments and areas of a city before an actual visit. The collection of a large numbers of user generated reviews has also created a new genre of writing – with reviewers gaining considerable pleasure from passing on word-of-mouth and influencing others’ choices. Reviews also offer a new channel of communication between establishments, customers and competitors. We discuss how review websites can be designed to cater for a broader range of interactions around reviews beyond a focus on recommendations.

342APapers: Food and Health

SMZSession chair: Katherine Isbister
  • PSPPaper: I am What I Eat: Identity & Critical Thinking in an Online Health Forum for Kids
    A. Parker (Northeastern Univ., USA), I. McClendon, C. Grevet, V. Ayo, W. Chung, V. Johnson, E. Mynatt
    A. Parker (Northeastern Univ., USA)I. McClendon (Georgia Institute of Technology, USA)C. Grevet (Georgia Institute of Technology, USA)V. Ayo (Georgia Institute of Technology, USA)W. Chung (Georgia Institute of Technology, USA)V. Johnson (Emory Univ., USA)E. Mynatt (Georgia Institute of Technology, USA)

    We discuss the design and evaluation of an online forum—TalkBack—that encourages children to critically analyze the messaging in food advertisements and their attitudes towards marketed foods. As kids encounter food advertisements, it is important that they be able to critically evaluate the message’s claims, the healthiness of the promoted product and their desire for it. To explore how technology might help kids develop these skills, we created an online forum called TalkBack that encourages children to critically analyze the messaging in food ads and their attitudes towards marketed foods. We evaluated TalkBack with twenty-eight middle school students in a summer camp program. We discuss how participants appeared to project and protect their sense of self through their interaction with TalkBack. We also describe the limited analytic depth of their forum contributions and suggest directions for HCI research that attempts to encourage critical thinking and health promotion in adolescents.

  • PNKPaper: Domestic Food and Sustainable Design: A Study of University Student Cooking and its Impacts
    A. Clear (Lancaster Univ., UK), M. Hazas, J. Morley, A. Friday, O. Bates
    A. Clear (Lancaster Univ., UK)M. Hazas (Lancaster Univ., UK)J. Morley (Lancaster Univ., UK)A. Friday (Lancaster Univ., UK)O. Bates (Lancaster Univ., UK)

    523 meals over 21 days: 705 kg carbon, 325 kWh of electricity. Interviews, cameras and power meters reveal food’s impacts, situated within everyday life. Come ponder the sustainable design challenges.In four university student kitchens over twenty-one days, we captured participants’ food preparation activity, quantified the greenhouse gas emissions and direct energy connected to the food and cooking, and talked to participants about their food practices. Grounded in this uniquely detailed micro-account, our findings inform sustainable design for cooking and eating at home and quantify the potential impacts. We outline the relation of the impacts to our participants’ approaches to everyday food preparation, the organisation of their time, and the role of social meals. Our technique allows evaluation of opportunities for sustainable intervention design: at the appliance, in the digitally-mediated organisation of meals and inventory management, and more broadly in reflecting upon and reshaping diet.

  • PASPaper: Food Practices as Situated Action: Exploring and designing for everyday food practices with households
    R. Comber (Newcastle Univ., UK), J. Hoonhout, A. van Halteren, P. Moynihan, P. Olivier
    R. Comber (Newcastle Univ., UK)J. Hoonhout (Philips Research, NL)A. van Halteren (Philips Research, NL)P. Moynihan (Newcastle Univ., UK)P. Olivier (Newcastle Univ., UK)

    This paper describes everyday practices of food shopping, preparation and consumption. The paper contributes design recommendations and rich descriptions of the configuration of food practices.Household food practices are complex. Many people are unable to effectively respond to challenges in their food environment to maintain diets considered to be in line with national and international standards for healthy eating. We argue that recognizing food practices as situated action affords opportunities to identify and design for practiced, local and achievable solutions to such food problems. Interviews and shop-a-longs were carried as part of a contextual inquiry with ten households. From this, we identify food practices, such as fitting food, stocking up, food value transitions, and having fun with others and how these practices are enacted in different ways with varied outcomes. We explore how HCI might respond to these practices through issues of social fooding, the presence of others, conceptions about food practices and food routines.

  • PHDPaper: Tailoring Persuasive Health Games to Gamer Type
    R. Orji (Univ. of Saskatchewan, CA), R. Mandryk, J. Vassileva, K. Gerling
    R. Orji (Univ. of Saskatchewan, CA)R. Mandryk (Univ. of Saskatchewan, CA)J. Vassileva (Univ. of Saskatchewan, CA)K. Gerling (Univ. of Saskatchewan, CA)

    We developed models of the efficacy of different motivators of health behavior. Serious game designers can use our results to tailor their games to different player types, potentially increasing the efficacy of persuasive health gamesPersuasive games are an effective approach for motivating health behavior, and recent years have seen an increase in games designed for changing human behaviors or attitudes. However, these games are limited in two major ways: first, they are not based on theories of what motivates healthy behavior change. This makes it difficult to evaluate why a persuasive approach works. Second, most persuasive games treat players as a monolithic group. As an attempt to resolve these weaknesses, we conducted a large-scale survey of 642 gamers’ eating habits and their associated determinants of healthy behavior to understand how health behavior relates to gamer type. We developed seven different models of healthy eating behavior for the gamer types identified by BrainHex. We then explored the differences between the models and created two approaches for effective persuasive game design based on our results. The first is a one-size-fits-all approach that will motivate the majority of the population, while not demotivating any players. The second is a personalized approach that will best motivate a particular type of gamer. Finally, to make our approaches actionable in persuasive game design, we map common game mechanics to the determinants of healthy behavior.

343Course C18, unit 3/3

  • CKZC18: Designing with and for Children in the 21st Century: Techniques and Practices
    A. Druin (Univ. of Maryland, USA), J. Fails, M. Guha, G. Walsh
    A. Druin (Univ. of Maryland, USA)J. Fails (Montclair State Univ., USA)M. Guha (Univ. of Maryland, USA)G. Walsh (Univ. of Baltimore, USA)

    This course will offer a balance of traditional lecture and hands-on design activities, and will cover techniques that balance the voices and contributions of adults and children.The CHI community has acknowledged children as important users by featuring a “Child-Computer Interaction” community. This course will offer a balance of traditional lecture and hands-on design activities, and will cover techniques that balance the voices and contributions of adults and children. A version of this course was taught at CHI 2008 through 2012. In CHI 2008 the course received the highest survey ratings of any CHI course and has been rated highly in subsequent years. We welcome and encourage attendance by industry professionals, academics, and students from a wide variety of communities. No prior experience is necessary. This course features a historical overview of co-designing with children, an overview of child development in relation to technology design, hands-on experiences using techniques for designing new technologies with and for children, and information about the role of the adult in co-design processes with children and practical issues of beginning a co-design team. The presentation includes hands-on design activities, small and whole-group discussion, short presentations with slides and video. Allison Druin is a Professor at the University of Maryland’s HCIL. Since 1998, she has led interdisciplinary, intergenerational research teams to create new technologies for children. (http://www.umiacs.umd.edu/~allisond/). Jerry Alan Fails is an Assistant Professor in Montclair State University’s Department of Computer Science. He has been working with children to design new technologies since 2003. His current focus is on technologies that support children and families. (http://hci.montclair.edu/fails/). Mona Leigh Guha is a Research Associate at the University of Maryland’s HCIL. Since 2002, she has focused on the impacts of technology design processes on children who participate in them. Greg Walsh is an Assistant Professor in the University of Baltimore’s Division of Science, Information Arts and Technologies. He focuses on creating new design techniques that include more voices in the design process. (http://research.gregwalsh.com/)

361Special Interest Group

  • GZXInvited SIG – HCI: An Asian Perspective
    G. Gweon (KAIST, KR), L. Teo
    G. Gweon (KAIST, KR)L. Teo (Carnegie Mellon Univ., USA)

362/363Special Interest Group

  • GSJOn Top of the User Experience Wave – How is Our Work Changing?
    V. Roto (Aalto Univ., FI), A. Lund
    V. Roto (Aalto Univ., FI)A. Lund (GE Global Research, USA)

    The field of Human-Computer Interaction has evolved over three decades, from human factors and usability to user experience. But what has changed in practice, in the approaches and methods we use? Has anything changed other than the names of the teams within organizations? And what might be coming next? In this SIG, we discuss how the work of HCI professionals has changed over the years and explore the future of their work.

HavanePapers: Mobile Applications

SKDSession chair: Sunny Consolvo
  • PJYPaper: When the Price Is Right: Enabling Time-Dependent Pricing of Broadband Data
    S. Sen (Princeton Univ., USA), C. Joe-Wong, S. Ha, J. Bawa, M. Chiang
    S. Sen (Princeton Univ., USA)C. Joe-Wong (Princeton Univ., USA)S. Ha (Princeton Univ., USA)J. Bawa (Princeton Univ., USA)M. Chiang (Princeton Univ., USA)

    We study economics and user behavior jointly within HCI and report on qualitative findings from a trial of time-dependent pricing for mobile data to help reduce network congestion.In an era of 108% annual growth in demand for mobile data and $10/GB overage fees, Internet Service Providers (ISPs) are experiencing severe congestion and in turn are hurting consumers with aggressive pricing measures. But smarter practices, such as time-dependent pricing (TDP), reward users for shifting their non-critical demand to off-peak hours and can potentially benefit both users and ISPs. Although dynamic TDP ideas have existed for many years, dynamic pricing for mobile data is only now gaining interest among ISPs. Yet TDP plans require not only systems engineering but also an understanding of economic incentives, user behavior and interface design. In particular, the HCI aspects of communicating price feedback signals from the network and the response of mobile data users need to be studied in the real world. But investigating these issues by deploying a virtual TDP data plan for real ISP customers is challenging and rarely explored. To this end, we carried out the first TDP trial for mobile data in the US with 10 families. We describe the insights gained from the trial, which can help the HCI community as well as ISPs, app developers and designers create tools that empower users to better control their usage and save on their monthly bills, while also alleviating network congestion.

  • PEFPaper: Mobile Advertising: Evaluating the Effects of Animation, User and Content Relevance
    M. de Sa (Facebook, Inc., USA), V. Navalpakkam, E. Churchill
    M. de Sa (Facebook, Inc., USA)V. Navalpakkam (Google, Inc., USA)E. Churchill (eBay Research Lab, USA)

    Study on animation, user and content relevance on mobile ads. Results indicate personal relevance leads to better experiences, content relevance to better ad recall and blinking animation affects user experience.The potential for user-relevant, context-appropriate, targeted advertising on mobile devices is enormous given device improvements and advances in personal and location-based data collection. However, little is known about how users experience display advertisements (‘ads’) on mobile devices, or what factors drive mobile ad effectiveness. In this paper, we investigate users’ experiences of display advertising on mobile devices. We consider three factors that are often studied in desktop settings –the ad’s level of personal relevance to the user, its relevance to the page content, and within-ad properties, with a particular focus on the level of animation in the ad. Our findings reveal a few surprises. First, personal relevance to the user has little or no impact on ad efficacy measured by recall. Instead, content relevance boosts ad recall. Second, user relevance leads to a more pleasant and interesting experience, but content relevance has no effect. Third, contrary to the popular notion that animation often leads to more effective ads by garnering more user attention, we find that a simple type of animation, such as blinking animation, negatively affects user experience and reduces ad recall. Our findings, while focused on advertising, offer insights for design of mobile content presentation in general.

  • TTZTOCHI: Enriching Archaeological Parks with Contextual Sounds and Mobile Technology
    C. Ardito (Univ. of Bari, IT), M. Costabile, A. De Angeli, R. Lanzilotti
    C. Ardito (Univ. of Bari, IT)M. Costabile (Univ. of Bari, IT)A. De Angeli (Univ. of Trento, IT)R. Lanzilotti (Univ. of Bari, IT)

    Explore! is an educational pervasive game for pupils exploring sites of cultural interest. The soundscape model implemented in Explore! helps visitors to navigate a site and feel its historical atmosphere.The importance of cultural heritage in forging a sense of identity is becoming increasingly evident. Information and communication technologies have a great potential to promote a greater awareness and appreciation of cultural heritage. This paper presents some findings on how mobile technology can be used to foster a better understanding of an archaeological site by reconstructing the ancient environment and life. Children aged 11-13 years old are the target of our research. To motivate and engage them, a pervasive educational game has been developed and implemented in Explore!, a system aimed at supporting children exploring sites of cultural interest. Special attention has been devoted to the design of a soundscape that may improve players’ navigation in degraded physical environments and enrich their overall experience. A field study indicated that children judged their experience both useful and entertaining: not only did they enjoy playing the game but they also learned historical notions and facts related to ancient Roman life. Contextual sounds were found to have a facilitating effect on space navigation, reducing the need for map reading and improving spatial orientation. This work provides insights into the design of educational games for use with cultural heritage and a model to enrich historical sites through the creation of soundscapes which can help visitors to navigate a site and feel its historical atmosphere.

  • PLDPaper: Validating a Mobile Phone Application for the Everyday, Unobtrusive, Objective Measurement of Sleep
    S. Lawson (Univ. of Lincoln, UK), S. Jamison-Powell, A. Garbett, C. Linehan, E. Kucharczyk, S. Verbaan, D. Rowland, K. Morgan
    S. Lawson (Univ. of Lincoln, UK)S. Jamison-Powell (Univ. of Leicester, UK)A. Garbett (Newcastle Univ., UK)C. Linehan (Univ. of Lincoln, UK)E. Kucharczyk (Loughborough Univ., UK)S. Verbaan (The Hague Univ. of Applied Sciences, NL)D. Rowland (Univ. of Lincoln, UK)K. Morgan (Loughborough Univ., UK)

    This paper describes the validation, using long standing methods from the sleep research community, of an Android phone app that can be used to record sleep and measure sleep efficiency.There is an identified need for objective, reliable, and scalable methods of measuring and recording sleep. Such methods must be designed for easy integration into people’s lives in order to support both sleep therapy and everyday personal informatics. This paper describes the design and evaluation of a mobile phone application to record sleep, the design of which has substantive foundation in clinical sleep research. Two user studies were carried out which demonstrate that the application produces valid measurements of sleep quality and high levels of usability, whilst not seriously disturbing sleep or the sleep environment. These findings suggest that the app is suitable for both everyday sleep monitoring in a personal informatics context, and for integration into sleep interventions.

351Papers: Crime and Conflicts

SMVSession chair: Jeffrey Bardzell
  • PKJPaper: Protecting the Home: Exploring the Roles of Technology and Citizen Activism from a Burglar’s Perspective
    S. Erete (Northwestern Univ., USA)
    S. Erete (Northwestern Univ., USA)

    Examines how burglars perceive deterrents. Finds that alarms, cameras, etc. do not dissuade burglars. In-person citizen activism is the strongest deterrent. Presents implications for crime prevention technology and activist research.For decades, HCI scholars have designed technology for the domestic space. Many of these systems aim to protect the home and its residents by requesting help from local authorities during emergency situations. While the use of these systems have been examined, few studies attempt to understand the behavior of potential offenders who can create such emergency situations (e.g., by attempting a burglary). This paper analyzes three panel sessions with 15 people who have been convicted of burglarizing homes, cars, and/or businesses. Participants describe in detail what they looked for when deciding to burglarize a home and what deterred them. Technologies such as security systems, alarms, and cameras do not dissuade burglars. Instead, evidence of neighborhood cohesion was named the strongest deterrent. This paper presents implications for designing technologies that will effectively discourage burglary and support citizen activism.

  • PRKPaper: Digital Portraits: Photo-sharing After Domestic Violence
    R. Clarke (Newcastle Univ., UK), P. Wright, M. Balaam, J. McCarthy
    R. Clarke (Newcastle Univ., UK)P. Wright (Newcastle Univ., UK)M. Balaam (Newcastle Univ., UK)J. McCarthy (Univ. College Cork, IE)

    Taking a feminist arts action research approach, we detail an account of engaging women in photo-sharing who have had experiences of domestic violence, in the early stages of longitudinal participatory research.This paper explores the potential role of photography in re-building of lives after domestic violence. We worked in the context of a women’s centre where women are accessing support after leaving abusive relationships. The paper contributes a feminist participatory arts action research approach to studying photo-sharing practices and helps to frame an understanding of the ongoing tensions in the construction of self with others that the women experience. We argue that the affirmation of new bonds, control in sharing the process of ‘moving on’, and supporting discursive negotiations of privacy are important considerations for design focused on interpersonal social processes around the use of digital technology.

  • PBMPaper: Envisioning Across Generations: A Multi-lifespan Information System for International Justice in Rwanda
    D. Yoo (Univ. of Washington, USA), M. Lake, T. Nilsen, M. Utter, R. Alsdorf, T. Bizimana, L. Nathan, M. Ring, E. Utter, R. Utter, B. Friedman
    D. Yoo (Univ. of Washington, USA)M. Lake (Univ. of Washington, USA)T. Nilsen (Univ. of Washington, USA)M. Utter (Univ. of Washington, USA)R. Alsdorf (unaffiliated, USA)T. Bizimana (Healing and Rebuilding our Communities, RW)L. Nathan (Univ. of British Columbia, CA)M. Ring (Univ. of Washington, USA)E. Utter (unaffiliated, USA)R. Utter (unaffiliated, USA)B. Friedman (Univ. of Washington, USA)

    With this research we investigate how to account for multi-generational perspectives in the design of multi-lifespan information systems, particularly in support of long-term peace-building and international justice. With this research we investigate how to account for multi-generational perspectives in the design of multi-lifespan information systems, particularly in support of long-term peace-building and international justice. We do our work in the context of the publicly available Voices from the Rwanda Tribunal testbed, a historically significant collection of video interviews with personnel from the International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda. In the research reported here, we worked with 109 Rwandan adults and youth from perpetrator and survivor communities in three provincial cities in Rwanda (Byumba, Kibuye, and Gisenyi) to understand the potentials and challenges they envision for the interview collection. Participants envisioned five categories of long-term positive outcomes for individuals and society from a multi-lifespan information system for the interview collection; and eight categories of challenges to realize those potential outcomes. In terms of multi-generational perspectives, while adults and youth tended to share an overall vision for the long-term potential of such a system, adults emphasized actionable tasks while youth educational benefits. Based on the findings, we highlight issues for appropriation of multi-lifespan information systems and reflect on our methods for eliciting multi-generational perspectives on information system design in a post-conflict society.

  • PCNPaper: Digital Apartheid: An Ethnographic Account of Racialised HCI in Cape Town Hip-Hop
    G. Pritchard (Newcastle Univ., UK), J. Vines
    G. Pritchard (Newcastle Univ., UK)J. Vines (Newcastle Univ., UK)

    Ethnography of Cape Town hip-hop performers exploring how technology such as social media supports yet inhibits the development and sustainment of their careers. Raises implications for HCI4D and post-colonial computing.We describe findings from a 15-month ethnography of hip-hop performers in Cape Town, South Africa. Mobile communications and social media are hugely important to the development of these performers’ careers, opening access to collaborators, production tools, audiences and distribution channels. This group go to extraordinary lengths to gain and maintain access to these technologies, often by exploiting their social capital through musical and ethnic networks. We document that even after nearly twenty years of democracy, a ridged separation along racial lines persists, which can be seen in all areas of life including access to and proficiency in digital technologies. We illustrate how hip-hop performers harness these divisions both on and offline in order to distinguish themselves from other artists. Our research raises a number of implications for post-colonial computing, highlighting difficulties related to discontinuous access, and how international preconceptions of identity and authenticity emerge as a consequence of the increased use of communication technology.

352ABPapers: Haptics

SHFSession chair: Koji Yatani
  • PADPaper: Gesture Output: Eyes-Free Output: Using a Force Feedback Touch Surface
    A. Roudaut (Hasso Plattner Institute, DE), A. Rau, C. Sterz, M. Plauth, P. Lopes, P. Baudisch
    A. Roudaut (Hasso Plattner Institute, DE)A. Rau (Hasso Plattner Institute, DE)C. Sterz (Hasso Plattner Institute, DE)M. Plauth (Hasso Plattner Institute, DE)P. Lopes (Hasso Plattner Institute, DE)P. Baudisch (Hasso Plattner Institute, DE)

    We propose using spatial gestures not only for input but also for output. Analogous to gesture input, gesture output moves the user’s finger in a gesture, which the user then recognizes.We propose using spatial gestures not only for input but also for output. Analogous to gesture input, the proposed gesture output moves the user’s finger in a gesture, which the user then recognizes. We use our concept in a mobile scenario where a motion path forming a “5” informs users about new emails, or a heart-shaped path serves as a mes- sage from a friend. We built two prototypes: (1) The long- RangeOuija is a stationary prototype that offers a motion range of up to 4cm; (2) The pocketOuija is self-contained mobile device based on an iPhone with up to 1cm motion range. Both devices actuate the user’s fingers by means of an actuated transparent foil overlaid onto a touchscreen. We conducted three studies with the longRangeOuija in which participants recognized 2cm marks with 97% accu- racy, Graffiti digits with 98.8%, pairs of Graffiti digits with 90.5%, and Graffiti letters with 93.4%. Participants previ- ously unfamiliar with Graffiti identified 96.2% of digits and 76.4% of letters, suggesting that properly designed gesture output is guessable. After the experiment, the same participants were able to enter 100% of Graffiti digits by heart and 92.2% of letters. This suggests that participants learned gesture input as a side effect of using gesture output on our prototypes.

  • PDXPaper: Reality Jockey: Lifting the Barrier between Alternate Realities through Audio and Haptic Feedback
    K. Fan (Keio Univ., JP), H. Izumi, Y. Sugiura, K. Minamizawa, S. Wakisaka, M. Inami, N. Fujii, S. Tachi
    K. Fan (Keio Univ., JP)H. Izumi (Keio Univ., JP)Y. Sugiura (Keio Univ., JP)K. Minamizawa (Keio Univ., JP)S. Wakisaka (RIKEN, JP)M. Inami (Keio Univ., JP)N. Fujii (RIKEN, JP)S. Tachi (Keio Univ., JP)

    This research works on the concept of how alternate realities from the past can be re-experienced with immersion through the cross-modality of audio and haptics.We present Reality Jockey, a system that confuses the participant’s perception of the reality by mixing in a recorded past-reality. The participant will be immersed in a spatialized 3D sound environment that is a mix of sounds from the reality and from the past. The sound environment from the past is augmented with haptic feedback in cross-modality. The haptic feedback is associated with certain sounds such as the vibration in the table when stuff is placed on the table to make the illusion of it happening in live. The seamless transition between live and past creates immersive experience of past events. The blending of live and past allows interactivity. To validate our system, we conducted user studies on 1) does blending live sensations improve such experiences, and 2) how beneficial is it to provide haptic feedbacks in recorded pasts. Potential applications are suggested to illustrate the significance of Reality Jockey.

  • PGQPaper: Real-Time Perception-Level Translation from Audio Signals to Vibrotactile Effects
    J. Lee (Pohang Univ. of Science and Technology (POSTECH), KR), S. Choi
    J. Lee (Pohang Univ. of Science and Technology (POSTECH), KR)S. Choi (Pohang Univ. of Science and Technology (POSTECH), KR)

    This paper presents an automatic translation framework that creates vibrotactile effects from audio content with explicit understandings of the perceptual consequences, for easy production of tactile effects for multimedia content.In this paper, we propose a real-time perception-level audio-to-vibrotactile translation algorithm. Unlike previous signal-level conversion methods, our algorithm considers only perceptual characteristics, such as loudness and roughness, of audio and tactile stimuli. This perception-level approach allows for designing intuitive and explicit conversion models with clear understandings of their perceptual consequences. Our current implementation is tailored to accurate detection of special sound effects to provide well-synchronized audio-tactile feedback in immersive applications. We also assessed the performance of our translation algorithm in terms of the detection rate of special sound effects, computational performance, and user preference. All the experimental results supported that our algorithm works well as intended with better performance than the signal-level conversion methods, especially for games. Our algorithm can be easily realized in current products, including mobile devices, gaming devices, and 4D home theater systems, for richer user experience.

  • NAFNote: Muscle-Propelled Force Feedback: Bringing Force Feedback to Mobile Devices
    P. Lopes (Hasso Plattner Institute, DE), P. Baudisch
    P. Lopes (Hasso Plattner Institute, DE)P. Baudisch (Hasso Plattner Institute, DE)

    We propose mobile force feedback devices by eliminating motors and instead actuating the user’s muscles using electrical stimulation. Without the motors, we obtain substantially smaller and more energy-efficient devices. Force feedback devices resist miniaturization, because they require physical motors and mechanics. We propose mobile force feedback by eliminating motors and instead actuating the user’s muscles using electrical stimulation. Without the motors, we obtain substantially smaller and more energy-efficient devices. We present a prototype that fits on the back of a mobile phone. It actuates users’ forearm muscles via four electrodes, which causes users’ muscles to contract involuntarily, so that they tilt the device sideways. As users resist this motion using their other arm, they perceive force feedback. We demonstrate the interaction at the example of an interactive videogame in which users steer an airplane through winds rendered using force feedback. In a first user study, we found our device to cause users to produce up to 18.7N of force, when used to actuate their palm flexors. In a second study, participants played the video game de-scribed above; all ten participants reported to prefer the experience of muscle-propelled force feedback to vibrotactile feedback.

  • NSYNote: uTouch: Sensing Touch Gestures on Unmodified LCDs
    K. Chen (Univ. of Washington, USA), G. Cohn, S. Gupta, S. Patel
    K. Chen (Univ. of Washington, USA)G. Cohn (Univ. of Washington, USA)S. Gupta (Univ. of Washington, USA)S. Patel (Univ. of Washington, USA)

    We developed a system that allows any LCD or LED monitors to be converted into a touch sensitive surface without instrunmenting the user or installing the sensors on the monitor.Current solutions for enabling touch interaction on existing non-touch LCD screens require adding additional sensors to the interaction surface. We present uTouch, a system that detects and classifies touches and hovers without any modification to the display, and without adding any sensors to the user. Our approach utilizes existing signals in an LCD that are amplified when a user brings their hand near or touches the LCD’s front panel. These signals are coupled onto the power lines, where they appear as electromagnetic interference (EMI) which can be sensed using a single device connected elsewhere on the power line infrastructure. We validate our approach with an 11 user, 8 LCD study, and demonstrate a real-time system.

221/221MLast-minute SIGs: Session 9

Wednesday – 14:00-15:20

BluePapers: Fabrication

SHJSession chair: Alex Olwal
  • PFLPaper: LaserOrigami: Laser-Cutting 3D Objects
    S. Mueller (Hasso Plattner Institute, DE), B. Kruck, P. Baudisch
    S. Mueller (Hasso Plattner Institute, DE)B. Kruck (Hasso Plattner Institute, DE)P. Baudisch (Hasso Plattner Institute, DE)

    LaserOrigami is a rapid prototyping system that produces 3D objects using a laser cutter. LaserOrigami is substantially faster than 3D-printing and unlike traditional laser cutting it requires no manual assembly.We present LaserOrigami, a rapid prototyping system that produces 3D objects using a laser cutter. Laser¬Origami is substantially faster than traditional 3D fabrication techniques such as 3D printing and unlike traditional laser cutting the resulting 3D objects require no manual assembly. The key idea behind LaserOrigami is that it achieves three-dimensionality by folding and stretching the workpiece, rather than by placing joints, thereby eliminating the need for manual assembly. Laser¬Origami achieves this by heating up selected regions of the workpiece until they become compliant and bend down under the force of gravity. LaserOrigami administers the heat by defocusing the laser, which distributes the laser’s power across a larger surface. LaserOrigami implements cutting and bending in a single integrated process by automatically moving the cutting table up and down—when users take out the workpiece, it is already fully assembled. We present the three main design elements of Laser¬Origami: the bend, the suspender, and the stretch, and demonstrate how to use them to fabricate a range of physical objects. Finally, we demonstrate an interactive fabrication version of Laser¬Origami, a process in which user interaction and fabrication alternate step-by-step.

  • PBQPaper: Evaluating the Efficiency of Physical Visualizations
    Y. Jansen (Univ. Paris-Sud, FR), P. Dragicevic, J. Fekete
    Y. Jansen (Univ. Paris-Sud, FR)P. Dragicevic (INRIA, FR)J. Fekete (INRIA, FR)

    Presents an infovis study comparing physical to on-screen visualizations. Identifies and evaluates inherent properties of physical interfaces.Data sculptures are an increasingly popular form of physical visualization whose purposes are essentially artistic, communicative or educational. But can physical visualizations help carry out actual information visualization tasks? We present the first infovis study comparing physical to on-screen visualizations. We focus on 3D visualizations, as these are common among physical visualizations but known to be problematic on computers. Taking 3D bar charts as an example, we show that moving visualizations to the physical world can improve users’ efficiency at information retrieval tasks. In contrast, augmenting on-screen visualizations with stereoscopic rendering alone or with prop-based manipulation was of limited help. The efficiency of physical visualizations seems to stem from features that are unique to physical objects, such as their ability to be touched and their perfect visual realism. These findings provide empirical motivation for current research on fast digital fabrication and self-reconfiguring interfaces.

  • PJDPaper: Democratizing Technology: Pleasure, Utility and Expressiveness in DIY and Maker Practice
    J. Tanenbaum (Simon Fraser Univ., CA), A. Williams, A. Desjardins, K. Tanenbaum
    J. Tanenbaum (Simon Fraser Univ., CA)A. Williams (Wyld Collective Ltd, CA)A. Desjardins (Simon Fraser Univ., CA)K. Tanenbaum (Simon Fraser Univ., CA)

    A critical analysis of the practices, values, and politics of Maker and DIY Culture and its implications for HCI Research.DIY, hacking, and craft have recently drawn attention in HCI and CSCW, largely as a collaborative and creative hobbyist practice. We shift the focus from the recreational elements of this practice to the ways in which it democratizes design and manufacturing. This democratized technological practice, we argue, unifies playfulness, utility, and expressiveness, relying on some industrial infrastructures while creating demand for new types of tools and literacies. Thriving on top of collaborative digital systems, the Maker movement both implicates and impacts professional designers. As users move more towards personalization and reappropriation, new design opportunities are created for HCI.

  • NNFNote: FreeD – A Freehand Digital Sculpting Tool
    A. Zoran (Massachusetts Institute of Technology, USA), J. Paradiso
    A. Zoran (Massachusetts Institute of Technology, USA)J. Paradiso

    This paper explores the intersection of craft and digital fabrication through the FreeD, a handheld milling device, preserving the maker’s freedom to sculpt and carve based on virtual 3D models. In this paper, we present an approach to combining digital fabrication and craft, emphasizing the user experience. While many researchers strive to enable makers to design and produce 3D objects, our research seeks to present a new fabrication approach to make unique, one-of-a-kind artifacts. To that end, we developed the FreeD, a hand-held digital milling device. The system is guided and monitored by a computer while preserving the maker’s freedom to sculpt and carve, and to manipulate the work in many creative ways. Relying on a predesigned 3D model, the computer gets into action only when the milling bit risks the object’s integrity, by slowing down the spindle’s speed or by drawing back the shaft, while the rest of the time it allows complete gestural freedom. We describe the key concepts of our work and its motivation, present the FreeD’s architecture and technology, and discuss two projects made with the tool.

241Panel

  • LYVExploring the Representation of Women Perspectives in Technologies
    Andrea Peer (moderator), Susan M. Dray, Shaowen Bardzell, Margaret Burnett, Elizabeth Churchill, Erika Poole
    Andrea Peer (moderator)Susan M. DrayShaowen BardzellMargaret BurnettElizabeth ChurchillErika Poole

    Technology has a profound mediating effect on the way we relate, obtain knowledge, and contribute to society. Given the impact and potential ramifications of technology on our society, it is imperative that both masculine and feminine perspectives are included in shaping our modern day technologies. This panel focuses on the representation of women perspectives in technologies we design, analyze, and use. There are many barriers when it comes to getting women perspectives into system designs such as: the small amount of HCI gender research currently in the literature, the lack of analysis of gender-agnostic software tools which fit female problem-solving approaches, and low grant support for research which looks at the representation of the feminists’ perspective in our current discourse. This panel will address these barriers with respect to the tools and technologies we experience and design.

242ABPapers: Mental Health

STMSession chair: Gavin Doherty
  • PAQPaper: A Design-led Inquiry into Personhood in Dementia
    J. Wallace (Northumbria Univ., UK), P. Wright, J. McCarthy, D. Green, J. Thomas, P. Olivier
    J. Wallace (Northumbria Univ., UK)P. Wright (Newcastle Univ., UK)J. McCarthy (Univ. College Cork, IE)D. Green (Newcastle Univ., UK)J. Thomas (Northumbria Univ., UK)P. Olivier (Newcastle Univ., UK)

    A design-led, co-creative inquiry into personhood with Gillian, who has dementia, and John her husband – mediated by Design Probes and resulting in Digital Jewellery to support personhood and relationships.Writers and practitioners in dementia care have invoked personhood to offer potential for preserving the agency of people living with dementia. In this context we use personhood to explore how relationships bring agentive potential to experience-centered design through a co-creative, design-led inquiry with Gillian, a woman living with dementia, and John her husband. We designed bespoke probes to empathically engage the couple in the design of both jewellery and digital jewellery to support Gillian’s personhood. Our design activity addressed the relationships involved in the context of Gillian’s family life and the progression of her illness and how they could be mediated technologically. Reminiscence became, through Gillian and John’s own hands, acts of sense making and legacy. The process of design became the way of conducting the inquiry and the designed artifacts became ways of posing questions to make sense of our experiences together.

  • PTHPaper: Designing Mobile Health Technology for Bipolar Disorder: A Field Trial of the MONARCA System
    J. Bardram (IT Univ. of Copenhagen, DK), M. Frost, K. Szántó, M. Faurholt-Jepsen, M. Vinberg, L. Kessing
    J. Bardram (IT Univ. of Copenhagen, DK)M. Frost (IT Univ. of Copenhagen, DK)K. Szántó (IT Univ. of Copenhagen, DK)M. Faurholt-Jepsen (Univ. Hospital of Copenhagen, DK)M. Vinberg (Univ. Hospital of Copenhagen, DK)L. Kessing (Univ. Hospital of Copenhagen, DK)

    We conducted a 14 week field trial of the MONARCA system with 12 patients, reporting on their experiences. Furthermore, the paper discusses three questions regarding design of personal health technologies.An increasing number of pervasive healthcare systems are being designed, that allow people to monitor and get feedback on their health and wellness. To address the challenges of self-management of mental illnesses, we have developed the MONARCA system – a personal monitoring system for bipolar patients. We conducted a 14 week field trial in which 12 patients used the system, and we report findings focusing on their experiences. The results were positive; compared to using paper-based forms, the adherence to self-assessment improved; the system was considered very easy to use; and the perceived usefulness of the system was high. Based on this study, the paper discusses three HCI questions related to the design of personal health technologies; how to design for disease awareness and self-treatment, how to ensure adherence to personal health technologies, and the roles of different types of technology platforms.

  • PHRPaper: Understanding the Conflicting Demands of Family Caregivers Caring for Depressed Family Members
    N. Yamashita (NTT Communication Science Laboratories, JP), H. Kuzuoka, K. Hirata, T. Kudo
    N. Yamashita (NTT Communication Science Laboratories, JP)H. Kuzuoka (Univ. of Tsukuba, JP)K. Hirata (Future Univ. Hakodate, JP)T. Kudo (Osaka Univ., JP)

    Uncovers the challenges faced by family caregivers of depressed sufferes. Suggest design implications for technologies to improve the wellness of such family caregivers.Depression is one of the most common disabilities in developed countries. Despite its often devastating impact on families, scant research has focused on how to facilitate the well-being of family caregivers. The aim of this paper is to uncover the challenges faced by family caregivers and support their well-being with the use of technologies. To understand the emotional and social burden of caregivers and how they handle their stress, we conducted in-depth interviews with 15 individuals who have cared for a depressed family member. Our findings reveal the multifaceted dilemma of caring for a depressed family member as well as the various strategies engaged in by caregivers to improve their own situations. Based on our findings, we suggest design implications for healthcare technologies to improve the wellness of caregivers who are looking after depressed family members.

  • PEJPaper: Design to Promote Mindfulness Practice and Sense of Self for Vulnerable Women in Secure Hospital Services
    A. Thieme (Newcastle Univ., UK), J. Wallace, P. Johnson, J. McCarthy, S. Lindley, P. Wright, P. Olivier, T. Meyer
    A. Thieme (Newcastle Univ., UK)J. Wallace (Northumbria Univ., UK)P. Johnson (Calderstones Partnership NHS Foundation Trust, UK)J. McCarthy (Univ. College Cork, IE)S. Lindley (Microsoft Research, UK)P. Wright (Newcastle Univ., UK)P. Olivier (Newcastle Univ., UK)T. Meyer (Newcastle Univ., UK)

    Introduces the design concept of interactive artifacts to engage women with severe mental health problems in therapeutic skills practice. Provides insights from our collaboration with hospital staff for the design.In the field of mental health care technologies, very limited attention has been given to the design of interventions for individuals who undergo treatment for severe mental health problems in intense care contexts. Exploring novel designs to engage vulnerable psychiatric patients in therapeutic skills practice and expanding on the potential of technology to promote mental health, the paper introduces the design concept of the Spheres of Wellbeing. A set of interactive artifacts is developed specifically for women with a dual diagnosis of a Learning Disability and Borderline Personality Disorder, living in the medium secure services of a forensic hospital in the UK. The women present a difficult to treat group due to extremely challenging behaviors and a fundamental lack of motivation to engage in therapy. The Spheres are designed to assist the women in practices of mindfulness, to help them tolerate emotional distress and to strengthen their sense of self, all of which are vital components of their specialist treatment Dialectical Behavioral Therapy (DBT). The Spheres are intended to supplement the therapy of the women and to contribute to our understanding of designing technology to enhance mental wellbeing and quality of life more generally.

243Course C19, unit 1/2

  • CCSC19: Empirical Research Methods for Human-Computer Interaction
    S. MacKenzie (York Univ., CA), S. Castellucci
    S. MacKenzie (York Univ., CA)S. Castellucci (York Univ., CA)

    This Course delivers an A-to-Z tutorial on conducting a user study and demonstrates how to write a successful CHI paper.Title Empirical Research Methods for Human-Computer Interaction Instructors Scott MacKenzie and Steven Castellucci, York University, Canada Benefits Attendees will learn how to conduct empirical research in human-computer interaction (HCI). A “user study” is an experiment conforming to the norms for empirical inquiry and the scientific method. It is founded on observation, measurement, and posing and answering testable research questions. This Course delivers an A-to-Z tutorial on conducting a user study and demonstrates how to write a successful CHI paper. Features -An overview of the definition, purpose, and method of empirical research -A detailed description of experiment components, and their design -Research questions will be posed and refined to highlight important characteristics -Experiment design issues will be addressed -Methods for data analysis and reporting will be outlined -Participation in a real experiment -Attendees will work in pairs and take turns acting as both participant and investigator -A demonstration on how to write a successful CHI paper, including pitfalls to avoid Presentation PowerPoint slides, real-time demos, group participation Instructor Backgrounds Scott MacKenzie’s research is in HCI with an emphasis on human performance measurement and modeling, experimental methods and evaluation, interaction devices and techniques, alphanumeric entry, language modeling, and mobile computing. He has more than 135 HCI publications (including more than 35 from the SIGCHI conference) and has given numerous invited talks over the past 20 years. Since 1999, he has been Associate Professor of Computer Science and Engineering at York University, Canada. Steven Castellucci is a PhD student and research assistant in the Department of Computer Science and Engineering at York University, Canada. His research interests include gesture-based text entry, mobile text entry, and remote pointing techniques. In addition to having SIGCHI publications, he has lectured university courses on user interfaces and HCI, and has served as course director.

251Special session: Student Design Competition

Session chairs: Thecla Schiphorst, Carola Zwick
  • SDCJury: Steve Benford, Elisa Giaccardi, Lian Loke, Carman Neustaedter
    This year’s challenge is to design an object, interface, system, or service intended to help us to develop and share awareness, understanding or appreciation for our collective and collaborative crowd experience as it relates to our changing perspectives through collaboration.

252ACourse C21, unit 1/2

  • CENC21: Interaction Design for Social Development
    G. Marsden (Univ. of Cape Town, ZA), M. Jones
    G. Marsden (Univ. of Cape Town, ZA)M. Jones (Swansea Univ., UK)

    Learn how to apply Interaction Design techniques to developing communities and engage users effectively in the creation of appropriate technologies for contexts beyond the developed world.This course is aimed at researchers or practitioners who wish to design solutions appropriate to the developing world. To meet this goal we present techniques and methods allowing attendants to design for people from different contexts, cultures and literacies. We also present case studies reporting successes and failures, along with reflections, insights and lessons to be learned. Finally, we discuss open design and ethical questions of doing this type of work in developing contexts.

252BAlt.chi: Ethics

SAHSession chair: Lilly Irani
  • ABGOn Legitimacy: Designer as Minor Scientist
    A. Ghassan (Northumbria Univ., UK), M. Blythe
    A. Ghassan (Northumbria Univ., UK)M. Blythe (Northumbria Univ., UK)

    Utilising Gilles Deleuze & Felix Guattari’s metaphysics, this paper contributes to discussion on the nature of legitimacy in User Experience research.User experience research has recently been characterized in two camps, model-based and design-based, with contrasting approaches to measurement and evaluation. This paper argues that the two positions can be constructed in terms of Deleuze & Guattari’s “royal science” and “minor science”. It is argued that the “reinvention” of cultural probes is an example of a minor scientific methodology re-conceptualised as a royal scientific “technology”. The distinction between royal and minor science provides insights into the nature of legitimacy within contemporary HCI research practice.

  • AFCEthical Issues and Guidelines when Conducting HCI Studies with Animals
    H. Väätäjä (Tampere Univ. of Technology, FI), E. Pesonen
    H. Väätäjä (Tampere Univ. of Technology, FI)E. Pesonen (Tampere Univ. of Technology, FI)

    This paper addresses the ethical issues, presents the related key concepts and provides guidelines on planning, carrying out and reporting the studies with animals.The number of studies in the field of Human-Computer Interaction (HCI) with animals has increased in recent years. When planning and carrying out the studies with animals, it is important and necessary to take into account the welfare of the animals as well as deal with the short- and long-term effects of the developed technology and related interventions on animal welfare. This paper addresses the ethical issues, presents the key concepts and provides guidelines for carrying out studies with animals based on a literature review. The guidelines cover the phases from planning of the studies, to carrying out and reporting the studies.

  • AYQ“Un-Googling” Publications: The Ethics and Problems of Anonymization
    I. Shklovski (IT Univ. of Copenhagen, DK), J. Vertesi
    I. Shklovski (IT Univ. of Copenhagen, DK)J. Vertesi (Princeton Univ., USA)

    How to protect our study participants from inadvertent identification in the era of powerful indexing, search and retrieval algorithms? We propose a solution.Digital tools of research dissemination make scholarly publications accessible to the public at large through simple search engines. As a result, the users that we study, interview, and cite may be at risk of exposure to unwelcome types of scrutiny and scholars must grapple with challenges to the ethics of exposure of our re-search participants. We present one approach to anonymization of research results with search engines in mind, which we call un-Googling, that we have developed to minimize risk to our participants. We discuss the considerations that this approach raises and pose a challenge to the HCI community to take up this discussion not only as an ethical consideration but also as a socio-technical research and design opportunity.

  • ATUSTALLTALK: Graffiti, Toilets, and Anonymous Location based Micro Blogging
    J. Friedman (Northwestern Univeristy, USA), M. Horn
    J. Friedman (Northwestern Univeristy, USA)M. Horn (Northwestern Univ., USA)

    Stalltalk is a anonymous location based microblogging system that is used in bathrooms to explore toilet humor and digital graffiti. You can visit our site and participate at www.stalltalk.info!The ways in which we leave graffiti have not changed much in thousands of years. Humans have felt the need to anonymously leave messages to one another for centuries. In this paper, we introduce StallTalk (www.stalltalk.info), an anonymous location-based micro blogging website that uses QR codes posted in bathroom stalls. StallTalk allows users to leave digital graffiti on bathroom walls without actually causing permanent damage. Users scan the QR codes, which are unique to each stall, and write short messages to each other. We deployed StallTalk in over 500 locations and have had almost 9,000 unique visitors to our website.

  • ABXCritical InfoVis: Exploring the Politics of Visualization
    M. Dörk (Newcastle Univ., UK), P. Feng, C. Collins, S. Carpendale
    M. Dörk (Newcastle Univ., UK)P. Feng (Univ. of Calgary, CA)C. Collins (Univ. of Ontario Institute of Technology, CA)S. Carpendale (Univ. of Calgary , CA)

    Building on experiences in related domains, we outline a critical approach to information visualization that promotes disclosure, plurality, contingency, and empowerment, and pose challenges and opportunities for the visualization community.As information visualization is increasingly used to raise awareness about social issues, difficult questions arise about the power of visualization. So far the research community has not given sufficient thought to how values and assumptions pervade information visualization. Taking engaging visualizations as a starting point, we outline a critical approach that promotes disclosure, plurality, contingency, and empowerment. Based on this approach, we pose some challenges and opportunities for visualization researchers and practitioners.

  • ANSCHI and the Future Robot Enslavement of Humankind; A Retrospective
    B. Kirman (Univ. of Lincoln, UK), C. Linehan, S. Lawson, D. O’Hara
    B. Kirman (Univ. of Lincoln, UK)C. Linehan (Univ. of Lincoln, UK)S. Lawson (Univ. of Lincoln, UK)D. O’Hara (Birmingham City Univ., UK)

    Time travelling robots celebrate the CHI community for hastening the future enslavement of mankind by evil machinesAs robots from the future, we are compelled to present this important historical document which discusses how the systematic investigation of interactive technology facilitated and hastened the enslavement of mankind by robots during the 21st Century. We describe how the CHI community, in general, was largely responsible for this eventuality, as well as how specific strands of interaction design work were key to the enslavement. We also mention the futility of some reactionary work emergent in your time that sought to challenge the inevitable subjugation. We conclude by congratulating the CHI community for your tireless work in promoting and supporting our evil robot agenda.

253Course C20, unit 1/2

  • CMUC20: Designing Augmented Reality Experiences
    M. Billinghurst (Univ. of Canterbury, NZ), H. Duh
    M. Billinghurst (Univ. of Canterbury, NZ)H. Duh (National Univ. of Singapore, SG)

BordeauxSpecial session: Lifetime Practice Award

Session chair: Dennis Wixon
  • LPAAward winner: Jakob Nielsen, Nielsen Norman Group, USA

342APapers: Consent and Privacy

SPQSession chair: Sameer Patil
  • PCCPaper: Why Do People Seek Anonymity on the Internet? Informing Policy and Design
    R. Kang (Carnegie Mellon Univ., USA), S. Brown, S. Kiesler
    R. Kang (Carnegie Mellon Univ., USA)S. Brown (Carnegie Mellon Univ., USA)S. Kiesler (Carnegie Mellon Univ., USA)

    We conducted 44 interviews with people from America, Asia, Europe and Africa, and found a large variation in their motivation and strategies for achieving anonymity on the Internet.In this research we set out to discover why and how people seek anonymity in their online interactions. Our goal is to inform policy and the design of future Internet architecture and applications. We interviewed 44 people from America, Asia, Europe, and Africa who had sought anonymity and asked them about their experiences. A key finding of our research is the very large variation in interviewees’ past experiences and life situations leading them to seek anonymity, and how they tried to achieve it. Our results suggest implications for the design of online communities, challenges for policy, and ways to improve anonymity tools and educate users about the different routes and threats to anonymity on the Internet.

  • PJEPaper: Preference-based Location Sharing: Are More Privacy Options Really Better?
    B. Knijnenburg (Univ. of California, Irvine, USA), A. Kobsa, H. Jin
    B. Knijnenburg (Univ. of California, Irvine, USA)A. Kobsa (Univ. of California, Irvine, USA)H. Jin (Samsung R&D Research Center, USA)

    Users of a location-sharing service opt for more or less granular disclosure when one granularity level is omitted, depending on the subjective distance between the omitted and remaining options.We examine the effect of coarse-grained vs. fine-grained location sharing options on users’ disclosure decisions when configuring a sharing profile in a location-sharing service. Our results from an online user experiment (N=291) indicate that users who would otherwise select one of the finer-grained options will employ a compensatory decision strategy when this option is removed. This means that they switch either in the direction of more privacy and less benefit, or less privacy and more benefit, depending on the subjective distance between the omitted option and the remaining options. This explanation of users’ disclosure behavior is in line with fundamental decision theories, as well as the well-established notion of “privacy calculus”. Two alternative hypotheses that we tested were not supported by our experimental data.

  • PGCPaper: The Secret Life of a Persona: When the Personal Becomes Private
    E. Eriksson (KTH – Royal Institute of Technology, SE), H. Artman, A. Swartling
    E. Eriksson (KTH – Royal Institute of Technology, SE)H. Artman (Swedish Defence Research Agency (FOI), SE)A. Swartling (Scania CV AB, SE)

    Two persona cases for a secretive organization are uncovered! Secrecy makes personas problematic. This paper examines how to turn the unspoken into a resource: “Not to tell is to tell”.Some organizations fail to involve users in systems development due to a widespread organization, high workload or secrecy issues. A remedy against this situation could be the persona method in which users and main stakeholders as represented as fictitious characters. Personas help eliciting user needs and requirements, facilitate design choices and are an overall communication aid where users cannot be present. An important part of the persona method, as portrayed in literature, is the personal details that make the personas trustworthy and alive. In this paper we present two cases in which personas have been developed and used, but where the personal is scarce or even non-existent because of a dispersed organisation, the organisational culture and secrecy issues. The paper describes how the personas were developed, used and received and how the method was altered in order to work in these special circumstances.

  • PRNPaper: Consent for All: Revealing the Hidden Complexity of Terms and Conditions
    E. Luger (The Univ. of Nottingham, UK), S. Moran, T. Rodden
    E. Luger (The Univ. of Nottingham, UK)S. Moran (The Univ. of Nottingham, UK)T. Rodden

    Stimulus paper and plug-in surfacing the readability of web-based terms and conditions. Highlights the role of documents in the online consent process and calls for better readability and design practice.Terms and conditions are central in acquiring user consent by service providers. Such documents are frequently highly complex and unreadable, placing doubts on the validity of so called ‘informed consent’. While readability and web accessibility have been major themes for some time in HCI, the core principles have yet to be applied beyond webpage content and are absent from the underpinning terms and conditions. Our concern is that accessible web pages will encourage consent, masking the complexities of the terms of usage. Using the SMOG readability formula and UK Energy services as a case study, we observed that a series of supplier terms and conditions were far beyond what a functionally literate adult could be expected to understand. We also present a browser based plug-in which compares SMOG readability scores to popular books. The intention is to use this plug-in to assist in surfacing the hidden complexities underpinning online consent.

343Course C18, unit 2/3

  • CKZC18: Designing with and for Children in the 21st Century: Techniques and Practices
    A. Druin (Univ. of Maryland, USA), J. Fails, M. Guha, G. Walsh
    A. Druin (Univ. of Maryland, USA)J. Fails (Montclair State Univ., USA)M. Guha (Univ. of Maryland, USA)G. Walsh (Univ. of Baltimore, USA)

    This course will offer a balance of traditional lecture and hands-on design activities, and will cover techniques that balance the voices and contributions of adults and children.The CHI community has acknowledged children as important users by featuring a “Child-Computer Interaction” community. This course will offer a balance of traditional lecture and hands-on design activities, and will cover techniques that balance the voices and contributions of adults and children. A version of this course was taught at CHI 2008 through 2012. In CHI 2008 the course received the highest survey ratings of any CHI course and has been rated highly in subsequent years. We welcome and encourage attendance by industry professionals, academics, and students from a wide variety of communities. No prior experience is necessary. This course features a historical overview of co-designing with children, an overview of child development in relation to technology design, hands-on experiences using techniques for designing new technologies with and for children, and information about the role of the adult in co-design processes with children and practical issues of beginning a co-design team. The presentation includes hands-on design activities, small and whole-group discussion, short presentations with slides and video. Allison Druin is a Professor at the University of Maryland’s HCIL. Since 1998, she has led interdisciplinary, intergenerational research teams to create new technologies for children. (http://www.umiacs.umd.edu/~allisond/). Jerry Alan Fails is an Assistant Professor in Montclair State University’s Department of Computer Science. He has been working with children to design new technologies since 2003. His current focus is on technologies that support children and families. (http://hci.montclair.edu/fails/). Mona Leigh Guha is a Research Associate at the University of Maryland’s HCIL. Since 2002, she has focused on the impacts of technology design processes on children who participate in them. Greg Walsh is an Assistant Professor in the University of Baltimore’s Division of Science, Information Arts and Technologies. He focuses on creating new design techniques that include more voices in the design process. (http://research.gregwalsh.com/)

361Special Interest Group

  • GHQAutomotive User Interface Research Moves into Fast Lane
    S. Boll (Univ. of Oldenburg, DE), A. Kun, P. Fröhlich, J. Foley
    S. Boll (Univ. of Oldenburg, DE)A. Kun (Univ. of New Hampshire, USA)P. Fröhlich (FTW Telecommunications Research Center, AT)J. Foley (Toyota Technical Center U.S.A, Inc., USA)

    This SIG will explore issues related to the design of in-vehicle human-computer interfaces. A modern vehicle’s human-computer interface often facilitates the basic operation of the vehicle, but also provides more advanced features, such as assistive cruise control and lane keeping. Furthermore, today’s drivers and passengers frequently use brought-in devices, in order to access navigation instructions, and use non-driving related types of digital information such as social media. The SIG will explore how in-vehicle interfaces can facilitate safe interactions for all of the occupants of the vehicle, and how they can take advantage of connected vehicle technologies.

362/363Special Interest Group

  • GCESIG NIME: Music, Technology, and Human-Computer Interaction
    F. Bevilacqua (IRCAM, FR), S. Fels, A. Jensenius, M. Lyons, N. Schnell, A. Tanaka
    F. Bevilacqua (IRCAM, FR)S. Fels (Univ. of British Columbia, CA)A. Jensenius (Univ. of Oslo, NO)M. Lyons (Ritsumeikan Univ., JP)N. Schnell (IRCAM, FR)A. Tanaka (Goldsmiths, Univ. of London, UK)

    This SIG intends to investigate the ongoing dialogue between music technology and the field of human-computer interaction. Our specific aims are to consider major findings of musical interface research over recent years and discuss how these might best be conveyed to CHI researchers interested but not yet active in this area, as well as to consider how to stimulate future collaborations between music technology and CHI research communities.

HavanePapers: Text Visualization

SJESession chair: m.c. schraefel
  • PPRPaper: Quantity Estimation in Visualizations of Tagged Text
    M. Correll (Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, USA), E. Alexander, M. Gleicher
    M. Correll (Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, USA)E. Alexander (Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, USA)M. Gleicher (Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, USA)

    We present results in the relatively unexplored domain of text annotation. We present empirical validation of performance at estimation tasks for tagged text, and further validate design choices that improve this ability.A valuable task in text visualization is to have viewers make judgments about text that has been annotated (either by hand or by some algorithm such as text clustering or entity extraction). In this work we look at the ability of viewers to make judgments about the relative quantities of tags in annotated text (specifically text tagged with one of a set of qualitatively distinct colors), and examine design choices that can improve performance at extracting statistical information from these texts. We find that viewers can efficiently and accurately estimate the proportions of tag levels over a range of situations; however accuracy can be improved through color choice and area adjustments.

  • PGHPaper: Contextifier: Automatic Generation of Annotated Stock Visualizations
    J. Hullman (Univ. of Michigan, USA), N. Diakopoulos, E. Adar
    J. Hullman (Univ. of Michigan, USA)N. Diakopoulos (Interaction Foundry, USA)E. Adar (Univ. of Michigan, USA)

    We present the Contextifier system for automatic annotated stock visualizations from company news. Contextifier’s algorithms, informed by news professional visualizations, account for visual salience, contextual relevance, and notable company events.Online news tools—for aggregation, summarization and automatic generation—are an area of fruitful development as reading news online becomes increasingly commonplace. While textual tools have dominated these developments, annotated information visualizations are a promising way to complement articles based on their ability to add context. But the manual effort required for professional designers to create thoughtful annotations for contextualizing news visualizations is difficult to scale. We describe the design of Contextifier, a novel system that automatically produces custom, annotated visualizations of stock behavior given a news article about a company. Contextifier’s algorithms for choosing annotations is informed by a study of professionally created visualizations and takes into account visual salience, contextual relevance, and a detection of key events in the company’s history. In evaluating our system we find that Contextifier better balances graphical salience and relevance than the baseline.

  • TECTOCHI: “Without the Clutter of Unimportant Words”: Descriptive Keyphrases for Text Visualization
    J. Chuang (Stanford Univ., USA), C. Manning, J. Heer
    J. Chuang (Stanford Univ., USA)C. Manning (Stanford Univ., USA)J. Heer (Stanford Univ., USA)

    We study how people summarize text using descriptive phrases, develop a novel algorithm for extracting keyphrases, and demonstrate how our algorithms enable novel text visualization designs.Keyphrases aid the exploration of text collections by communicating salient aspects of documents and are often used to create effective visualizations of text. While prior work in HCI and visualization has proposed a variety of ways of presenting keyphrases, less attention has been paid to selecting the best descriptive terms. In this article, we investigate the statistical and linguistic properties of keyphrases chosen by human judges and determine which features are most predictive of high-quality descriptive phrases. Based on 5,611 responses from 69 graduate students describing a corpus of dissertation abstracts, we analyze characteristics of human-generated keyphrases, including phrase length, commonness, position, and part of speech. Next, we systematically assess the contribution of each feature within statistical models of keyphrase quality. We then introduce a method for grouping similar terms and varying the specificity of displayed phrases so that applications can select phrases dynamically based on the available screen space and current context of interaction. Precision-recall measures find that our technique generates keyphrases that match those selected by human judges. Crowdsourced ratings of tag cloud visualizations rank our approach above other automatic techniques. Finally, we discuss the role of HCI methods in developing new algorithmic techniques suitable for user-facing applications.

  • NKMNote: A Comparative Evaluation of Multiple Chat Stream Interfaces for Information-intensive Environments
    Y. Wang (Univ. of California, Irvine, USA), A. Echenique, M. Shelton, G. Mark
    Y. Wang (Univ. of California, Irvine, USA)A. Echenique (Univ. of California, Irvine, USA)M. Shelton (Univ. of California, Irvine, USA)G. Mark (Univ. of California, Irvine, USA)

    We evaluated two text-based chat interfaces to inform the design of large-scale text information visualizations for information workers who monitor real-time text streams.For information workers who monitor numerous constantly updating data streams, conserving cognitive resources is crucial. This study evaluated how an interface affects information workers’ ability to grasp critical information from multiple text-based chat streams under time pressure. We designed and built a working prototype that displays ten chat streams simultaneously in standard chat windows (ST) and ticker tapes (TT). We conducted a lab experiment to evaluate differences in how these two interfaces support signal and context detection. We found that with ST, participants detected significantly more target words (SAT words) with rarer frequency and significantly more context information (disaster facts) than with TT. Our results show that while TT is potentially better for overview scanning of multiple streams, ST is likely to be better for multi-tasking. Our study informs the design of future multi-chat systems so that large amounts of information can be easier to detect and process.

  • NDUNote: Effects of Visualization and Note-Taking on Sensemaking and Analysis
    N. Goyal (Cornell Univ., USA), G. Leshed, S. Fussell
    N. Goyal (Cornell Univ., USA)G. Leshed (Cornell Univ., USA)S. Fussell (Cornell Univ., USA)

    The utility of intelligence analysis tools’ individual features is rarely tested. Through experiment, we tested the utility of visualization and notetaking. Our Results question potential constraints on their individual utility.Many sophisticated tools have been developed to help analysts detect patterns in large datasets, but the value of these tools’ individual features is rarely tested. In an experiment in which participants played detectives solving homicides, we tested the utility of a visualization of data links and a notepad for collecting and organizing annotations. The visualization significantly improved participants’ ability to solve the crime whereas the notepad did not. Having both features available provided no benefit over having just the visualization. The results raise questions about the potential constraints on the usefulness of intelligence analysis tools.

351Papers: Sustainability

SMSSession chair: Elaine Huang
  • PHZPaper: Beyond Being Green: Simple Living Families and ICT
    M. Håkansson (Cornell Univ., USA), P. Sengers
    M. Håkansson (Cornell Univ., USA)P. Sengers (Cornell Univ., USA)

    Presents a qualitative study of simple living families’ practices and use of ICT. Demonstrates how a holistic perspective on sustainability broadens opportunities for “green” design in HCI.Motivated by a need in sustainable HCI for studies of everyday practices, and a belief that a holistic view on sustainability is crucial to deeper understanding of how to design ICT to support sustainability, we here present a qualitative study of 11 simple living families in the US. Simple living refers to a lifestyle which is voluntarily simple out of concern for both the environment and quality of life. Our goal was to learn about a holistic view on sustainability and the role of ICT in helping and hindering families to live simply. The study contributes new insights about how holistic sustainability could be a valuable lens for HCI, revealing that sustainability is important to a wider range of areas in HCI than previously discussed. We conclude with implications for HCI for how to support sustainable practices beyond being “about” being green.

  • PMRPaper: The Power of Play: Design Lessons for Increasing the Lifespan of Outdated Computers
    D. Lomas (Carnegie Mellon Univ., USA), K. Patel, D. Ching, M. Lakshmanan, M. Kam, A. Kumar, J. Forlizzi
    D. Lomas (Carnegie Mellon Univ., USA)K. Patel (DA-IICT, IN)D. Ching (NYU, USA)M. Lakshmanan (Not presently affiliated, IN)M. Kam (American Institutes for Research, USA)A. Kumar (Carnegie Mellon Univ., USA)J. Forlizzi (Carnegie Mellon Univ., USA)

    Why is Visicalc obsolete, but not Super Mario Bros? The continued success of 8-bit computers in developing countries shows how hedonic utility (aka fun) can dramatically extend computer lifespans.One consequence of rapid advances in computer technology is the obsolescence of hundreds of millions of computers each year. This paper explores strategies for increasing the reuse of outdated computers through an investigation of an 8-bit home computer that is still popular in developing countries. We observed the use of the computers in 16 households in Ahmedabad and Bangalore, India in order to gain insight into the contextual factors that support the continued popularity of the device. While most computers become obsolete in less than a decade, this 30-year-old computer technology remains useful because it provides exciting, multi-user family entertainment. While having minimal processing power and virtually no connectivity, the 8-bit computer supports input and output channels that are especially suited for co-located social game play. In contrast, PCs are primarily designed for individual use. Therefore, we offer low-cost design recommendations that would enable outdated PCs to support greater shared use and increased utility within the constrained material context of low-income households. These simple interventions, if adopted by computer refurbishment industries, have the potential to significantly extend the useful lifespan of PCs.

  • PKDPaper: inAir: A Longitudinal study of Indoor Air Quality Measurements and Visualizations
    S. Kim (Carnegie Mellon Univ., USA), E. Paulos, J. Mankoff
    S. Kim (Carnegie Mellon Univ., USA)E. Paulos (Univ. of California, Berkeley, USA)J. Mankoff (Carnegie Mellon Univ., USA)

    This work aims at understanding the indoor air quality dynamics with respect to indoor activities and analyzing behavioral and quantitative changes towards improving air quality from a longitudinal deployment study. Indoor air quality (IAQ) is important for health as people spend the majority of time indoors, and it is particularly interesting over outdoor air because it strongly ties to indoor activities. Some activities easily exacerbate IAQ, resulting in serious pollution. However, people may not notice such changes because many pollutants are colorless and odorless, while many activities are inconspicuous and routine. We implemented inAir, a system that measures and visualizes IAQ that households appropriate and integrate into everyday life. The research goals of this work include understanding the IAQ dynamics with respect to habitual behaviors and analyzing behavioral and quantitative changes towards improving IAQ by the use of inAir. From our longitudinal study for four months, we found that inAir successfully elicited the reflection upon, and the modification of habitual behaviors for healthy domestic environments, which resulted in the significant improvement of IAQ.

  • PCDPaper: “I want to imagine how that place looks”: Designing Technologies to Support Connectivity Between Africans Living Abroad and Home
    S. Wyche (Michigan State Univeristy, USA), M. Chetty
    S. Wyche (Michigan State Univeristy, USA)M. Chetty (Univ. of Maryland, USA)

    We asked African-born students how they used ICTs to connect with family in their home countries. Findings informed a prototype we evaluated. We discuss novel features to include in interfaces designed to support transnational communication.Uneven access to Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) in parts of the African continent make it challenging for some Africans who migrate to the U.S. to communicate with family members in their countries of origin. However, Internet access is becoming more widespread throughout the continent and this development presents an opportunity to explore how future interactive systems can support exchanges between families with members living in developed and less developed countries. To investigate these design possibilities we interviewed 27 African-born students, currently living in Virginia, U.S., and asked them how they used ICTs to connect with family members in their home countries. Our findings informed the development of a low-fidelity prototype that eight students lived with for four to five months. Findings from this deployment study motivate a discussion regarding features to include in interfaces designed to support transnational family communication. Features include personally meaningful imagery, country specific content, and the ability to monitor the weather and changing currency rates in migrants’ countries of origin.

352ABPapers: Mobile Text Entry

SLXSession chair: Caroline Appert
  • PELPaper: Improving Two-Thumb Text Entry on Touchscreen Devices
    A. Oulasvirta (Max Planck Institute for Informatics, DE), A. Reichel, W. Li, Y. Zhang, M. Bachynskyi, K. Vertanen, P. Kristensson
    A. Oulasvirta (Max Planck Institute for Informatics, DE)A. ReichelW. LiY. ZhangM. BachynskyiK. Vertanen (Montana Tech of The Univ. of Montana, USA)P. Kristensson (Univ. of St Andrews, UK)

    We designed a split keyboard to improve two-thumb text entry on tablet devices. KALQ’s design considers grip, coordinated performance of the two thumbs, and linguistic and motor errors.We study the design of split keyboards for fast text entry with two thumbs on mobile touchscreen devices. The layout of KALQ was determined through first studying how users should grip a device with two hands. We then assigned letters to keys computationally, using a model of two-thumb tapping. KALQ minimizes thumb travel distance and maximizes alternation between thumbs. An error correction algorithm was added to help address linguistic and motor errors. Users reached a rate of 37 words per minute (with a 5% error rate) after a training program.

  • PEGPaper: Making Touchscreen Keyboards Adaptive to Keys, Hand Postures, and Individuals – A Hierarchical Spatial Backoff Model Approach
    Y. Yin (Massachusetts Institute of Technology, USA), T. Ouyang, K. Partridge, S. Zhai
    Y. Yin (Massachusetts Institute of Technology, USA)T. Ouyang (Google, Inc., USA)K. Partridge (Google, Inc., USA)S. Zhai (Google, Inc., USA)

    We propose a hierarchical spatial backoff model for improving text entry accuracy on touchscreen keyboards. This approach adapts the underlying spatial model to input hand postures, individuals, and key positions, reducing error rate by 13.2%.We propose a new approach for improving text entry accuracy on touchscreen keyboards by adapting the underlying spatial model to factors such as input hand postures, individuals, and target key positions. To combine these factors together, we introduce a hierarchical spatial backoff model (SBM) that consists of submodels with different levels of complexity. The most general model includes no adaptive factors, whereas the most specific model includes all three. Considering that in practice people may switch hand postures (e.g., from two-thumb to one-finger) to better suit a situation, and that the specific submodels may take time to train for each user, a specific submodel should be applied only if its corresponding input posture can be identified with confidence, and if the submodel has enough training data from the user. We introduce the textit{backoff} mechanism to fall back to a simpler model if either of these conditions are not met. We implemented a prototype system capable of reducing the language-model-independent error rate by 13.2% using an online posture classifier with 86.4% accuracy. Further improvements in error rate may be possible with even better posture classification.

  • PGDPaper: Gestures and Widgets: Performance in Text Editing on Multi-Touch Capable Mobile Devices
    V. Fuccella (Univ. di Salerno, IT), P. Isokoski, B. Martin
    V. Fuccella (Univ. di Salerno, IT)P. Isokoski (Univ. of Tampere, FI)B. Martin (Univ. de Lorraine, FR)

    We present the design and evaluation of a gestural text editing technique for touchscreens. Gestures drawn on the soft keyboard are often faster than conventional editing techniques.We describe the design and evaluation of a gestural text editing technique for touchscreen devices. The gestures are drawn on top of the soft keyboard and interpreted as commands for moving the caret, performing selections, and controlling the clipboard. Our implementation is an Android service that can be used in any text editing task on Android-based devices. We conducted an experiment to compare the gestural editing technique against the widget-based technique available on a smartphone (Samsung Galaxy II with Android 2.3.5). The results show a performance benefit of 13-24% for the gestural technique depending on the font size. Subjective feedback from the participants was also positive. Because the two editing techniques use different input areas, they can co-exist on a device. This means that the gestural editing can be added on any soft keyboard without interfering with user experience for those users that choose not to use it.

  • NJTNote: ContextType: Using Hand Posture Information to Improve Mobile Touch Screen Text Entry
    M. Goel (Univ. of Washington, USA), A. Jansen, T. Mandel, S. Patel, J. Wobbrock
    M. Goel (Univ. of Washington, USA)A. Jansen (Univ. of Washington, USA)T. Mandel (Univ. of Washington, USA)S. Patel (Univ. of Washington, USA)J. Wobbrock (Univ. of Washington, USA)

    ContextType is an adaptive text entry system that leverages information about a user’s hand posture to improve mobile touch screen text entry by 20.6%.The challenge of mobile text entry is exacerbated as mobile devices are used in a number of situations and with a number of hand postures. We introduce ContextType, an adaptive text entry system that leverages information about a user’s hand posture (using two thumbs, the left thumb, the right thumb, or the index finger) to improve mobile touch screen text entry. ContextType switches between various keyboard models based on hand posture inference while typing. ContextType combines the user’s posture-specific touch pattern information with a language model to classify the user’s touch events as pressed keys. To create our models, we collected usage patterns from 16 participants in each of the four postures. In a subsequent study with the same 16 participants comparing ContextType to a control condition, ContextType reduced total text entry error rate by 20.6%.

  • NPVNote: ZoomBoard: A Diminutive QWERTY Soft Keyboard Using Iterative Zooming for Ultra-Small Devices
    S. Oney (Carnegie Mellon Univ., USA), C. Harrison, A. Ogan, J. Wiese
    S. Oney (Carnegie Mellon Univ., USA)C. Harrison (Carnegie Mellon Univ., USA)A. Ogan (Carnegie Mellon Univ., USA)J. Wiese (Carnegie Mellon Univ., USA)

    We present Zoomboard, a keyboard that uses iterative zooming to enlarge otherwise impossibly tiny keys to comfortable size.The proliferation of touchscreen devices has made soft keyboards a routine part of life. However, ultra-small computing platforms like the Sony SmartWatch and Apple iPod Nano lack a means of text entry. This limits their potential, despite the fact they are quite capable computers. In this work, we present a soft keyboard interaction technique called ZoomBoard that enables text entry on ultra-small devices. Our approach uses iterative zooming to enlarge otherwise impossibly tiny keys to comfortable size. We based our design on a QWERTY layout, so that it is immediately familiar to users and leverages existing skill. As the ultimate test, we ran a text entry experiment on a keyboard measuring just 16 x 6mm – smaller than a US penny. After eight practice trials, users achieved an average of 9.3 words per minute, with accuracy comparable to a full-sized physical keyboard. This compares favorably to existing mobile text input methods.

221/221MLast-minute SIGs: Session 10

Wednesday – 16:00-17:20

BluePapers: Design for Development

SMHSession chair: John Thomas
  • PTFPaper: Job Opportunities through Entertainment: Virally Spread Speech-Based Services for Low-Literate Users
    A. Raza (Carnegie Mellon Univ., USA), F. Ul Haq, Z. Tariq, M. Pervaiz, S. Razaq, U. Saif, R. Rosenfeld
    A. Raza (Carnegie Mellon Univ., USA)F. Ul Haq (Lahore Univ. of Management Sciences, PK)Z. Tariq (Lahore Univ. of Management Sciences, PK)M. Pervaiz (Northeastern Univ., USA)S. Razaq (Lahore Univ. of Management Sciences, PK)U. Saif (Lahore Univ. of Management Sciences, PK)R. Rosenfeld (Carnegie Mellon Univ., USA)

    A speech-based entertainment service spread virally to low-literate Pakistani telephone users, exceeding 85,000 users and 495,000 calls in four months, while spreading low-skill job opportunities to 27,000 of them.We explore how telephone-based services might be mass adopted by low-literate users in the developing world. We focus on speech and push-button dialog systems requiring neither literacy nor training. Building on the success of Polly, a simple telephone-based voice manipulation and forwarding system that was first tested in 2011, we report on its first large-scale sustained deployment. In 24/7 operation in Pakistan since May 9, 2012, as of mid-September Polly has spread to 85,000 users, engaging them in 495,000 interactions, and is continuing to spread to 1,000 new people daily. It has also attracted 27,000 people to a job search service, who in turn listened 279,000 times to job ads and forwarded them 22,000 times to their friends. We report users’ activity over time and across demographics, analyze user behavior within several randomized controlled trials, and describe lessons learned regarding spread, scalability and sustainability of telephone-based speech-based services.

  • PEBPaper: Some Evidence for the Impact of Limited Education on Hierarchical User Interface Navigation
    I. Medhi (Indian Institute of Technology, IN), M. Lakshmanan, K. Toyama, E. Cutrell
    I. Medhi (Indian Institute of Technology, IN)M. Lakshmanan (temp, IN)K. Toyama (Univ. of California, Berkeley, USA)E. Cutrell (Microsoft Research India, IN)

    Experimental study shows limited education impacting the ability to navigate a hierarchical UI, even when text-free. Can benefit designers interested in recommendations for UI hierarchies for people with limited education.One of the greatest challenges in designing applications for economically poor communities is that potential users may have little or no education. We investigated how limited education appears to impact the ability to navigate a hierarchical UI, even when it has no text. We scored 60 participants from low-income communities in India using tests of textual literacy and Raven’s Progressive Matrices. These were used as proxies for educational level and a subset of cognitive abilities. We then evaluated participants’ performance on a UI task involving hierarchical navigation. First, our results confirm that textual literacy is correlated with scores on the Raven’s test. In addition, we found that performance on both instruments are predictive of performance in navigating UI hierarchies, even when the UI is text-free. This provides statistically significant confirmation of previous anecdotal hypotheses. We conclude with design recommendations for UI hierarchies for people with limited education.

  • PCGPaper: Hustling Online: Understanding Consolidated Facebook Use in an Informal Settlement in Nairobi
    S. Wyche (Michigan State Univeristy, USA), F. Andrea, S. Yardi Schoenebeck
    S. Wyche (Michigan State Univeristy, USA)F. Andrea (Drexel Univ., USA)S. Yardi Schoenebeck (Univ. of Michigan, USA)

    This is the first study of Facebook use in a Nairobi slum. We find that to overcome the costs associated with Internet use, residents consolidated diverse online activities onto Facebook.Facebook is a global phenomenon, yet little is known about use of the site in urban parts of the developing world where the social network’s users are increasingly located. We qualitatively studied Facebook use among 28 young adults living in Viwandani, an informal settlement, or slum, in Nairobi, Kenya. We find that to overcome the costs associated with Internet use, participants consolidated diverse online activities onto Facebook; here we focus on the most common practice—using Facebook to support income generation. Viwandani residents used the site to look for employment opportunities, market themselves, and seek remittances from friends and family abroad. We use our findings to motivate a design agenda for the urban poor built on an understanding that Facebook is used, with mixed-success, to support income generation. A key part of this agenda calls for developing ICT interventions grounded in users’ existing practices rather than introducing new and unfamiliar ones.

  • PAJPaper: VideoKheti: Making Video Content Accessible to Low-Literate and Novice Users
    S. Cuendet (EPFL, CH), I. Medhi, K. Bali, E. Cutrell
    S. Cuendet (EPFL, CH)I. Medhi (Microsoft Research India, IN)K. Bali (Microsoft Research India, IN)E. Cutrell (Microsoft Research India, IN)

    Reports on the design of a speech and graphics smartphone application for low-literate Indian farmers to help them browse video content. Discusses results found from a user study.Designing ICT systems for rural users in the developing world is difficult for a variety of reasons ranging from problems with infrastructure to wide differences in user contexts and capabilities. Developing regions may include huge variability in spoken languages, and users are often low- or non-literate, with very little experience interacting with digital technologies. Researchers have explored the use of text-free graphical interfaces as well as speech-based applications to overcome some of the issues related to language and literacy. While there are benefits and drawbacks to each of these approaches, they can be complementary when used together. In this work, we present VideoKheti, a mobile system using speech, graphics, and touch interaction for low-literate farmers in rural India. VideoKheti helps farmers to find and watch agricultural extension videos in their own language and dialect. In this paper, we detail the design and development of VideoKheti and report on a field study with 20 farmers in rural India who were asked to find videos based on a scenario. The results show that farmers could use VideoKheti, but their success still greatly depended on their education level. While participants were enthusiastic about using the system, the multimodal interface did not overcome many obstacles for low-literate users.

241Panel

  • LSUTheory vs. Design-Driven Approaches for Behavior Change Research
    Elizabeth Mynatt (moderator), Rosa Arriaga, Andrew Miller, Claudia Pagliari, Erika Poole
    Elizabeth Mynatt (moderator)Rosa ArriagaAndrew MillerClaudia PagliariErika Poole

    Designing and evaluating interactive systems for encouraging health behavior change at time leaves human-computer interaction researcher in a quandary: the methods and user-centered design philosophies favored in HCI can be incompatible with theory-driven approaches favored in healthcare research. The goal of this panel is to open a discussion about these tensions and to explore methods to reconcile them.

242ABPapers: Narrative and Materiality

SJZSession chair: Volkmar Pipek
  • PEQPaper: Design-Driven Narrative: Using Stories to Prototype and Build Immersive Design Worlds
    E. Spaulding (AT&T Foundry, USA), H. Faste
    E. Spaulding (AT&T Foundry, USA)H. Faste (Carnegie Mellon Univ., USA)

    This paper examines the role of narrative in the process of interactive experience design, focusing on its potential uses in prototyping to uncover deeper and more meaningful user responses.This paper examines the role of narrative in the process of interactive experience design, focusing on the potential uses of narrative in prototyping and iteration efforts to uncover deeper and more meaningful responses from users by engaging them in the co-creation of narratives of use around the design. We created a series of narrative fictions with embedded design concepts, and built low-fi prototype artifacts for directed storytelling sessions with twelve participants. We conclude with a discussion of findings regarding the opportunities to more effectively use narrative techniques and immersive storytelling to create valuable experiences between designers and users.

  • PTBPaper: Materials, Materiality, and Media
    V. Fuchsberger (Univ. of Salzburg, AT), M. Murer, M. Tscheligi
    V. Fuchsberger (Univ. of Salzburg, AT)M. Murer (Univ. of Salzburg, AT)M. Tscheligi (Univ. of Salzburg, AT)

    Reflects on Marshall McLuhan’s media analysis, as well as Bruno Latour’s Actor-Network Theory regarding materials in HCI interaction design. Presents transferred ideas and junctures for the materiality discourse. In HCI, and especially in interaction design, the material aspect of interactions is currently emphasized. Nevertheless, it is challenging to theoretically frame the variety of digital or immaterial, and physical materials. In order to contribute to this materiality discourse, we reflect on McLuhan’s work on media analysis and on Latour’s Actor-Network Theory in this paper. Both emphasize the active role of the material – be it media or any other kind of non-human actors – in the interplay with the human. Thus, we establish junctures between their findings and materials, as used in interaction design in HCI. We discuss McLuhan’s claim to focus on new sensory effects and ways of interaction brought forth by new media. Furthermore, we illustrate how describing the connections between materials, designers, and users in terms of Latour’s Actor-Networks can be beneficial for interaction design. Finally, we discuss the respective methodology and its relation to research through design.

  • PMMPaper: Mobiles, Music, and Materiality
    N. Kumar (Univ. of California, Berkeley, USA), T. Parikh
    N. Kumar (Univ. of California, Berkeley, USA)T. Parikh (Univ. of California, Berkeley, USA)

    Building on recent research that highlights the materiality of digital information, we examine the materiality of digital media in mobile music production, reproduction, and reception practices of small town India. Building on recent HCI contributions that assert the materiality of digital information, we examine the material nature of digital media and information technology in the context of mobile music production, reproduction, and reception in rural and semi-urban India. We use ethnographic methods to study the recent adoption and use of mobile technology and discuss our findings in relation to the evolving materiality of music. We also investigate the sociotechnical configurations that emerge as a consequence of this materiality. Thus we contribute to HCI research by showing how the material representations of digital media affect the interactions of humans with technology.

  • PMVPaper: Infrastructure and Vocation: Field, Calling, and Computation in Ecology
    S. Jackson (Cornell Univ., USA), S. Barbrow
    S. Jackson (Cornell Univ., USA)S. Barbrow (Univ. of Michigan, USA)

    Ethnographic study exploring relationship between computational change and ecology as a vocation. Argues that new computational development remediates ecology’s crucial field relations, with implications for design and engagement.HCI studies of computational change in the sciences have made important design and analytic contributions, to other fields of science and to HCI itself. But some of the longer-term effects and complexities of infrastructural change in the sciences aren’t easily captured under short-term, design- or artifact-centered accounts. Drawing on extended ethnographic study of computational development in ecology, this paper explores the relationship between new computational infrastructure and the nature of ecology as a vocation: roughly, the deeply held sense of what it means to ‘be’ an ecologist, and to ‘do’ ecology. We analyze in particular the nature of the field and field work as a central site of ecological practice and identity; how new computational developments are remediating this crucial relation; and the emergent vocational values that new and more computationally-intensive forms of ecology may give rise to.

243Course C19, unit 2/2

  • CCSC19: Empirical Research Methods for Human-Computer Interaction
    S. MacKenzie (York Univ., CA), S. Castellucci
    S. MacKenzie (York Univ., CA)S. Castellucci (York Univ., CA)

    This Course delivers an A-to-Z tutorial on conducting a user study and demonstrates how to write a successful CHI paper.Title Empirical Research Methods for Human-Computer Interaction Instructors Scott MacKenzie and Steven Castellucci, York University, Canada Benefits Attendees will learn how to conduct empirical research in human-computer interaction (HCI). A “user study” is an experiment conforming to the norms for empirical inquiry and the scientific method. It is founded on observation, measurement, and posing and answering testable research questions. This Course delivers an A-to-Z tutorial on conducting a user study and demonstrates how to write a successful CHI paper. Features -An overview of the definition, purpose, and method of empirical research -A detailed description of experiment components, and their design -Research questions will be posed and refined to highlight important characteristics -Experiment design issues will be addressed -Methods for data analysis and reporting will be outlined -Participation in a real experiment -Attendees will work in pairs and take turns acting as both participant and investigator -A demonstration on how to write a successful CHI paper, including pitfalls to avoid Presentation PowerPoint slides, real-time demos, group participation Instructor Backgrounds Scott MacKenzie’s research is in HCI with an emphasis on human performance measurement and modeling, experimental methods and evaluation, interaction devices and techniques, alphanumeric entry, language modeling, and mobile computing. He has more than 135 HCI publications (including more than 35 from the SIGCHI conference) and has given numerous invited talks over the past 20 years. Since 1999, he has been Associate Professor of Computer Science and Engineering at York University, Canada. Steven Castellucci is a PhD student and research assistant in the Department of Computer Science and Engineering at York University, Canada. His research interests include gesture-based text entry, mobile text entry, and remote pointing techniques. In addition to having SIGCHI publications, he has lectured university courses on user interfaces and HCI, and has served as course director.

251Special session: Student Game Competition

Session chairs: Seth Cooper, Heather Desurvire, Magy Seif El-Nasr
  • SGCJury: Seth Cooper, Heather Desurvire, Magy Seif El-Nasr
    The competition provides an opportunity for students from a variety of backgrounds to demonstrate their game design and development skills in an international competition, and provides CHI attendees with engaging and playable exemplar games that showcase emerging student talent, and inspire future work.

252ACourse C21, unit 2/2

  • CENC21: Interaction Design for Social Development
    G. Marsden (Univ. of Cape Town, ZA), M. Jones
    G. Marsden (Univ. of Cape Town, ZA)M. Jones (Swansea Univ., UK)

    Learn how to apply Interaction Design techniques to developing communities and engage users effectively in the creation of appropriate technologies for contexts beyond the developed world.This course is aimed at researchers or practitioners who wish to design solutions appropriate to the developing world. To meet this goal we present techniques and methods allowing attendants to design for people from different contexts, cultures and literacies. We also present case studies reporting successes and failures, along with reflections, insights and lessons to be learned. Finally, we discuss open design and ethical questions of doing this type of work in developing contexts.

252BAlt.chi: Nature and Nurture

SALSession chair: Eric Paulos
  • AXZA Biological Imperative for Interaction Design
    A. Parkes (Columbia Univ., USA), C. Dickie
    A. Parkes (Columbia Univ., USA)C. Dickie (Queen’s Univ. Kingston, CA)

    This paper brings together conceptual visions and initial experiments of bio-based approaches to sensing, display, fabrication, materiality, and energy, approaching non-living and living matter as a continuum for computational interaction. This paper presents an emerging approach to the integration of biological systems- their matter, mechanisms, and metabolisms- into models of interaction design. By bringing together conceptual visions and initial experiments of alternative bio based approaches to sensing, display, fabrication, materiality, and energy, we seek to construct an inspirational discussion platform approaching non-living and living matter as a continuum for computational interaction. We also discuss the emergence of the DIY bio and open source biology movements, which allow non-biologists to gain access to the processes, tools, and infrastructure of this domain, and introduce Synbiota, an integrated, web-based platform for synthetic biology research.

  • AHQDevotional Gardening Tools
    T. Jenkins (Georgia Institute of Technology, USA)
    T. Jenkins (Georgia Institute of Technology, USA)

    Devotional Gardening is a research-through-design project that examines possible tool use beyond functionality. Using ‘devotion’ as a guideline, prototype gardening tools are proposed that underscore the devotional nature of cultivation.Gardening as an activity is devotional, built on the idea that through practice and effort, particular results can be obtained. Devotion is performative, taking time, skill, and repetition to get the results that you want. Human-scale farming depends on the labor of people to get things done, relying on hand tools and particular kinesthetic actions to change the earth in a plot. Digital media technologies afford the creation of tools that can materialize rhetoric, creating alternate functionality emphasizing issues of practice through use. Creating gardening implements that build on the repetitive physical nature of gardening work allows handwork to become something broader: representative of, more reflexive and meditative technological practice.

  • ASNAnimal-Computer Interaction (ACI): Changing Perspective on HCI, Participation and Sustainability
    C. Mancini (The Open Univ., UK)
    C. Mancini (The Open Univ., UK)

    Argues that ACI is directly relevant to CHI, discussing how it can strengthen HCI as a discipline, broaden participation in Interaction Design, and support CHI’s commitment to sustainability.In the spirit of this year’s conference theme ‘changing perspectives’, this paper invites the CHI community to glance at interaction design through the lense of Animal-Computer Interaction (ACI). In particular, I argue that such a perspective could have at least three benefits: strengthening HCI as a discipline; broadening participation in Interaction Design; and supporting CHI’s commitment to sustainability. I make the case that, far from being a niche research area, ACI is directly relevant to and even encompasses HCI. Thus ACI research firmly belongs at CHI.

  • AAQMorphing Agency: Deconstruction of an Agent with Transformative Agential Triggers
    H. Osawa (Keio Univ., JP), M. Imai
    H. Osawa (Keio Univ., JP)M. Imai (Keio Univ., JP)

    This paper presents our vision called Morphing Agency that redefines the notion of an agent. We propose separated use of all agential triggers that evoke a user as an agent.This paper presents our vision of Human Computer Interaction (HCI) called the “Morphing Agency.” The Morphing Agency redefines the notion of an agent in HCI, and proposes separated use of all agential triggers that evoke a user as an agent. This paper describes three key levels of agential triggers that are humanlike, behavioral, and internal. We illustrate these concepts with three prototype systems – the morphExplainer, transExplainer and parasiticBelt – to identify underlying research issues.

  • ARGAniThings: Animism and Heterogeneous Multiplicity
    P. van Allen (Art Center College of Design, USA), J. McVeigh-Schultz, B. Brown, H. Kim, D. Lara
    P. van Allen (Art Center College of Design, USA)J. McVeigh-SchultzB. BrownH. KimD. Lara

    Contributes a novel interaction design framework by proposing animism as a design metaphor, employing a heterogeneous ecology of multiple animistic devices that collaborate with people in creative contexts.This paper explores the metaphor of animism as a methodological framework for interaction design and, in particular, advocates for a form of animism the authors term ‘heterogeneous multiplicity.’ Animism can make valuable contributions within ubiquitous computing contexts, where objects with designed behaviors tend to evoke a perception that they have autonomy, intention, personality and an inner life. Furthermore, animism that supports heterogeneous multiplicity offers unique opportunities to stimulate human creativity through embodied engagement with an ecology of things. To demonstrate the concept of heterogeneous multiplicity, the authors present a speculative design project, AniThings, that intertwines multiple animistic collaborators to position activities of digital resource discovery and curation beyond the narrow domain of recommendation engines and personal feeds. The project illustrates an ecology of six tangible, interactive objects that, respectively, draw from a variety of digital resources and inhabit a range of variously positioned stances towards their human collaborators and each other. This diversity of behaviors, resources, and positionality makes AniThings ideal for supporting open-ended ideation and collaborative imagining activities.

  • AELSmart Pose: Mobile Posture-aware System for Lowering Physical Health Risk of Smartphone Users
    H. Lee (Samsung Advanced Institute of Technology (SAIT), Samsung Electronics, KR), Y. Choi, S. Lee, E. Shim
    H. Lee (Samsung Advanced Institute of Technology (SAIT), Samsung Electronics, KR)Y. Choi (Samsung Advanced Institute of Technology (SAIT), Samsung Electronics, KR)S. Lee (Samsung Advanced Institute of Technology (SAIT), Samsung Electronics, KR)E. Shim (Samsung Advanced Institute of Technology (SAIT), Samsung Electronics, KR)

    This paper discusses health problems of the smartphone users which are usually overlooked, and presents a novel solution to overcome this difficulty for people’s well being.With the widespread use of smartphones, users tend to use their smartphones for a long period of time with unhealthy postures, bending forward their upper body including the neck. If users keep such an unhealthy posture for a long time, their neck and back muscles get chronically strained, which might cause diseases such as cervical myalgia. To prevent these diseases, we propose a new methodology to monitor the posture of smartphone users with built-in sensors. The proposed mechanism estimates a value representing user postures like head/neck tilt angle by analyzing sensor data from a front-faced camera, 3-axis accelerometer, and orientation sensor. It then informs the user if the estimated value is maintained within the abnormal range over a pre-defined time.

253Course C20, unit 2/2

  • CMUC20: Designing Augmented Reality Experiences
    M. Billinghurst (Univ. of Canterbury, NZ), H. Duh
    M. Billinghurst (Univ. of Canterbury, NZ)H. Duh (National Univ. of Singapore, SG)

BordeauxPapers: Design for Children

SVKSession chair: Michael Muller
  • TQSTOCHI: Supporting Personal Narrative for Children with Complex Communication Needs
    R. Black (Univ. of Dundee, UK), A. Waller, R. Turner, E. Reiter
    R. Black (Univ. of Dundee, UK)A. Waller (Univ. of Dundee, UK)R. Turner (Data2Text, UK)E. Reiter (Univ. of Aberdeen, UK)

    “How was School today. . . ?” uses sensor based data-to-text technology to generate personal narratives. Children with cerebral palsy are able to tell parents about their school day.Children with complex communication needs who use voice output communication aids seldom engage in extended conversation. The “How was School today. . . ?” system has been designed to enable such children to talk about their school day. The system uses data-to-text technology to generate narratives from sensor data. Observations, interviews and prototyping were used to ensure that stakeholders were involved in the design of the system. Evaluations with three children showed that the prototype system, which automatically generates utterances, has the potential to support disabled individuals to participate better in interactive conversation. Analysis of a conversational transcript and observations indicate that the children were able to access relevant conversation and had more control in the conversation in comparison to their usual interactions where control lay mainly with the speaking partner. Further research to develop an improved, more rugged system that supports users with different levels of language ability is now underway.

  • PNRPaper: Design Research by Proxy: using Children as Researchers to gain Contextual Knowledge about User Experience.
    F. van Doorn, P. Stappers, M. Gielen
    F. van DoornP. StappersM. Gielen

    This paper explores the use of participants as research collaborators in contextual user research. A case study was conducted to investigate if and how children can perform as research collaborators. This paper explores the use of participants as research collaborators in the domain of contextual user research. In participatory- and co-design, users participate increasingly early in the design process. When conducting user research in order to gain contextual knowledge about the lives, experiences and wishes of users, collaborators can be of help in setting up, conducting research and analyzing the data. A case study was conducted to investigate if and how children are able to perform as research collaborators. Children conducted interviews with other participants, and in doing increased their knowledge about people close to them, and about themselves. The gained insights were personal and the used personas proved to be a valuable tool. In the role of researcher, the children discovered similarities and differences between themselves and others. Besides gaining valuable insights from their participants, they accessed and shared their own experiences, so while listening to others, the children got sensitized themselves. In other words, the current study found that next to gathering more data, “super-sources” are created when children become research collaborators.

  • PDYPaper: FACIT PD: A Framework for Analysis and Creation of Intergenerational Techniques for Participatory Design
    G. Walsh (Univ. of Baltimore, USA), E. Foss, J. Yip, A. Druin
    G. Walsh (Univ. of Baltimore, USA)E. Foss (Univ. of Maryland, USA)J. Yip (Univ. of Maryland, USA)A. Druin (Univ. of Maryland, USA)

    This paper describes a framework that can aid design teams in choosing or designing new techniques to design with children regardless of the subject area or method being used.In this paper, we present a framework that describes commonly used design techniques for Participatory Design with children. Although there are many currently used techniques for designing with children, researchers working in differing contexts and in a changing technological landscape find themselves facing difficult design situations. The FACIT PD framework presented in this paper can aid in choosing existing design techniques or in developing new techniques regardless of the stage in the design cycle, the technology being developed, or philosophical approach to design method. The framework consists of eight dimensions, concerning the design partners, the design goal, and the design technique. The partner dimensions are partner experience and need for accommodation. The design goal dimensions are design space and maturity of design. The technique dimensions include: cost, portability, technology and physical interaction. Three cases will be presented which describe new techniques developed using the framework and two cases will describe existing techniques.

  • NLTNote: Three Tensions in Participatory Design for Inclusion
    H. Holone (Østfold Univ. College, NO), J. Herstad
    H. Holone (Østfold Univ. College, NO)J. Herstad (Univ. of Oslo, NO)

    In this paper we identify three tensions between the ideals of Participatory Design (PD) and the application of PD approaches in projects including children with severe disabilities.One ideal of Participatory Design (PD) is active involvement by all stakeholders as co-designers. However, when PD is applied to real projects, certain compromises are unavoidable, no matter what stakeholders are involved. With this paper we want to shed light on some of the challenges in implementing “true” PD in the case of designing with children, in particular children with severe disabilities. We do this work to better understand challenges in an ongoing project, RHYME, and by doing so we hope to provide insight and inspiration for others.

  • NETNote: Interview Approaches to Researching Embodiment
    S. Price (Institute of Education, UK), C. Jewitt
    S. Price (Institute of Education, UK)C. Jewitt (Institute of Education, UK)

    This paper makes a methodological contribution to child computer interaction. It examines three interview approaches, providing guidance on interview choices to explore communicational modes of interaction in tangible learning environments.The methods of data collection that we choose determine the kinds of data that we have access to, and thus shape analyses. In the context of novel interfaces where different modes, available through the environment and context, mediate the interaction, understanding methodological approaches is critical. This paper examines alternative methods of data collection for exploring student’s embodied interaction with novel technology in a learning context. Specifically it analyses non-facilitated interaction in a tangible learning environment, in conjunction with three different post activity interview approaches: semi-structured interviews; semi-structured interview with video prompted recall; and interviews using the technology itself. Findings suggest that the different interview approaches change the nature of information elicited, and that non-facilitated interaction offers clearer insight into interpretation, both in terms of the meaning that emerges through, and is, therefore, embodied in the interaction, and in terms of representation, directly informing design.

342APapers: Evaluation Methods 3

SQESession chair: Gloria Mark
  • PCEPaper: Using Behavioral Data to Identify Interviewer Fabrication in Surveys
    B. Birnbaum (Univ. of Washington, USA), G. Borriello, A. Flaxman, B. DeRenzi, A. Karlin
    B. Birnbaum (Univ. of Washington, USA)G. Borriello (Univ. of Washington, USA)A. Flaxman (Univ. of Washington, USA)B. DeRenzi (Univ. of Washington, USA)A. Karlin (Univ. of Washington, USA)

    We show that by instrumenting electronic data-collection software to record logs of behavioral data, and by using supervised classification on this data, we can accurately detect interviewer fabrication in surveys.Surveys conducted by human interviewers are one of the principal means of gathering data from all over the world, but the quality of this data can be threatened by interviewer fabrication. In this paper, we investigate a new approach to detecting interviewer fabrication automatically. We instrument electronic data collection software to record logs of low-level behavioral data and show that supervised classification, when applied to features extracted from these logs, can identify interviewer fabrication with an accuracy of up to 96%. We show that even when interviewers know that our approach is being used, have some knowledge of how it works, and are incentivized to avoid detection, it can still achieve an accuracy of 86%. We also demonstrate the robustness of our approach to a moderate amount of label noise and provide practical recommendations, based on empirical evidence, on how much data is needed for our approach to be effective.

  • PMHPaper: Footprint Tracker: Supporting Diary Studies with Lifelogging
    R. Gouveia (Madeira Interactive Technologies Institute, PT), E. Karapanos
    R. Gouveia (Madeira Interactive Technologies Institute, PT)E. Karapanos (Madeira Interactive Technologies Institute, PT)

    Study of how visual, location, temporal and social context life logs support recall and reflection over daily activities and experiences in the context of diary studies.As HCI shifts “to the wild”, in-situ methods such as Diary Methods and the Experience Sampling Method are gaining momentum. However, researchers have acknowledged the intrusiveness and lack of realism in these methods and have proposed solutions, notably through lightweight and rich media capture. In this paper we explore the concept of lifelogging as an alternative solution to these two challenges. We describe Footprint Tracker, a tool that allows the review of lifelogs with the aim to support recall and reflection over daily activities and experiences. In a field trial, we study how four different types of cues, namely visual, location, temporal and social context, trigger memories of recent events and associated emotions. We conclude with a number of implications for the design of lifelogging systems that support recall and reflection upon recent events as well as ones lying further in our past.

  • PGYPaper: Investigating Self-Reporting Behavior In Long-Term Studies
    A. Möller (Technische Univ. München, DE), M. Kranz, B. Schmid, L. Roalter, S. Diewald
    A. Möller (Technische Univ. München, DE)M. Kranz (Univ. Passau, DE)B. Schmid (Technische Univ. München, DE)L. Roalter (Technische Univ. München, DE)S. Diewald (Technische Univ. München, DE)

    We provide empirical quantitative long-term data on the reliability of self-reported data collected with mobile devices. We give recommendations for maximizing the reliability of results when conducting long-term app usage studies.Self-reporting techniques, such as data logging or a diary, are frequently used in long-term studies, but prone to subjects’ forgetfulness and other sources of inaccuracy. We conducted a six-week self-reporting study on smartphone usage in order to investigate the accuracy of self-reported information, and used logged data as ground truth to compare the subjects’ reports against. Subjects never recorded more than 70% and, depending on the requested reporting interval, down to less than 40% of actual app usages. They significantly overestimated how long they used apps. While subjects forgot self-reports when no automatic reminders were sent, a high reporting frequency was perceived as uncomfortable and burdensome. Most significantly, self-reporting even changed the actual app usage of users and hence can lead to deceptive measures if a study relies on no other data sources. With this contribution, we provide empirical quantitative long-term data on the reliability of self-reported data collected with mobile devices. We aim to make researchers aware of the caveats of self-reporting and give recommendations for maximizing the reliability of results when conducting large-scale, long-term app usage studies.

  • NHLNote: The Effect of Global Instructions on Think-aloud Testing
    S. McDonald (Univ. of Sunderland, UK), H. Petrie
    S. McDonald (Univ. of Sunderland, UK)H. Petrie (Univ. of York, UK)

    This study investigates whether deviating from the classic concurrent think-aloud instructions during usability testing induces reactivity: a change in participants’ cognitive processing, which affects task performance measures.Verbal protocols are the primary tool for understanding users’ task-solving behaviors during usability testing. We investigated whether the classic think-aloud and a think-aloud with an explicit instruction leads to different task-solving performance compared to silent working. The results suggest that the classic method had no impact on task performance whereas the explicit instruction led to an increase in within-page and between-page navigation and scrolling activity. The classic method was linked to an increase in mental workload in terms of effort and frustration. The explicit think-aloud led to an increase in mental demand, performance, effort and frustration.

  • NSUNote: Reifying Social Movement Trajectories
    A. Fouse (Univ. of California, San Diego, USA), N. Weibel, C. Johnson, J. Hollan
    A. Fouse (Univ. of California, San Diego, USA)N. Weibel (Univ. of California, San Diego, USA)C. Johnson (Univ. of California, San Diego, USA)J. Hollan (Univ. of California, San Diego, USA)

    We describe the development of a novel paper-digital interface for recording movement trajectories, designed to assist ethnographers and ethologists in analysis of social movement.In this paper we describe the development of a novel paper-digital interface for recording movement trajectories, designed to assist ethnographers and ethologists in analysis of social movement. While we focus on development of a system to aid analysis of elephant movement, the resulting interaction techniques and facilities are quite general. The paper highlights how our design evolved to balance the goals of researchers, their current practices, and the challenges of integrating the relatively unconstrained world of pen and paper with the relatively constrained world of digital systems.

361Special Interest Group

  • GQEUrbanIXD :: Designing Human Interactions In The Networked City
    M. Smyth (Edinburgh Napier Univ., UK), I. Helgason, M. Brynskov, I. Mitrovic, G. Zaffiro
    M. Smyth (Edinburgh Napier Univ., UK)I. Helgason (Edinburgh Napier Univ., UK)M. Brynskov (Aarhus Univ., DK)I. Mitrovic (Univ. of Split, HR)G. Zaffiro (Telecom Italia, IT)

    Interaction Design, in an urban context, is an increasingly important field of research. City populations are currently in a state of rapid flux. Conurbations are fast becoming a hybrid of the physical environment and the digital datasphere. How we, as physical beings, will connect with, interpret and adapt this increasing dataflow residing in our cities is already becoming a significant research question. The SIG organisers will frame the discussion through a human–centred view of the concerns, experiences and behaviours that may occur in cities of the future. By adopting an approach of Thinking and Doing it is hoped that the SIG will act as a catalyst for community building.

362/363Special Interest Group

  • GJSCHI 2013 Human Work Interaction Design (HWID) SIG: Past History and Future Challenges
    T. Clemmensen (Copenhagen Business School, DK), P. Campos, D. Katre, J. Nocera, A. Lopes, R. Orngreen, S. Minocha
    T. Clemmensen (Copenhagen Business School, DK)P. Campos (Univ. of Madeira, PT)D. Katre (C-DAC, IN)J. Nocera (Univ. of West London, UK)A. Lopes (Instituto Politecnico de Castelo Branco, PT)R. Orngreen (Aarhus Univ., DK)S. Minocha (The Open Univ., UK)

    In this SIG we aim to introduce the IFIP 13.6 Human Work Interaction Design (HWID) approach to the CHI audience. The HWID working group aims at establishing relationships between extensive empirical work-domain studies and HCI design. We invite participants from industry and academia with an interest on empirical work analysis, HCI, interaction design and usability and user experience in work situations and in the workplace. This SIG is a vital step towards creating a CHI2014 workshop on this topic.

HavanePapers: Visual Perception

SJBSession chair: Paul Marshall
  • PNDPaper: Influencing Visual Judgment through Affective Priming
    L. Harrison (Univ. of North Carolina at Charlotte, USA), D. Skau, S. Franconeri, A. Lu, R. Chang
    L. Harrison (Univ. of North Carolina at Charlotte, USA)D. Skau (Univ. of North Carolina at Charlotte, USA)S. Franconeri (Northwestern Univ., USA)A. Lu (Univ. of North Carolina at Charlotte, USA)R. Chang (Tufts Univ., USA)

    Affective priming (positive and negative emotion) is shown to significantly influence accuracy in visual judgment tasks for several common chart types.Recent research suggests that individual personality differences can influence performance with visualizations. In addition to stable personality traits, research in psychology has found that temporary changes in affect (emotion) can also significantly impact performance during cognitive tasks. In this paper, we show that affective priming also influences user performance on visual judgment tasks through an experiment that combines affective priming with longstanding graphical perception experiments. Our results suggest that affective priming can influence accuracy in common graphical perception tasks. We discuss possible explanations for these findings, and describe how these findings can be applied to design visualizations that are less (or more) susceptible to error in common visualization contexts.

  • PATPaper: Play it by Ear: A Case for Serendipitous Discovery of Places with Musicons
    A. Ankolekar (Hewlett Packard, USA), T. Sandholm, L. Yu
    A. Ankolekar (Hewlett Packard, USA)T. Sandholm (Hewlett Packard, USA)L. Yu (Pomona College, USA)

    Field study investigating user performance and emotional engagement of various audio-based cues, especially musicons, during POI discovery. Helps location-based service designers design more enjoyable cues for serendipitous journeys.Current location-based services (LBS) typically allow users to locate points of interest (POI) in their vicinity but can detract from the user’s emotional experience of exploring a new location. In this paper, we examine how cues in the form of popular music (musicons) can emotionally engage users and enhance their experience of discovering nearby POIs serendipitously in unfamiliar places. The primary contribution of this paper is a field study, in which we evaluate the performance and emotional engagement of different types of audio-based cues for directing users’ attention to specific POIs. Musicons and mixed-modality cues performed close to visual and speech cues, and significantly better than auditory icons, for POI identification while creating a much more pleasant and engaging user experience. We conclude that cues for POI discovery need not always be as explicit as the baseline visual cues. Indeed, the most challenging cues, auditory icons, led to a heightened sense of autonomy.

  • PCTPaper: Waves: Exploring Idiographic Design for Live Performance
    J. Hook (Newcastle Univ., UK), J. McCarthy, P. Wright, P. Olivier
    J. Hook (Newcastle Univ., UK)J. McCarthy (Univ. College Cork, IE)P. Wright (Newcastle Univ., UK)P. Olivier (Newcastle Univ., UK)

    We explore whether idiographic design, an approach that focuses on personal accounts of individuals’ experiences, can support designers in responding to the subtle and complex issues that affect live performance.We explore whether idiographic design, a category of interaction design that focuses upon responding to detailed personal accounts of individuals’ practices, can be used to support interaction designers in responding to the complex and multifaceted design space posed by live performance. We describe and reflect upon the application of an idiographic approach during the design of Waves, an interface for live VJ performance. This approach involved a close and dialogical engagement with the practices and experiences of an individual live performer, during a series of semi-structured interviews and then the discussion and iteration of an evolving prototypical design. Reflection on the experience of applying this approach highlights idiographic design as a practical means to support interaction designers in proposing innovative designs that respond sensitively to the kinds of subtle and complex issues that underpin people’s lived and felt experiences of live performance and, potentially, many other domains.

  • PFTPaper: Effects of the Display Angle in Museums on User’s Cognition, Behavior, and Subjective Responses
    J. Ichino (Univ. of Electro-Communications, JP), K. Isoda, A. Hanai, T. Ueda
    J. Ichino (Univ. of Electro-Communications, JP)K. Isoda (Dai Nippon Printing Co., Ltd., JP)A. Hanai (Dai Nippon Printing Co., Ltd., JP)T. Ueda (Dai Nippon Printing Co., Ltd., JP)

    This paper described a user study in effects of using horizontal, vertical and tilted flat displays on people visiting in a museum.In order to achieve the intended level of communication with visitors in museums where large displays are installed, it is essential to understand how various display factors affect visitors. We explore the effects of the display angle on individual users. In our experiment, we set up three types of flat displays—vertical, horizontal, and tilted—and comprehensively tested users’ cognitive, behavioral, and subjective aspects. The results showed that a significant difference could be discerned in regards to cognitive and subjective aspects. Test results for the cognitive aspect showed that the display angle on which the displayed content was easy to understand and remember differed depending on age. Test results for the subjective aspect showed that irrespective of age, users rated tilted displays as being quicker to attract attention and easier to peruse, to understand and remember the content, and to interact with, and such displays were the most preferred.

351Papers: Searching and Finding

SNGSession chair: Leong-Hwee Teo
  • PMPPaper: Costs and Benefits of Structured Information Foraging
    A. Kittur (Carnegie Mellon Univ., USA), A. Peters, A. Diriye, T. Telang, M. Bove
    A. Kittur (Carnegie Mellon Univ., USA)A. Peters (Carnegie Mellon Univ., USA)A. Diriye (Carnegie Mellon Univ., USA)T. Telang (Carnegie Mellon Univ., USA)M. Bove (Carnegie Mellon Univ., USA)

    We introduce a novel interface for capturing online information in a structured but lightweight way and use it to experimentally characterize the costs and benefits of structured sensemaking.People spend an enormous amount of time searching for and saving information online. Existing tools capture only a small portion of the cognitive processing a user engages in while making sense of a new domain. In this paper we introduce a novel interface for capturing online infor-mation in a structured but lightweight way. We use this in-terface as a platform to experimentally characterize the costs and benefits of structuring information during the sensemaking process. Our results contribute empirical knowledge relevant to theories of information seeking and sensemaking, and practical implications for the develop-ment of tools to capture and share online information.

  • PAXPaper: Supporting Orientation during Search Result Examination
    H. Feild (Univ. of Massachusetts, USA), R. White, X. Fu
    H. Feild (Univ. of Massachusetts, USA)R. White (Microsoft Research, USA)X. Fu (LinkedIn, USA)

    Describes and evaluates Clickable Snippets, a new method to help searchers transition from results to landing pages. Can help searchers orient themselves in landing-page content and find relevant information faster.Search engines help their users decide which results to visit using captions comprising titles, URLs, and snippets containing the query keywords and proximal text from landing pages (the search results linked from the result page). Although caption content can be a key factor in these decisions, snippets provide only basic support for orienting users with landing page content from the search-engine result page (SERP), and no support during the transition to landing pages or once users reach the page following a selection decision. As a result, many searchers must employ inefficient strategies such as skimming and scanning the content of the landing page. In this paper we propose a novel method, called clickable snippets, to address this shortcoming. Clickable snippets provide searchers with a direct and actionable link between SERP captions and landing-page content. We describe a user study comparing clickable snippets with extant methods of orientation support such as query-term highlighting on the landing page and thumbnail previews on the SERP. We show that clickable snippets are preferred by participants, and lead to more effective and efficient searching. Our findings have implications for the design of the user experience in search systems.

  • PECPaper: TrailMap: Facilitating Information Seeking in a Multi-Scale Digital Map via Implicit Bookmarking
    J. Zhao (Univ. of Toronto, CA), D. Wigdor, R. Balakrishnan
    J. Zhao (Univ. of Toronto, CA)D. Wigdor (Univ. of Toronto, CA)R. Balakrishnan (Univ. of Toronto, CA)

    Designed an auto-bookmark generation algorithm according to a user’s interactions in multi-scale digital map exploration and developed a web-application based on the proposed algorithm.Web applications designed for map exploration in local neighborhoods have become increasingly popular and important in everyday life. During the information-seeking process, users often revisit previously viewed locations, repeat earlier searches, or need to memorize or manually mark areas of interest. To facilitate rapid returns to earlier views during map exploration, we propose a novel algorithm to automatically generate map bookmarks based on a user’s interaction. TrailMap, a web application based on this algorithm, is developed, providing a fluid and effective neighborhood exploration experience. A one-week study is conducted to evaluate TrailMap in users’ everyday web browsing activities. Results showed that TrailMap’s implicit bookmarking mechanism is efficient for map exploration and the interactive and visual nature of the tool is intuitive to users.

  • NMQNote: Leading People to Longer Queries
    E. Agapie (Harvard Univ., USA), G. Golovchinsky, P. Qvarfordt
    E. Agapie (Harvard Univ., USA)G. Golovchinsky (FX Palo Alto Laboatory, Inc., USA)P. Qvarfordt (FX Palo Alto Laboatory, Inc., USA)

    An experiment to test the effects of halos on query length was conducted. Results suggest that the interface may be effective for eliciting longer queries. Although longer queries can produce better results for information seeking tasks, people tend to type short queries. We created an interface designed to encourage people to type longer queries, and evaluated it in two Mechanical Turk experiments. Results suggest that our interface manipulation may be effective for eliciting longer queries.

  • NJFNote: Pirates of the Search Results Page
    K. Baxter (Google, Inc., USA), L. Malahy, J. Lubin
    K. Baxter (Google, Inc., USA)L. Malahy (Univ. of Washington, USA)J. Lubin (Capriza, USA)

    Usability evaluation and interview findings provide insight into users’ experiences, behaviors, and self-blame in response to search malware; suggests domain familiarity is not enough to recognize a malware-impaired experience.Search malware redirects nearly 100% of infected users’ clicks on web search results to unintended websites. Most published research details how web-based malware works and technological interventions to stop it before users ever see it; however, the constant evolution of obfuscation techniques makes it difficult to prevent infection altogether. User interventions in the form of toolbars, dialogs, and user education have seen limited success. Previous research has focused on a prototypical type of malware; a sophisticated program that conceals itself (e.g., surreptitious download onto a host computer) or tries to fool the user by mimicking known, trusted websites (e.g., phishing attacks). The goal of our research is to understand users’ experience, understanding of and response to search malware. The present research shows that even when confronted with blatantly unusual search behavior, people are unlikely to attribute blame to malware or to engage in behavior that may remedy the situation.

352ABPapers: Mobile Gestures

SFGSession chair: Stephane Huot
  • TYGTOCHI: “Spindex” (Speech Index) Enhances Menus on Touch Screen Devices with Tapping, Wheeling, and Flicking
    M. Jeon (Georgia Institute of Technology, USA), B. Walker, A. Srivastava
    M. Jeon (Georgia Institute of Technology, USA)B. Walker (Georgia Institute of Technology, USA)A. Srivastava (Georgia Institute of Technology, USA)

    Advanced auditory cues (spindex) enhance multimodal and auditory menus on a smartphone, making user inputs via tapping, wheeling, and flicking gestures more efficient, faster, and more enjoyable.Users interact with many electronic devices via menus such as auditory or visual menus. Auditory menus can either complement or replace visual menus. We investigated how advanced auditory cues enhance auditory menus on a smartphone, with tapping, wheeling, and flicking input gestures. The study evaluated a spindex (speech index), in which audio cues inform users where they are in a menu; 122 undergraduates navigated through a menu of 150 songs. Study variables included auditory cue type (text-to-speech alone or TTS plus spindex), visual display mode (on or off), and input gesture (tapping, wheeling, or flicking). Target search time and subjective workload were lower with spindex than without for all input gestures regardless of visual display mode. The spindex condition was rated subjectively higher than plain speech. The effects of input method and display mode on navigation behaviors were analyzed with the two-stage navigation strategy model. Results are discussed in relation to attention theories and in terms of practical applications.

  • PNNPaper: Bezel-Tap Gestures: Quick Activation of Commands from Sleep Mode on Tablets
    M. Serrano (Telecom ParisTech, FR), E. Lecolinet, Y. GUIARD
    M. Serrano (Telecom ParisTech, FR)E. Lecolinet (Telecom ParisTech, FR)Y. GUIARD (Telecom ParisTech, FR)

    Mobile devices constantly switch to sleep mode to save energy. Our contribution is an always-available shortcuts technique based on combining a bezel tap and a touchscreen contact. We present Bezel-Tap Gestures, a novel family of interaction techniques for immediate interaction on handheld tablets regardless of whether the device is alive or in sleep mode. The technique rests on the close succession of two input events: first a bezel tap, whose detection by accelerometers will awake an idle tablet almost instantly, then a screen contact. Field studies confirmed that the probability of this input sequence occurring by chance is very low, excluding the accidental activation concern. One experiment examined the optimal size of the vocabulary of commands for all four regions of the bezel (top, bottom, left, right). Another experiment evaluated two variants of the technique which both allow two-level selection in a hierarchy of commands, the initial bezel tap being followed by either two screen taps or a screen slide. The data suggests that Bezel-Tap Gestures may serve to design large vocabularies of micro-interactions with a sleeping tablet.

  • PPZPaper: iGrasp: Grasp-based Adaptive Keyboard for Mobile Devices
    L. Cheng (National Taiwan Univ., TW), H. Liang, C. Wu, M. Chen
    L. Cheng (National Taiwan Univ., TW)H. Liang (National Taiwan Univ., TW)C. Wu (National Taiwan Univ., TW)M. Chen (National Taiwan Univ., TW)

    We propose iGrasp, a novel approach that uses implicit grasps of a tablet device to automatically adapt the virtual keyboard’s layout and position to match users’ preferences and help users type earlier.Multitouch tablets, such as iPad and Android tablets, support virtual keyboards for text entry. Our 64-user study shows that 98% of the users preferred different keyboard layouts and positions depending on how they were holding these devices. However, current tablets either do not allow keyboard adjustment or require users to manually adjust the keyboards. We present iGrasp, which automatically adapts the layout and position of virtual keyboards based on how and where users are grasping the devices without requiring explicit user input. Our prototype uses 46 capacitive sensors positioned along the sides of an iPad to sense users’ grasps, and supports two types of grasp-based automatic adaptation: layout switching and continuous positioning. Our two 18-user studies show that participants were able to begin typing 42% earlier using iGrasp’s adaptive keyboard compared to the manually adjustable keyboard. Participants also rated iGrasp much easier to use than the manually adjustable keyboard (4.2 vs 2.9 on five-point Likert scale.)

  • NFXNote: Multi-Touch Rotation Gestures: Performance and Ergonomics
    E. Hoggan (Helsinki Institute for Information Technology, FI), J. Williamson, A. Oulasvirta, M. Nacenta, P. Kristensson, A. Lehtiö
    E. Hoggan (Helsinki Institute for Information Technology, FI)J. Williamson (Univ. of Glasgow, UK)A. Oulasvirta (Max Planck Institute for Informatics, DE)M. Nacenta (Univ. of St Andrews, UK)P. Kristensson (Univ. of St Andrews, UK)A. Lehtiö

    Studies performance and ergonomics characteristics of multi-touch rotations. Presents findings concerning the effects of angle, diameter, diameter, and position. Rotations performed with the index finger and thumb involve some of the most complex motor action among common multi-touch gestures, yet little is known about the factors affecting performance and ergonomics. This note presents results from a study where the angle, direction, diameter, and position of rotations were systematically manipulated. Subjects were asked to perform the rotations as quickly as possible without losing contact with the display, and were allowed to skip rotations that were too uncomfortable. The data show surprising interaction effects among the variables, and help us identify whole categories of rotations that are slow and cumbersome for users.

  • NLXNote: iRotateGrasp: Automatic Screen Rotation based on Grasp of Mobile Devices
    L. Cheng (National Taiwan Univ., TW), M. Lee, C. Wu, F. Hsiao, Y. Liu, H. Liang, Y. Chiu, M. Lee, M. Chen
    L. Cheng (National Taiwan Univ., TW)M. LeeC. Wu (National Taiwan Univ., TW)F. Hsiao (National Taiwan Univ., TW)Y. Liu (National Taiwan Univ., TW)H. Liang (National Taiwan Univ., TW)Y. Chiu (National Taiwan Univ., TW)M. Lee (National Taiwan Univ., TW)M. Chen (National Taiwan Univ., TW)

    Our paper shows that grasps can be used to rotate screens to more accurately match users’ view orientation in both upright and horizontal postures by implementing and evaluating a real-time grasp sensing and recognition prototype.Automatic screen rotation improves viewing experience and usability of mobile devices, but current gravity-based approaches do not support postures such as lying on one side, and manual rotation switches require explicit user input. iRotateGrasp automatically rotates screens of mobile devices to match users’ viewing orientations based on how users are grasping the devices. Our insight is that users’ grasps are consistent for each orientation, but significantly differ between different orientations. Our prototype used a total of 44 capacitive sensors along the four sides and the back of an iPod Touch, and uses support vector machine (SVM) to recognize grasps at 25Hz. We collected 6-users’ usage under 108 different combinations of posture, orienta-tion, touchscreen operation, and left/right/both hands. Our offline analysis showed that our grasp-based approach is promising, with 80.9% accuracy when training and testing on different users, and up to 96.7% if users are willing to train the system. Our user study (N=16) showed that iRo-tateGrasp had an accuracy of 78.8% and was 31.3% more accurate than gravity-based rotation.

221/221MLast-minute SIGs: Session 11