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Works in Progress | CHI 2013
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Works in Progress

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All communities Design (129) Engineering (34) Management (3)
User Experience (122) Child-Computer Interaction (25) Digital Arts (12) Games and Entertainment (40)
Health (0) Sustainability (11) HCI for Development (6)

    First Rotation (Monday and Tuesday): AccessibilityComputer-Supported Cooperative WorkEvaluation & Design MethodsHealthInteraction & Experience DesignLearningMultimediaMusic & AudioPrivacySocial Computing

    Second Rotation (Wednesday and Thursday): Augmented RealityEmotionsGame/PlayGestureInputsPDA & MobileSustainabilityTabletops & DisplaysTactileUbiquitous ComputingUI DesignVisualizationWeb & E-commerce

    First Rotation: Monday and Tuesday

    Accessibility

    • WCECan We Augment Reality with “Mental Images” to Elicit Pretend Play? A Usability Study
      Z. Bai (Univ. of Cambridge, UK), A. Blackwell, G. Coulouris
      Z. Bai (Univ. of Cambridge, UK)A. Blackwell (Univ. of Cambridge, UK)G. Coulouris (Univ. of Cambridge, UK)

      Pretend play is a symbolic activity in one’s childhood which develops critical competences such as mental representation, linguistic expression and social knowledge. However, children with autism spectrum condition (ASC) are often found lacking in pretend play. Inspired by the analogy between pretend play and Augmented Reality (AR), both of which require dual representations of reality and its symbolic counterpart, we designed an AR system that aims to assist young children with ASC to be engaged in open-ended pretend play by overlaying suggested imaginary “mental images” over the physical environment. A usability study with normally developed children aged 4 to 5 was conducted to inform a future empirical study with autistic children.

    • WDXA Motion-based Interface to Control Environmental Stimulation for Children with Severe to Profound Disabilities
      C. Manresa-Yee (Univ. of Balearic Islands, ES), J. Muntaner, D. Arellano
      C. Manresa-Yee (Univ. of Balearic Islands, ES)J. Muntaner (Univ. of Balearic Islands, ES)D. Arellano (Filmakademie Baden-Württemberg, DE)

      SINASense is a novel motion-based interface that serves as an educational application for children with severe or profound cognitive, sensory and physical impairments. The application makes use of computer vision to track the body movements of the user, which in turn trigger meaningful outcomes from the system. In this paper we describe the design principles of the interface, our experience during its evaluation, and finally we present ideas for future developments.

    • WHNAdaptive Time Windows for Real-Time Crowd Captioning
      M. Murphy (Univ. of Rochester, USA), C. Miller, W. Lasecki, J. Bigham
      M. Murphy (Univ. of Rochester, USA)C. Miller (Univ. of Rochester, USA)W. Lasecki (Univ. of Rochester, USA)J. Bigham (Univ. of Rochester, USA)

      Real-time captioning provides deaf and hard of hearing users with access to live spoken language. The most common source of real-time captions are professional stenographers, but they are expensive (up to $200/hr). Recent work shows that groups of non-experts can collectively caption speech in real-time by directing workers to different portions of the speech and automatically merging the pieces together. This work uses `one size fits all’ segment durations regardless of an individual worker’s ability or preferences. In this paper, we explore the effect of adaptively scaling the amount of content presented to each worker based on their past and recent performance. For instance, giving fast typists longer segments and giving workers shorter segments as they fatigue. Studies with 24 remote crowd workers, using ground truth in segment calculations, show that this approach improves average coverage by over 54%, and F1 score (harmonic mean) by over 44%.

    • WLEAccessible Gaming for People with Physical and Cognitive Disabilities: A Framework for Dynamic Adaptation
      S. Vickers (De Montfort Univ., UK), H. Istance, M. Heron
      S. Vickers (De Montfort Univ., UK)H. Istance (De Montfort Univ., UK)M. Heron (Canterbury Christ Church Univ., UK)

      Current approaches to enabling access to computer games are typically fragmentary, and may involve manual expert configuration of the game, or of the input or output devices used. We present work towards a comprehensive software framework to facilitate dynamic adaptation of computer games to different levels of physical and cognitive abilities. The framework is grounded on a task analysis of gameplay by expert players, and integrates automatic modification of games tasks, interaction techniques, and input device configuration according to a profile of user abilities.

    • WNNKaraoke: An Assistive Alternative Interface for Illiterate Users
      K. Dew (Univ. of Washington, USA), M. Haddadin, A. Dawale, C. Fishel
      K. Dew (Univ. of Washington, USA)M. Haddadin (Univ. of Washington, USA)A. Dawale (Univ. of Washington, USA)C. Fishel (Univ. of Washington, USA)

      In this extended abstract, the authors describe their design proposal and method for developing an adaptive, assistive alternative interface for illiterate mobile device users in the US. Based on user research and design suggestions from Knoche & Huang’s CHI 2012 workshop, the authors designed the interface using key ideas from Flanagan et al.’s values-sensitive design process.

    • WKVFacilitating Route Learning Using Interactive Audio-Tactile Maps for Blind and Visually Impaired People
      N. Abd Hamid (Univ. of York, UK), A. Edwards
      N. Abd Hamid (Univ. of York, UK)A. Edwards (Univ. of York, UK)

      In preparing to navigate in an unfamiliar location, a blind person may use non-visual maps. This project is aimed at developing more effective, interactive audio-tactile maps. The maps will be novel in using speech and non-speech sounds and allowing the user to rotate the map, thereby facilitating the building of an egocentric cognitive map. Initial requirements have been gathered from mobility instructors. Their main conclusions are that immoveable objects represent the most useful landmarks and that certain ambient sounds can provide most valuable orientation information.

    • WLSTowards an Ambient Assisted Living User Interaction Taxonomy
      M. Petzold (Univ. of Cologne, DE), F. Barbabella, J. Bobeth, D. Kern, C. Mayer, M. Morandell
      M. Petzold (Univ. of Cologne, DE)F. Barbabella (Italian National Institute of Health and Science on Aging (INRCA), IT)J. Bobeth (CURE – Center for Usability Research and Engineering, AT)D. Kern (Bertrandt Ingenieurbüro GmbH, DE)C. Mayer (AIT Austrian Institute of Technology GmbH, AT)M. Morandell (AIT Austrian Institute of Technology GmbH, AT)

      Extensive research in the field of ambient assisted living (AAL) provides profound knowledge about the design of AAL systems. However, more generic design characteristics for user interaction have not been formalized for this domain yet. Thus, we propose to develop a domain specific taxonomy for the design of user interaction in AAL systems. We adopted a systematic taxonomy development approach that combines an empirical and a pseudo-conceptual strategy. Six co-researchers from different disciplines conduct the iterative research process. Next to AAL systems existing taxonomies in the field of human-computer interaction are analyzed following the Delphi method. In this paper we present our research process and preliminary results from the first iteration. The final taxonomy allows classification and should support the analysis of user interaction utilized in AAL systems. Furthermore, it can deal as a practical design guideline.

    • WGMExploring Tangible Collaborative Distance Learning Environments for the Blind and Visually Impaired
      M. Manshad (New Mexico State Univ., USA), E. Pontelli, S. Manshad
      M. Manshad (New Mexico State Univ., USA)E. Pontelli (New Mexico State Univ., USA)S. Manshad (New Mexico State Univ., USA)

      This work-in-progress presents our prototype of a tangible collaborative distance learning environment via a custom set of Trackable Interactive Multi-modal Manipulatives (TIMMs). This work defines a Tangible User Environment (TUE), empowering people with visual impairments to create, modify, and naturally interact with graphical representations that are commonly encountered in mathematics, computer science and other scientific disciplines. TIMMs are designed to enable distance collaboration among students and with instructors. This system supports remote and active position, proximity, stacking, and orientation tracking of manipulatives on a multi-touch table-top surface, while providing complete visibility to local and remote instructors. This user-centered system design is derived from various visits and discussions with instructors of blind and visually impaired students in K-12 education.

    • WLKHuman Faces Detection and Localization with Simulated Prosthetic Vision
      G. DENIS (Univ. of Toulouse, Université Paul Sabatier, FR), C. Jouffrais, V. Vergnieux, M. Macé
      G. DENIS (Univ. of Toulouse, Université Paul Sabatier, FR)C. Jouffrais (Univ. Toulouse 3 & CNRS, FR)V. Vergnieux (Univ. of Toulouse, Université Paul Sabatier, FR)M. Macé (CNRS, Univ. Paul Sabatier, FR)

      Clinical trials reveal that current visual neuroprosthesis are not yet usable. The main reason is the small number of implanted electrodes, leading to a very poor visual resolution. The resolution is especially not sufficient to detect specific objects (faces, signs, etc.) in the surroundings. We used simulated prosthetic vision (SPV) to show that pre-processing of the camera image could restore these functions, even with low-resolution implants. Specifically, we showed that it is possible to quickly detect and localize human faces located nearby. We suggest that high-level processing of the video stream may be included in current visual neuroprosthesis. This would restore many visuomotor behaviors such as grasping, heading, steering, etc.

    • WPNDesign Guidelines of a Tool to Help Blind Authors Independently Format Their Word Documents
      L. Morales (Univ. of California, Santa Cruz, Santa Cruz), S. Arteaga, S. Kurniawan
      L. Morales (Univ. of California, Santa Cruz, Santa Cruz)S. Arteaga (Hartnell College, USA)S. Kurniawan (Univ. of California, Santa Cruz, Santa Cruz)

      Most work on document creators for blind people mainly concentrates on supporting document writing rather than document formatting, even though blind authors’ documents are often treated dismissively when they do not match “expected” standards and many blind authors rely on sighted people to check their documents. Through understanding sighted readers’ expectations and strategies and problems blind authors experience with current word processors, we compiled a set of guidelines for a formatting tool for blind authors. The guidelines include: the ability for users to control the level of corrections, the timeliness and intuitiveness of the information, and the compatibility with screen readers. We then developed a prototype with which we are conducting a case study evaluation, mainly, to come up with more guidelines. Emerging guidelines include: differentiating voices associated with content and formatting information, the ability to record user preference, and a preview of the surrounding context of the formatted items.

    • WMTButton Blender: Remixing Input to Improve Video Game Accessibility
      K. Said (UMBC, USA), S. Kane
      K. Said (UMBC, USA)S. Kane (Univ. of Maryland, Baltimore County, USA)

      Over time, advances in video game system hardware have facilitated the evolution of video game mechanics from simple to complex. Game input devices have followed this trend, evolving from simple joysticks to multi-button, sensor-enabled controllers. Unfortunately, the complexity of modern game controllers presents significant challenges to some players, including novices and gamers with accessibility needs. Button Blender reduces such challenges by recording, remixing, and replaying game controller input, allowing novice players to play like experts.

    Computer-Supported Cooperative Work

    • WPFInvestigating the Communication Patterns of Distance-Separated Grandparents and Grandchildren
      A. Forghani (Simon Fraser Univ., CA), C. Neustaedter, T. Schiphorst
      A. Forghani (Simon Fraser Univ., CA)C. Neustaedter (Simon Fraser Univ., CA)T. Schiphorst (Simon Fraser Univ., CA)

      A variety of systems have been designed to support communication between distance-separated grandparents and grandchildren. Yet despite this, there are few studies of the actual communication routines and needs of these groups. To address this, we have conducted a study that explores the existing communication activities as well as the future desired communication patterns between distance-separated grandparents and grandchildren between the ages of three and ten through interview with grandparents and parents. The main purpose of this study was to investigate the way they currently communicate as well as the expectations that could be used as a basis for future designs to support their needs.

    • WJGDesigning a Smartpen Reminder System for Older Adults
      J. Williamson (Univ. of Glasgow, UK), M. McGee-Lennon, E. Freeman, S. Brewster
      J. Williamson (Univ. of Glasgow, UK)M. McGee-Lennon (Univ. of Glasgow, UK)E. Freeman (Univ. of Glasgow, UK)S. Brewster (Univ. of Glasgow, UK)

      Designing interactive systems for older adults often means designing with older adults from the earliest stages of development. This paper describes the co-design of a smartpen and paper calendar-based re-minder system for the home. The design sessions in-volved older adults and used experience prototypes [1]. We completed these co-design sessions with older adults in order to explore the possibility of exploiting paper-based calendars for multimodal reminders sys-tems using a smartpen. The initial results demonstrate successful interaction techniques that make a strong link between paper interaction and scheduling remind-ers, such as using smartpen annotations and using the location of written reminders within a paper diary to schedule digital reminders. The results also describe important physical aspects of paper diaries as discussed by older adults, such as daily/weekly layouts and bind-ing.

    • WASRotating, Tilting, Bouncing: Using an Interactive Chair to Promote Activity in Office Environments
      K. Probst (Univ. of Applied Sciences Upper Austria, AT), D. Lindlbauer, P. Greindl, M. Trapp, M. Haller, B. Schwartz, A. Schrempf
      K. Probst (Univ. of Applied Sciences Upper Austria, AT)D. Lindlbauer (Univ. of Applied Sciences Upper Austria, AT)P. Greindl (Univ. of Applied Sciences Upper Austria, AT)M. Trapp (Univ. of Waterloo, CA)M. Haller (Univ. of Applied Sciences Upper Austria, AT)B. Schwartz (Univ. of Applied Sciences Upper Austria, AT)A. Schrempf (Univ. of Applied Sciences Upper Austria, AT)

      A typical office worker nowadays spends the majority of his time sedentary in the course of his working life. In this paper, we address the problem of sedentariness in the context of office work through smooth integration of light physical activity into the daily work routine. Equipping a flexible office chair with motion sensing functionality, the chair becomes a ubiquitous input device that provides an office worker with the possibility to use the movements of his body for tilting, rotating, or bouncing to control his workplace computer. Based on this idea, we apply an existing gesture taxonomy to body movements on an active office chair, and explore different application scenarios for ubiquitous gestural chair interaction.

    • WPPThat’s not Norma(n/l)! A Detailed Analysis of Midas Touch in Gaze-based Problem-solving
      H. Vrzakova (Univ. of Eastern Finland, FI), R. Bednarik
      H. Vrzakova (Univ. of Eastern Finland, FI)R. Bednarik (Univ. of Eastern Finland, FI)

      Interaction error prevention needs to start from a good understanding of the context of an error. One of the central issues in gaze-interaction research is the suppression of the so-called Midas touch: the interface’s incorrect evaluation of user gaze as a purposeful interaction command. We conduct a detailed analysis of numerous instances of these events during interactive problem-solving. By developing and applying an annotation scheme we present a taxonomy of the errors and remedial strategies users employ. We present the nuances, richness and development of the user behavior when dealing with the outcomes of the error, and uncover two major coping strategies. The knowledge will be used to design automatic error-prevention mechanisms for gaze-based interaction.

    • WMXFacilitating Gaze Interaction Using the Gap and Overlap Effects
      A. Diaz Tula (USP, BR), A. Kurauchi, C. Morimoto
      A. Diaz Tula (USP, BR)A. Kurauchi (USP, BR)C. Morimoto (USP, BR)

      Many results from psychophysics have indicated that the latency of saccadic eye movements is affected by how new visual stimuli is presented. In this paper we show how two such results, known as the gap effect (GE) and overlap condition (OC), can be used to improve gaze interaction. We have chosen a dwell time based eye typing application, since eye typing can be easily modeled as a sequence of eye movements from one key to the next. By modeling how dwell time selection is performed, we show how the GE and OC can be used to generate visual feedback that facilitates the eye movement to the next key. A pilot experiment was conducted in which participants had to type short phrases on a virtual keyboard using 2 different visual feedback methods, one traditional feedback based on animation and a new feedback scheme using the GE and OC. Results show that using a feedback that exploits these phenomena facilitates eye movements and can improve eye typing user experience and performance.

    • WMULet Me Show You What I Read: Exploring Referencing Strategies for E-Books
      D. Yoon (Cornell Univ., USA), H. Peng, B. Xu
      D. Yoon (Cornell Univ., USA)H. Peng (Cornell Univ., USA)B. Xu (Cornell Univ., USA)

      As reading behavior is moving towards digital and social domain, the way we share book content is becoming an emerging and crucial question. In this paper, we explored two different E-book content reference strategies: the traditional page-number-based reference and an off-the-shelf highlight-based reference. A comparative laboratory study was conducted to test the speed and workload of referencing behaviors for both reference generator and receiver. The results present that the highlight is easier and faster for reference receiver, while the page-number for reference generator. We also found out that page-number provides better overall comprehension over book contents. We conclude with implications of future E-book interface design to enhance share-ability.

    • WNRNavigating Constraints: The Design Work of Professional Software Developers
      D. Socha (Univ. of Washington, Bothell, USA), J. Tenenberg
      D. Socha (Univ. of Washington, Bothell, USA)J. Tenenberg (Univ. of Washington, Tacoma, USA)

      This paper reports on initial results from a study of software developers doing their authentic work in their place of work. We apply the ethnographic and interaction-analytic methods that the CHI community has used to study people carrying out their work in non-software domains. Our preliminary results show professional software developers spending the majority of their time navigating a myriad of largely invisible constraints arising from multiple, concrete, real-world sources. They use frequent hypothesis-probe-interpret to cycles navigate the contextual, complex systems that they inhabit and construct. These constraints are qualitatively different from those reported in the literature based on early conceptual design.

    • WBCSupervisory Guide Part I: Detecting Gaps in UAV Swarm Operator Situation Awareness
      F. Frische (OFFIS – Institute for Information Technology, DE), A. Luedtke
      F. Frische (OFFIS – Institute for Information Technology, DE)A. Luedtke (OFFIS – Institute for Information Technology, DE)

      Experiments have shown that incorrect situation awareness (SA) is the major cause of human errors in different aviation domains. Many of these errors are caused by insufficient scanning of information leading to ‘gaps’ in SA. We envision developing an SA-based attention guidance system that eliminates SA-gaps of operators supervising a swarm of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles on-the-fly. This paper presents a novel, eye movement based technique for detecting SA-gaps, which we identified as the first development step of the envisioned system.

    • WDTA Theoretical Model for Trust in Automated Systems
      K. Hoff (Univ. of Illinois Urbana-Champaign, USA), M. Bashir
      K. Hoff (Univ. of Illinois Urbana-Champaign, USA)M. Bashir (Univ. of Illinois Urbana-Champaign, USA)

      The concept of trust in automation has received a great deal of attention in recent years in response to modern society’s ever-increasing usage of automated systems. Researchers have used a variety of different automated systems in unique experimental paradigms to identify factors that regulate the trust formation process. In this work-in-progress report, we propose a preliminary, theoretical model of factors that influence trust in automation. Our model utilizes three layers of analysis (dispositional trust, situational trust, and learned trust) to explain the variability of trust in a wide range of circumstances. We are in the process of verifying certain aspects of the model empirically, but our current framework provides a useful perspective for future investigations into the intricacies of trust in automated systems.

    • WGBEmphasizing Dysfunctional Group Dynamics in Collaboration Personas: Specification of an Approach
      A. GIBOIN (INRIA, FR)
      A. GIBOIN (INRIA, FR)

      Comparing Collaboration Personas and Individual Personas for the design and evaluation of collaboration software, Judge, Matthews, and Whittaker (2012) found that practitioners preferred collaboration personas, but required that the method put more emphasis on problematic or dysfunctional group dynamics. Because Judge et al. only outlined a possible approach to meet this requirement, we decided to contribute to the specification of the approach. We here report the first steps of this specification work.

    • WKTHand and Eyes: How Eye Contact is Linked to Gestures in Video Conferencing
      K. Neureiter (Univ. of Salzburg, AT), M. Murer, V. Fuchsberger, M. Tscheligi
      K. Neureiter (Univ. of Salzburg, AT)M. Murer (Univ. of Salzburg, AT)V. Fuchsberger (Univ. of Salzburg, AT)M. Tscheligi (Univ. of Salzburg, AT)

      Video-mediated communication (VMC) technologies enable communication and interaction over distance and try to provide the user the experience of real face-to-face interaction and social presence. Although those systems allow a variety of nonverbal cues, most of them lack eye contact due to the vertical displacement between the camera (e.g., at the top edge of the screen) and the image of the communication partner’s eyes. In an initial study we explored the interdependency of eye contact, gaze behavior and gestures with respect to social presence. Our results indicate that allowing for eye contact fosters the perception of gestures.

    • WAXGitHub Developers Use Rockstars to Overcome Overflow of News
      M. Lee (Univ. of Washington, USA), B. Ferwerda, J. Choi, J. Hahn, J. Moon, J. Kim
      M. Lee (Univ. of Washington, USA)B. Ferwerda (Yonsei Univ., KR)J. Choi (Yonsei Univ., KR)J. Hahn (National Univ. of Singapore, SG)J. Moon (Korea Univ., KR)J. Kim (Yonsei Univ., KR)

      Keeping track of a constantly updating stream of news items on social networking enabled software development sites may be difficult. We analyzed the actions of 544 GitHub.com developers working across 5,657 projects to examine how the network of developers and projects influence where developers choose to contribute. Our analyses revealed the existence of a group of extremely well connected developers, or rockstars. We found that these rockstars’: 1) actions have a greater influence on their followers compared to regular developers, 2) type of action affect their followers differently, 3) influence on followers may depend on a project’s age, 4) increased activity on a project increases activity by followers, and 5) followers use as guides to projects to work on. We discuss the implications of these findings to the design of software development environments.

    • WDZPerformance and Participation in Open Source Software on Github
      N. McDonald (Drexel Univ., USA), S. Goggins
      N. McDonald (Drexel Univ., USA)S. Goggins (Drexel Univ., USA)

      A few studies have attempted to provide metrics of success in open source software (OSS) projects but the role a code hosting workspace plays in how performance is viewed and measured is little examined. We conducted qualitative, exploratory research with lead and core developers on three successful projects on GitHub to understand how OSS communities on GitHub measure success. These results were obtained in connection with a larger project that is designed to understand the structure of code hosting platforms in relation to participation and performance. We report two main findings. First, lead and core members of the projects we interviewed display a nuanced understanding of community participation in their assessment of success. Second, they attribute increased participation on their projects to the features and usability provided by GitHub.

    • WEHCrowdUtility: Know the Crowd that Works for You
      K. Dasgupta (Xerox Innovation Group, IN), V. Rajan, S. Karanam, K. Ponnavaikko, C. Balamurugan, N. Piratla
      K. Dasgupta (Xerox Innovation Group, IN)V. Rajan (India, IN)S. Karanam (India, IN)K. Ponnavaikko (India, IN)C. Balamurugan (Xerox Innovation Group, IN)N. Piratla (India, IN)

      Crowdsourcing platforms aim to leverage the collective intelligence of a largely distributed Internet workforce to solve a wide range of tasks. Crowd workers (unlike in a typical organization), exhibit varying work patterns, expertise, and performance – with little or no control that can be imposed on them. Requesters (e.g. enterprises) also exhibit diverse requirements in terms of the size, complexity and timings of the tasks, as well as SLAs (performance expectations). Clearly, the heterogeneity makes the choice of a platform suited for a given task difficult for the user. This paper highlights this problem and proposes CrowdUtility – a first-of-a-kind statistical machine learning approach, which models the dynamic behavioral characteristics of crowdsourcing platforms and uses them to recommend the best platform for the enterprise task(s). Initial results from real-world experiments suggest that the proposed system provides an attractive solution to this erstwhile unsolved problem

    • WHHTaskville: Visualizing Tasks and Raising Awareness in the Workplace
      S. Nikkila (Arizona State Univ., USA), D. Byrne, H. Sundaram, A. Kelliher, S. Linn
      S. Nikkila (Arizona State Univ., USA)D. Byrne (Arizona State Univ., USA)H. Sundaram (Arizona State Univ., USA)A. Kelliher (Carnegie Mellon Univ., USA)S. Linn (San Francisco State Univ., USA)

      Taskville is an interactive visualization that aims to increase awareness of tasks that occur in the workplace. It utilizes gameplay elements and playful interaction to motivate continued use. A preliminary study with 37 participants shows that Taskville succeeds at being a fun and enjoyable experience while also increasing awareness. A strong correlation was also found between two major study groups demonstrating its potential to increase awareness and stimulate task-based activity across work groups.

    • WHJA Timeline Visualization for Multi-Team Collaborative Planning
      L. Batrinca (FBK, IT), M. Khan, D. Billman, B. Aydemir, G. Convertino
      L. Batrinca (FBK, IT)M. Khan (FBK, IT)D. Billman (San Jose State Univ., USA)B. Aydemir (Univ. of Trento, IT)G. Convertino (Xerox Research Center Europe, FR)

      Developing and corroborating plans for critical missions (e.g., space missions) is not a trivial task. Our research focuses on designing and evaluating a planning tool that supports a team of experts engaged in sharing, cross-validating, and refining existing plans. We designed a plan visualization tool to support multi-team collaborative planning for operations on the International Space Station. We built and evaluated two prototypes, a text-based tool representing the current practice and a new, dual timeline visualization tool. In this paper we present the design and the formative evaluation, which indicated the promise of the proposed design but also identified implementation issues.

    • WLRIt is about Time: Time Aware Quality Management for Interactive Systems with Humans in the Loop
      M. Krause (Univ. of Hannover, DE), R. Porzel
      M. Krause (Univ. of Hannover, DE)R. Porzel (Univ. of Bremen, DE)

      In recent years crowd-based and human computation systems have attracted increasing attention in science and industry. For applications that are driven by input from a multitude of human raters, ensuring data reliability and organizing an interactive workflow constitute a new challenge. In this paper we describe a novel approach to ensure data quality in crowd-based and human computation systems. The proposed algorithm features the potential for direct feedback and interactivity while producing little computational overhead.

    • WPJsynchroLight: Three-dimensional Pointing System for Remote Video Communication
      J. Ou (Massachusetts Institute of Technology, USA), S. Tang, H. Ishii
      J. Ou (Massachusetts Institute of Technology, USA)S. Tang (Massachusetts Institute of Technology, USA)H. Ishii (Massachusetts Institute of Technology, USA)

      Although the image quality and transmission speed of current remote video communication systems have vastly improved in recent years, its interactions still remain detached from the physical world. This causes frustration and lowers working efficiency, especially when both sides are referencing physical objects and space. In this paper, we propose a remote pointing system named synchroLight that allows users to point at remote physical objects with synthetic light. The system extends the interaction of the existing remote pointing systems from two-dimensional surfaces to three-dimensional space. The goal of this project is to approach a seamless experience in video communication.

    • WLGCombining Social Strategies and Workload: a New Design to Reduce the Negative Effects of Task Interruptions
      R. de Vries (Univ. of Twente, NL), M. Lohse, A. Winterboer, F. Groen, V. Evers
      R. de Vries (Univ. of Twente, NL)M. Lohse (Univ. of Twente, NL)A. Winterboer (VDI/VDE Innovation und Technik GmbH, DE)F. Groen (Univ. of Amsterdam, NL)V. Evers (Univ. of Twente, NL)

      Being interrupted by notifications and reminders is common while working. In this study we consider whether system politeness reduces (negative) effects of being interrupted by system requests. We carried out a 2 (polite vs. neutral system request) x 2 (high vs. low mental load) between-participants experiment. We measured annoyance, frustration and mental effort. Our results suggest that social strategies can mitigate some of the negative effects, but that this depends on the difficulty of the task. We discuss the implications of these results for the design of interruptive system messages and for further research into social computing.

    • WQFThe Effect of Explanations on Perceived Control and Behaviors in Intelligent Systems
      D. Holliday (City Univ. London, UK), S. Wilson, S. Stumpf
      D. Holliday (City Univ. London, UK)S. Wilson (City Univ. London, UK)S. Stumpf (City Univ. London, UK)

      Intelligent systems often violate fundamental usability principles, such as control and transparency. Explanations have been shown to have a positive effect on transparency in such systems but little research exists as to how it may affect control. We set out to investigate how explanations may impact upon users’ perceptions of control in an intelligent system. We conducted an empirical study in which 15 participants carried out a qualitative data analysis task using an intelligent system. Participants were divided into two groups: with and without explanations. Participants could indicate agreement or correct the system. Our results show that participants without explanations display more control-exerting behaviors but that there is no difference between conditions in participants’ perception of control. We discuss our findings and implications for future work.

    Evaluation & Design Methods

    • WNLCHECk: A Tool to Inform and Encourage Ethical Practice in Participatory Design with Children
      J. Read (Univ. of Central Lancashire, UK), M. Horton, G. Sim, P. Gregory, D. Fitton, B. Cassidy
      J. Read (Univ. of Central Lancashire, UK)M. Horton (Univ. of Central Lancashire, UK)G. Sim (Univ. of Central Lancashire, UK)P. Gregory (Univ. of Central Lancashire, UK)D. Fitton (Univ. of Central Lancashire, UK)B. Cassidy (Univ. of Central Lancashire, UK)

      When working with children in participatory design activities ethical questions arise that are not always considered in a standard ethics review. This paper highlights five challenges around the ethics of the value of design and the ethics of the children’s participation and presents a new tool, CHECk that deals with three of these challenges by virtue of two checklists that are designed to challenge researchers in CCI and HCI to critically consider the reasons for involving children in design projects and to examine how best to describe design activities in order that children can better consent to participate.

    • WFSExploring the Potential of the Drawing Intervention Method for Design and Evaluation by Young Children
      W. Barendregt (Univ. of Gothenburg, SE), T. Bekker
      W. Barendregt (Univ. of Gothenburg, SE)T. Bekker (Technische Univ. Eindhoven, NL)

      This paper describes the preliminary results of an exploratory study on the use of the Drawing Intervention method for both design and evaluation activities with young children (4-7). In this study we wanted to a) investigate how a variant of this method can be used to evaluate a game with younger children than the ones participating in previous studies, b) how well it works as a method to invite children to generate design ideas, and c) whether it works as a collaborative design method. Findings suggest that in general children were able to create drawings related to the proposed themes and showing their understanding of several aspects of the technologies/games that they encountered. The youngest children found it hard to collaborate and usually worked on one side of the paper if forced to share a paper, while some older children sometimes were able to create one game together.

    • WMM3D Attention: Measurement of Visual Saliency Using Eye Tracking Glasses
      L. Paletta (Joanneum Research, AT), K. Santner, H. Mayer, J. Schrammel, G. Fritz
      L. Paletta (Joanneum Research, AT)K. SantnerH. Mayer (Joanneum Research, AT)J. Schrammel (CURE – Center for Usability Research & Engineering, AT)G. Fritz

      Understanding and estimating human attention in different interactive scenarios is an important part of human computer interaction. With the advent of wearable eye-tracking glasses and Google glasses, monitoring of human visual attention will soon become ubiquitous. The presented work describes the precise estimation of human gaze fixations with respect to its environment, without the need of artificial landmarks in the field of view, and being capable of providing attention mapping onto 3D information. It enables full 3D recovery of the human view frustum and the gaze pointer in a previously acquired 3D model of the environment in real time. The key contribution is that our methodology enables mapping of fixations directly into an automatically computed 3d model. This innovative methodology will open new opportunities for human attention studies during interaction with its environment, bringing new potential into automated processing for human factors technologies.

    • WPMThe Challenge of Working with Teens as Participants in Interaction Design
      D. Fitton (Univ. of Central Lancashire, UK), J. Read, M. Horton
      D. Fitton (Univ. of Central Lancashire, UK)J. Read (Univ. of Central Lancashire, UK)M. Horton (Univ. of Central Lancashire, UK)

      As participants in interaction design, teenagers offer some very unique and valuable insights both into the often-unconventional world that they inhabit and from a viewpoint that can combine elements of both child and adult perspectives. Teenagers as a user group are not often studied within interaction design and, within the field of HCI, fall into an underexplored space between the Child-Computer Interaction community and mainstream HCI. Special consideration is needed when working with this user group as methodologies developed for child or adult users may not be appropriate or entirely successful. This paper begins by defining and describing teenagers as a user population, then giving examples of how methodologies have been successfully adapted and created in order to engage teenagers in design studies. Finally the paper presents a series of challenges, opportunities, and areas to explore within this emerging area of HCI.

    • WCLSurprise, Surprise: Activity Log Based Time Analytics for Time Management
      V. Pammer (Know-Center, AT), M. Bratic
      V. Pammer (Know-Center, AT)M. Bratic (Know-Center GmbH, AT)

      We explore the usefulness of time analytics based on activity log data created by a mixture of automatic activity tracking on a PC and manual time tracking (stop-watch functionality) for time management. For two weeks, 7 study participants used such computer-supported time tracking and reviewed their time use daily. Our study reveals that the regular usage of such software indeed leads to insights with respect to time management: study participants consistently reported surprise about the extent of their worktime fragmentation. Additionally, our study indicates that besides mere data analytics, users require guidance (“actionable analytics”) to actually change time management behaviour.

    • WKUTowards inferring language expertise using eye tracking
      K. Kunze (Osaka Prefecture Univ., JP), H. Kawaichi, K. Yoshimura, K. Kise
      K. Kunze (Osaka Prefecture Univ., JP)H. Kawaichi (Osaka Prefecture Univ., JP)K. YoshimuraK. Kise (Osaka Prefecture Univ., JP)

      We present initial work towards recognizing reading activities. This paper describes our efforts detect the English skill level of a user and infer which words are difficult for them to understand. We present an initial study of 5 students and show our findings regarding the skill level assessment. We explain a method to spot difficult words. Eye tracking is a promising technology to examine and assess a user’s skill level.

    • WLCSocial Devices – A Laboratory Study on User Preferences of Device Proactivity
      J. Palviainen (Pervasive Computing, Human Centered Tecnology, FI), K. Väänänen-Vainio-Mattila, H. Peltola
      J. Palviainen (Pervasive Computing, Human Centered Tecnology, FI)K. Väänänen-Vainio-Mattila (Tampere Univ. of Technology, FI)H. Peltola (Pervasive Computing, FI)

      Social Devices is a proximity-based concept where pro-active devices – such as smart phones – communicate with each other and co-located humans. The objective behind the concept is to foster new interactions be-tween users, both those who are already familiar with each other and those who are not. From the users’ viewpoint, the major questions concerning Social De-vices are the acceptability of the concept and in specif-ic, the level of proactivity of the devices. In this paper, we present the first results of evaluating the acceptance of Social Devices in a laboratory setting. We tested two versions of a game running on Social Devices by exposing the participants to four different scenarios varying in proactivity. The majority of the participants (74%, N=27) preferred to have control over starting the game. However, 48% ranked an application proactively sharing personal information to friends as the best of the four presented scenarios.

    • WGTUsers’ Socially Desirable Responding with Computer Interviewers
      S. Kang (USC Institute for Creative Technologies, USA), J. Morie
      S. Kang (USC Institute for Creative Technologies, USA)J. Morie (USC, USA)

      In this paper, we explore how different types of computer interviewers and the amount of self-disclosure from the interviewers affect the quantity of socially desirable responses displayed by interviewees. Online surveys were delivered by computer interviewers. The computer interviewers included a text-based interface and an anthropomorphic character interface. The interviewers’ self-disclosure presented their social norm violations. Interview questions were in the form of socially desirable response items representing impression management in this study. The experimental design was a 2 (Interviewers’ type) x 2 (Interviewers’ self-disclosure versus no self-disclosure) factorial between-subjects experiment. The main dependent variable was whether users’ socially desirable responses were affected by the type of interviewer and that amount of self-disclosure provided by the interviewer. The preliminary findings present the potential for self-disclosing anthropomorphic characters to reduce the social desirability bias present in interviewees with high public self-consciousness in their self-disclosure.

    • WLUGive And Take: Audio Gift Giving To Support Research Practices
      E. Thom (Swansea Univ., UK), M. Jones
      E. Thom (Swansea Univ., UK)M. Jones (Swansea Univ., UK)

      In this paper, we introduce and explore continuing research based around the Audio Gift system. Audio Gift uses hand-only gestures along with haptic feedback to capture and share audio notes from a discussion. The aim is to enhance, in a subtle way, the capture of key points during a research discussion. In addition to describing the prototype, we present observations and findings of an exploratory field study with archaeologists. These findings highlight the value and challenges of Audio Gift.

    • WCSMeasuring Touch Bias of One Thumb Posture on Direct Touch-based Mobile Devices
      K. Lee (KAIST (Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology), KR), S. Kim, S. Myaeng
      K. Lee (KAIST (Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology), KR)S. Kim (KAIST, KR)S. Myaeng (KAIST (Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology), KR)

      Direct-touch interactive surfaces become pervasive in our daily lives due to personal mobile devices such as smartphones. However, inaccurate target pointing on direct touch-based mobile devices, which occurs due to the ambiguity of the user-aimed point estimation from the finger contact region, often causes trouble for users. To understand this problem of direct-touch interactions, we conducted an experimental study where we explored the touch bias of one thumb posture on direct touch-based mobile devices. Moreover, we proposed a novel method of splitting a touch surface into several regions; this method enables an analysis of the touch bias according to angular and longitudinal criteria.

    • WHSCollecting Memories of the Museum Experience
      G. Kostoska (Univ. of Trento, IT), D. Fezzi, B. Valeri, M. Baez, F. Casati, S. Caliari, S. Tarter
      G. Kostoska (Univ. of Trento, IT)D. Fezzi (Univ. of Trento, IT)B. Valeri (Univ. of Trento, IT)M. Baez (Univ. of Trento, IT)F. Casati (Univ. of Trento, IT)S. Caliari (Museum of Sciences, IT)S. Tarter (Museum of Sciences, IT)

      When we go to the museum, we see many interesting objects that have fascinating stories related to them. However, visitors do not often share these experiences with people that have not visited the exhibition. Sharing is beneficial both because it can create interest and attract people to the museum, and because it can help people who cannot attend the visit (for example, is physically unable to do so) to still enjoy it. We were interested to understand the extent and motivation behind sharing (or not sharing) and test how to encourage visitors to do so. We conducted and are conducting various surveys and trials, for which we report the preliminary results in this paper. Initial findings show that i) people today rarely share their visits for lack of content to complement their storytelling, and ii) by providing visitors with a simple and easy-to-create virtual photobook with their dearest memories from the visit we can significantly enhance this sharing.

    • WJPImplementation of the Stroop task using an Interactive Table: An experimental study
      H. Miller, S. Kubicki, C. Kolski, J. Naveteur
      H. MillerS. Kubicki (CERV – Centre Européen de Réalité Virtuelle, FR)C. Kolski (LAMIH, Univ. Valenciennes, France, FR)J. Naveteur

      We have implemented a psychological test, known as the Stroop task (in its reversed version), using the interactive TangiSense table that is equipped with RFID technology allowing the use of tangible objects. How the test was implemented, as well as the experimental study, are described in this paper. As a general description, participants moved a tangible object into one of four colored zones. The correct colored zone was indicated by a word for a color displayed in congruent or incongruent colored LED lights (e.g., “yellow” displayed in yellow or red, respectively). Participants took more time to place the object in a zone and made more errors when the word was lit with an incongruent than congruent color. These results suggest that the TangiSense table has applicable value for psychological research.

    • WPGUsing an Intelligent Interviewer to Perform Cognitive Assessments
      K. Weaver (Univ. of Maryland, Baltimore County, USA), A. Komlodi, B. Duffy
      K. Weaver (Univ. of Maryland, Baltimore County, USA)A. Komlodi (Univ. of Maryland, Baltimore County, USA)B. Duffy (Carney, Inc., USA)

      Intelligent Virtual Agents (IVAs) are computer systems that have specifically designed capabilities ranging from simple conversation agents to complex systems that can accomplish activities on our behalf. As a result, state of the art Computerized Conversation Agents (CCAs) have been developed to have a fluid dialog with humans using natural language, offering advanced intelligent tutors, museum guides, and virtual patients. These CCAs monitor the user’s interactions and build a user model in order to adjust current and future interactions to meet the needs of the individual user. We explore using an Intelligent Interviewer to conduct a cognitive assessment of a user. The results could be offered to existing CCAs allowing the interaction to be individualized from the initial point of interaction. In addition, educators, psychologists and medical professions can replace existing methods of conducting cognitive assessments with an Intelligent Interviewer.

    • WFQMATE – A Mobile Analysis Tool for Usability Experts
      T. Porat (Ben-Gurion Univ. of the Negev, IL), A. Schclar, B. Shapira
      T. Porat (Ben-Gurion Univ. of the Negev, IL)A. Schclar (Academic College of Tel-Aviv Yaffo, IL)B. Shapira (Ben-Gurion Univ. of the Negev, IL)

      The ‘SmartMobile’ research project is directed to design and develop tools to help mobile companies view and analyze data related to the usage and performance of their applications and services. In this paper we focus on one of the main tools that were developed – MATE (Mobile Analysis Tool for usability Experts). MATE is designed to highlight potential usability problems in specific mobile applications, tasks and screens. This is done by extracting and aggregating relevant usage and performance metrics from real customers using their mobile devices. Subjective metrics received from usability tests may be inserted to MATE in order to compare objective and subjective metrics per scenario and per task. Usability evaluations performed by experienced usability experts strengthened the necessity of this tool as an important complement to usability testing.

    • WGKAnalysing User Behaviour Through Dynamic Population Models
      M. Higgs (Univ. College London, UK), A. Morrison, M. Girolami, M. Chalmers
      M. Higgs (Univ. College London, UK)A. Morrison (Univ. of Glasgow, UK)M. Girolami (Univ. College London, UK)M. Chalmers (Univ. of Glasgow, UK)

      We apply a statistical modelling-based approach to exploring, analysing and predicting behavioural patterns of users of mobile software. The technique employed represents the behaviour of each user through a weighted mixture over data-generating distributions. In the described pilot study, we show how we have modelled the behaviour of over a hundred users of an iOS game. We illustrate how this modelling approach can be used to determine user play strategies and learning rates and show how this affects the length of time users keep returning to play the game. We describe our ongoing work, including feeding results of the modelling into the design process.

    • WMSBiomechanical Simulation in the Analysis of Aimed Movements
      M. Bachynskyi (Max Planck Institute for Informatics, DE), A. Oulasvirta, G. Palmas, T. Weinkauf
      M. Bachynskyi (Max Planck Institute for Informatics, DE)A. Oulasvirta (Max Planck Institute for Informatics, DE)G. Palmas (Max Planck Institute for Informatics, DE)T. Weinkauf (Max Planck Institute for Informatics, DE)

      For efficient design of gestural user interfaces both performance and fatigue characteristics of movements must be understood. We are developing a novel method that allows for biomechanical analysis in conjunction with performance analysis. We capture motion data using optical tracking from which we can compute performance measures such as speed and accuracy. The measured motion data also serves as input for a biomechanical simulation using inverse dynamics and static optimization on a full-body skeletal model. The simulation augments the data by biomechanical quantities from which we derive an index of fatigue. We are working on an interactive analysis tool that allows practitioners to identify and compare movements with desirable performance and fatigue properties. We show the applicability of our methodology using a case study of rapid aimed movements to targets covering the 3D movement space uniformly.

    • WJHInforming the Design of New Mobile Development Methods and Tools
      M. Nebeling (ETH Zurich, CH), C. Zimmerli, M. Norrie
      M. Nebeling (ETH Zurich, CH)C. Zimmerli (ETH Zurich, CH)M. Norrie (ETH Zurich, CH)

      Given the proliferation of new mobile devices and different technologies, it is becoming increasingly difficult to develop for mobile settings. To gain a better understanding of the engineering problem and how developers currently work, we conducted a 14-week experiment with four developers. Using a diary study, we analysed commonalities and differences between various native mobile and web-based approaches including the different kinds of tasks and the effort expended on them. We discuss implications for design and describe our current work towards better supporting multi-platform development based on our findings.

    • WHVBESiDE — The Built Environment for Social Inclusion in the Digital Economy
      L. McIntyre (Univ. of Dundee, UK), V. Hanson
      L. McIntyre (Univ. of Dundee, UK)V. Hanson (Univ. of Dundee, UK)

      We describe BESiDE, a multi-disciplinary research project that investigates themes of ageing, wellbeing, and digital technologies within the context of built environment design. Focused on initial reflections from contemporary design practice we discuss that, design guidance; a lack of research ‘tools’ to engage with users; an absent research culture; and missing elements of design training, are factors preventing a designer’s holistic engagement with the experiences of older people and technologies within the built environment. We also present the continuing work and methods planned for assessing the user experience within older peoples’ care environments.

    • WAYUsability Evaluation of Eye Tracking on an Unmodified Common Tablet
      C. Holland (Texas State Univ., USA), A. Garza, E. Kurtova, J. Cruz, O. Komogortsev
      C. Holland (Texas State Univ., USA)A. Garza (Texas State Univ., USA)E. KurtovaJ. Cruz (Texas State Univ., USA)O. Komogortsev (Texas State Univ., USA)

      This paper describes the design, implementation, and usability evaluation of a neural network based eye tracking system on an unmodified common tablet and discusses the challenges and implications of neural networks as an eye tracking component on a mobile platform. We objectively and subjectively evaluate the usability and performance tradeoffs of calibration, one of the fundamental components of eye tracking. The described system obtained an average spatial accuracy of 3.95° and an average temporal resolution of 0.65 Hz during trials. Results indicate that an increased neural network training set may be utilized to increase spatial accuracy, at the cost of greater physical effort and fatigue.

    • WBKYou Say “Disaster”, I Say “No Problem”: Unusable Problem Rating Scales
      R. Molich (DialogDesign, DK), J. McGinn, N. Bevan
      R. Molich (DialogDesign, DK)J. McGinn (Oracle , USA)N. Bevan (Professional Usability Services, UK)

      This paper documents a consistent and considerable evaluator effect in the ratings of usability problem severity carried out by experienced usability professionals. The CUE-9 study, conducted in 2011, showed a reasonable level of rater agreement in problem identification, but the severity assigned to problems varied wildly from “not a problem” to “disaster”. This paper documents the variations we observed and the need for a better rating scale and better training. The paper calls for more caution when using extreme ratings. Our results also show that simple attempts to fix the traditional rating scales may not work.

    • WGEInvestigating Visual Discomfort With 3D Displays: The Stereoscopic Discomfort Scale
      F. Bracco (Univ. of Genoa, IT), C. Chiorri, D. Glowinski, B. Hosseini Nia, G. Vercelli
      F. Bracco (Univ. of Genoa, IT)C. Chiorri (Univ. of Genoa, IT)D. Glowinski (Univ. of Genoa, IT)B. Hosseini Nia (Univ. of Genoa, IT)G. Vercelli (Univ. of Genoa, IT)

      Notwithstanding their widespread diffusion, stereoscopic media have important drawbacks in terms of viewers’ visual discomfort. Current assessment methods are mainly based on measures of objective parameters such as eye physiology or media characteristics. On the other hand, subjective methods only evaluate the personal experience related to the physiological symptoms. In this pilot study we developed and validated the Stereoscopic Discomfort Scale (SDS), a self-assessment tool for the subjective evaluation of physiological and psychological symptoms related to stereoscopic viewing. The results show evidence of internal consistency, unidimensionality and construct validity of the scale. Since SDS scores were also strongly correlated with facets of presence, we argue that the SDS could be a useful tool for the investigation of users’ experience related to stereoscopic media.

    • WLXEnwildering the Lab: Merging Field Evaluation with In-Lab Experience Sampling
      E. Niforatos (Madeira Interactive Technologies Institute , PT), E. Karapanos, R. Alves, M. Correia Martins, M. Chen, N. Nunes
      E. Niforatos (Madeira Interactive Technologies Institute , PT)E. Karapanos (Madeira Interactive Technologies Institute, PT)R. Alves (Madeira Institute of Technology, PT)M. Correia Martins (Madeira Institute of Technology, PT)M. Chen (Madeira Institute of Technology, PT)N. Nunes (Univ. of Madeira, PT)

      While the Experience Sampling Method is considered the gold standard of in-situ measurement, researchers have highlighted its drawbacks, in disrupting participants’ activities and providing limited insights to the remote researcher. We propose a mixed approach that combines field studies with systematic lab-based Experience Sampling in four steps: a) context exploration – identifying unexpected usage contexts through field studies that rely on passive life logging and ethnographic techniques, b) scenario synthesis – combining the insights into scenarios that will be tested in the lab, c) context reanimation – real life context is reanimated in a CAVE-like virtual environment b) systematic ESM probing – observer-triggered ESM is employed increase the researchers control over the moments of sampling.

    • WLZVerbal and Nonverbal Communication for Evaluating Interactive Spaces.
      A. Kendira (Univ. of Technology of Compiègne, FR), T. Gidel, A. Jones, D. Lenne
      A. Kendira (Univ. of Technology of Compiègne, FR)T. Gidel (Univ. of Technology of Compiègne, FR)A. Jones (Univ. of Technology of Compiègne, FR)D. Lenne (Univ. de Technologie de Compiègne, FR)

      There exists a lack of comparative evaluations between interactive tabletops and their traditional counterparts due to the radically different nature of the two environments and the overly complex dynamics of collocated collaboration. We seek to address this gap in the literature with a preliminary comparative evaluation of the two paradigms. The most significant contribution of this work-in-progress is the application of an experimental coding scheme for categorizing both verbal and nonverbal communication, which allows for an effective comparison of group dynamics across the two conditions.

    • WMPDid You Notice? Neuronal Processing of Multimodal Mobile Phone Feedback
      J. Antons (Technische Univ. Berlin , DE), S. Arndt, J. Seebode, R. Schleicher, S. Möller
      J. Antons (Technische Univ. Berlin , DE)S. Arndt (Technische Univ. Berlin , DE)J. Seebode (Technische Univ. Berlin , DE)R. Schleicher (TU Berlin, DE)S. Möller (Technische Univ. Berlin, DE)

      To acknowledge information received by a mobile device, a number of feedback modalities are available for which human information processing is still not completely understood. This paper focuses on how different feedback modalities are perceived by users introducing a test method that is new in this field of research. The evaluation is done via standard self-assessment and by analyzing brain activity [electroencephalogram (EEG)]. We conducted an experiment with unimodal and multi-modal feedback combinations, and compared behavioral user data to EEG data. We could show that EEG is a feasible method for quantifying conscious processing of feedback in different modalities as it correlates highly with subjective ratings. EEG can thus be considered an additional tool for assessing the effectiveness of feedback, revealing conscious and potential non-conscious information processing.

    • WLVFraming Design of Reminiscence Aids with Transactive Memory Theory
      W. Tsai (National Taiwan Univ., TW), H. Lee, J. Hsiao, R. Liang, J. Hsu
      W. Tsai (National Taiwan Univ., TW)H. Lee (National Taiwan Univ., TW)J. Hsiao (National Taiwan Univ., TW)R. Liang (National Taiwan Univ. of Science and Technology, TW)J. Hsu (National Taiwan Univ., TW)

      This work aims at designing reminiscence aids that help people remember meaningful events. With an epistemological stance of research through design, the framing of the Oblivescence Board was informed by theories in social psychology and psycholinguistics. We brought a neglected drawback (i.e. forgetting) of a transactive memory system to the center of a reminiscence dialogue, where an embodied negotiation of common grounds was constructed out of a visualization metaphor. The qualitative results from a field experimental were gathered to reframe our future direction. Several design implications are also addressed to identify the opportunities for the future work. We argue that a reminiscence aid should (1) evoke curiosity and empathy for shifting responsibility, (2) provide embodied metaphor to communicate personal significance and system’s expression, and (3) interweave reminiscence activities into daily practice.

    • WNFHow Well Do You Know Tom Hanks? Using a Game to Learn About Face Recognition
      O. Marques (Florida Atlantic Univ., USA), J. Snyder, M. Lux
      O. Marques (Florida Atlantic Univ., USA)J. Snyder (Florida Atlantic Univ., USA)M. Lux (Klagenfurt Univ., AT)

      Human face recognition abilities vastly outperform computer-vision algorithms working on comparable tasks, especially in the case of poor lighting, bad image quality, or partially hidden faces. In this paper, we describe a novel game with a purpose in which players must guess the name of a celebrity whose face appears blurred. The game combines a successful casual game paradigm with meaningful applications in both human- and computer-vision science. Preliminary user studies were conducted with 28 users and more than 7,000 game rounds. The results supported and extended pre-existing knowledge and hypotheses from controlled scientific experiments, which show that humans are remarkably good at recognizing famous faces, even with a significant degree of blurring. Our results will be further incorporated into research in human vision as well as machine-learning and computer-vision algorithms for face recognition.

    • WDHTailored Scenarios: A Low-Cost Online Method to Elicit Perceptions on Designs using Real Relationships
      T. Coughlan (The Univ. of Nottingham, UK), M. Brown, G. Lawson, R. Mortier, R. Houghton, M. Goulden
      T. Coughlan (The Univ. of Nottingham, UK)M. Brown (The Univ. of Nottingham, UK)G. Lawson (The Univ. of Nottingham, UK)R. Mortier (The Univ. of Nottingham, UK)R. Houghton (The Univ. of Nottingham, UK)M. Goulden (The Univ. of Nottingham, UK)

      This paper describes the on-going development of a method to elicit perceptions of design ideas for social technologies, through automatically tailoring scenarios presented in online surveys using information gathered from respondents. The work has been driven by a desire to understand perceptions of various information sharing technologies for the home, across a broad population. Reviewing literature in this area from HCI and beyond, we find potential value in generating scenarios that are tailored to each respondent’s own household. We explore the results of a study using this method (n=79) and discuss initial comparisons with the results of studies using alternative methods.

    • WEJTo be biased or not to be: choosing between design fixation and design intentionality
      J. Kim (Royal college of Art, UK), H. Ryu, H. Kim
      J. Kim (Royal college of Art, UK)H. Ryu (Hanyang Univ., KR)H. Kim (Hanyang Univ., KR)

      In the study, we explored potential design decision biases by understanding the relationship of the information being used and overconfidence of design outcomes that arise from the anchoring process in design. A total of twenty-eight industrial designers carried out a two-way between-subjects study administered by the four types of design exercise. Designers showed a strong anchoring effect when they employed “consistent knowledge-evidence” information rather than “inconsistent knowledge-evidence” information given. The empirical findings shed light on a double-edged anchoring effect in the design process, further suggesting the implications of the use of design information for educating HCI practitioners

    • WJTAn Open Source Approach to Information Scent
      B. John (IBM T.J. Watson Research Center, USA), C. Swart, R. Bellamy, M. Blackmon, R. Brown
      B. John (IBM T.J. Watson Research Center, USA)C. Swart (IBM T.J. Watson Research Center, USA)R. Bellamy (IBM T.J. Watson Research Center, USA)M. Blackmon (Univ. of Colorado, USA)R. Brown (Univ. of Colorado, USA)

      Several theories of how novices explore a new interface have arisen in HCI and have led to methods and tools for UI practitioners to predict users’ behavior on proposed interfaces and improve their design ideas before implementation. These tools depend on obtaining quantitative estimates of information scent, which usually requires a large corpus of documents representing the background knowledge of target users and an algorithm that uses this corpus to calculate the information scent between a user’s goal and the labels in the GUI. Prior work has often used proprietary algorithms and propriety, now outdated corpora. This note presents an open source approach to information scent that is as good a foundation for research and practice as a previously published proprietary system, exemplifies its use in CogTool-Explorer, and opens the door for researchers to explore many important questions about novice exploration of interfaces.

    • WPXUsing Design Thinking to Empower Ethnic Minority Immigrant Youth in their roles as Technology and Information Mediaries
      P. Fawcett (Microsoft Research, USA), K. Fisher, A. Bishop, L. Magassa
      P. Fawcett (Microsoft Research, USA)K. Fisher (Univ. of Washington, USA)A. Bishop (Univ. of Illinois, USA)L. Magassa (Univ. of Washington, USA)

      In the United States, almost one in nine people are foreign born. Further, children of immigrants and refugees accounted for the largest segment growth rate, between 1990 and 2008, in the United States for children who are younger than eight years of age. While diversity brings incredible richness, it also brings responsibility for helping immigrants participate fully in American life and culture versus isolating themselves within ethnic communities. We propose an experimental multi-disciplinary framework that uses design thinking combined with perspectives from computer science, information science, and information behavior. Our approach seeks to deeply understand how ethnic minority youth serve as information and technology mediaries within their social networks, and blends these perspectives into a community-based, multi-day workshop format called “teen design days.”

    • WMFResearching User Interpretation Beyond Designer Intentions
      J. Derboven (IBBT-KU Leuven, BE), D. Geerts, D. De Grooff
      J. Derboven (IBBT-KU Leuven, BE)D. Geerts (IBBT-KU Leuven, BE)D. De Grooff (IBBT-KU Leuven, BE)

      System evaluation in user-centered design commonly confronts the users’ interpretations with the designers’ intentions. In most research, the authoritative designer view remains the touchstone against which all user interpretation is evaluated. However, the proliferation of technology use in daily life puts this view under increasing pressure. As technology is more often being used beyond the workplace, more diverse target user groups and contexts of use make interaction broader and more personal. Acknowledging this increased variation in user interpretation, we are developing an evaluation method to identify and analyze variation and shifts in end user interpretation, helping designers to balance and support different meanings, instead of imposing only one authoritative interpretation.

    • WFULetting Go: Working with the Rhythm of Participants
      L. Coles-Kemp (Royal Holloway, UK), A. Angus, F. Stang
      L. Coles-Kemp (Royal Holloway, UK)A. Angus (Proboscis, UK)F. Stang (Freya Stang Theatre, FR)

      The focus of this study is a community of families separated by prison. Some parts of this community do not engage with the support offered to it, regardless of delivery mechanism. In this study, we used a participatory design approach to community informatics to explore why some do not engage with the support offered and the potential for service design to increase engagement. This is a community where on-line service delivery is a method used to deliver information and support and so taking a community informatics lens helps to inform both on and off-line service design. This paper explores the use of four participatory design principles selected to improve the extent and quality of participation: ceding control, segmentation, situation and envisioning control. In this first phase of the study we discovered how the principle of feedback between segmented participant groups helps to develop an understanding of the service design needs for the whole community and is a potential technique for community informatics and service design in general to improve the quality of input to community service design.

    • WQCAllowing Software Developers to Develop Culture-Sensitive Applications by Providing them the OMCS-Br Cultural Knowledgebase
      A. Bueno (Federal Univ. of São Carlos, BR), J. Anacleto
      A. Bueno (Federal Univ. of São Carlos, BR)J. Anacleto (Federal Univ. of São Carlos, BR)

      In this paper we describe a strategy that aims to allow software developers to use the Open Mind Common Sense in Brazil (OMCS-Br) project’s knowledgebase and collect the end users’ commonsense knowledge from applications to feedback such OMCS-Br knowledgebase. Two new modules are being developed and integrated into the API: (i) a filter, that receives the contextualized search query from the application and gives back the resulting cultural knowledge and (ii) a collector, for feeding the knowledgebase with the data generated by the application users. Besides, we will also make possible to all users (including non-developers) to do simple searches on the project’s knowledgebase by providing them a tool to use a web service.

    Health

    • WFNRehearsing to Control Depressive Symptoms through a Behavior Change Support System
      S. Langrial, H. Oinas-kukkonen, P. Lappalainen, R. Lappalainen
      S. LangrialH. Oinas-kukkonen (Univ. of Oulu, FI)P. LappalainenR. Lappalainen

      Depressive symptoms are generally coupled with distress and high treatment costs. We present our on-going research on a Web-based behavior change support system, which utilizes Acceptance and Commitment Therapy as a rehearsal tool. We present a summarized account of the research setting, studied persuasive software features, and a brief account of initial data analysis. Our work presents implications on design interventions for mental well-being and human–computer interaction.

    • WCQSupporting Therapists In Motion-Based Gaming For Brain Injury Rehabilitation
      C. Putnam (DePaul Univ., USA), J. Cheng, D. Rusch, A. Berthiaume, R. Burke
      C. Putnam (DePaul Univ., USA)J. Cheng (DePaul Univ., USA)D. Rusch (DePaul Univ., USA)A. Berthiaume (DePaul Univ., USA)R. Burke (DePaul Univ., USA)

      In this paper, we describe a work-in-progress that involves therapists who use commercial motion-based video games (e.g. Wii) in therapies involving patients who have had a brain injury (BI). We are collecting data to inform a case-based recommender (CBR) system that will help therapists stay current and choose appropriate motion-games for their patients. Data from the CBR system will (1) establish commercial motion-game efficacy among a larger and more diverse BI patient population than in previous work and (2) inform custom games that better meet needs for BI therapies.

    • WAGDeveloping Hospice Care Over a Distance in Highland Scotland: a Knowledge Exchange Process
      A. Taylor (Glasgow School of Art, UK), J. Lennox, A. Mort, D. Heaney, S. Munoz, M. Currie, G. Hubbard, K. Steele, J. Keen
      A. Taylor (Glasgow School of Art, UK)J. Lennox (Glasgow School of Art, UK)A. Mort (Univ. of Aberdeen, UK)D. Heaney (Univ. of Aberdeen, UK)S. Munoz (Univ. of the Highlands and Islands, UK)M. Currie (Univ. of the Highlands and Islands, UK)G. Hubbard (Univ. of Stirling, UK)K. Steele (Highland Hospice, UK)J. Keen (Highland Hospice, UK)

      This paper describes a piece of collaborative research that aimed to develop an implementation plan for a virtual hospice. The aim of the virtual hospice in this case is to extend the reach of hospice facilities provided by the Highland Hospice in Inverness, Scotland. We chose a knowledge exchange process that included Hospice staff at every step. We began with a workshop that scoped out all of the potential virtual hospice services, which were condensed into a core set of five services. We then conducted interviews with selected Hospice staff. The final step involved presenting our recommendations to the Hospice, including a storyboard of how the virtual hospice might operate in practice. We took the Hospice’s feedback and incorporated it into a final report. Overall, we feel that the knowledge exchange process generated a more accurate and realistic implementation plan.

    • WCUEvaluation of Roller-Type Itch-Relief Device Employing Hot and Cold Alternating Stimuli
      R. Watanabe (Univ., JP), N. Saito, Y. Mori, T. Hachisu, M. Sato, S. Fukushima, H. Kajimoto
      R. Watanabe (Univ., JP)N. Saito (business, JP)Y. Mori (business, JP)T. Hachisu (Univ. of Electro-Communications, JP)M. Sato (Univ. of Electro-Communications, JP)S. Fukushima (The Univ. of Electronic Communications(UEC), JP)H. Kajimoto (Univ. of Electro-Communications, JP)

      An itch is a significant problem for many diseases and relief of itch without side effect is required. We focused on the fact that painful thermal stimulation inhibits the itch sensation. Based on two well-known phenomena, thermal grill illusion and synthetic heat, which can generate pain or burning sensation without physical damage, we tried to achieve similar effect with harmless-range thermal stimulation.We developed a roller-type itch-relief device. The roller is composed of two parts. One part is set hot and the other is set cold by embedded Peltier devices. When the device is rolled on the user’s skin, the skin is exposed to hot and cold stimuli alternatively. We also evaluated the elicited sensation and confirmed that it could partly deliver pain sensation.

    • WDYThe Wearable Lullaby: Improving Sleep Quality of Caregivers of Dementia Patients
      E. Ehleringer (The Univ. of Central Florida, USA), S. Kim
      E. Ehleringer (The Univ. of Central Florida, USA)S. Kim (The Univ. of Central Florida, USA)

      This research introduces a wearable system (the Wearable Lullaby) designed for a non-ambulatory person with dementia who wakes up frequently during the night and keeps his caregivers (family members) from sleeping. The objective of the research is to investigate the viability of a wearable simulated presence therapy system in improving the quality of sleep in caregivers of dementia patients. The simulated presence therapy has been demonstrated to assist dementia patients; however, it has not yet been positioned as a wearable device. A total of three field studies were conducted in this research to test the feasibility of the wearable simulated presence therapy for family members who have dementia patients; however, it has not yet been positioned as a wearable device. A total of three field studies were conducted in this research to test the feasibility of the wearable simulated presence therapy for family members who have dementia patients.

    • WETCONTRAST: Gamification of Arm-Hand Training for Stroke Survivors
      A. Jacobs (Eindhoven Univ. of Technology, NL), A. Timmermans, M. Michielsen, M. Vander Plaetse, P. Markopoulos
      A. Jacobs (Eindhoven Univ. of Technology, NL)A. Timmermans (Univ. of Hasselt, BE)M. Michielsen (Jesse Hospital, BE)M. Vander Plaetse (Jesse Hospital, BE)P. Markopoulos (Eindhoven Univ. of Technology, NL)

      This paper describes the design of a serious game that supports arm-hand training for stroke survivors aiming to render rehabilitation training enjoyable and sustainable. The design of this game was based on combining well-known game-design principles and principles of task-oriented training. Most importantly the game involves the manipulation of every day physical objects and the game’s difficulty is dynamically adapted to the patient’s performance. The game was evaluated in actual training with two stroke patients for a period of a week. Their feedback shows the promise of this approach; the study motivates the further development of game content and further extension of adaptability features.

    • WGFLeveraging Visual Feedback from Social Signal Processing to Enhance Clinicians’ Nonverbal Skills
      R. Patel (Univ. of Washington, USA), A. Hartzler, M. Czerwinski, W. Pratt, A. Back, A. Roseway
      R. Patel (Univ. of Washington, USA)A. Hartzler (Univ. of Washington, USA)M. Czerwinski (Microsoft Research, USA)W. Pratt (Univ. of Washington, USA)A. Back (Univ. of Washington, USA)A. Roseway (Microsoft Research, USA)

      Nonverbal communication between patients and clinicians affects the delivery of empathic patient-centered care and patient outcomes. To be effective communicators, clinicians must appropriately encode, decode, and regulate nonverbal cues, such as speech rate, pitch, facial expression, and body language. Yet, few efforts to develop tools for enhancing clinician communication have focused on nonverbal aspects of the clinical encounter. To address this gap, we describe a novel solution that both uses social signal processing technology (SSP) to capture nonverbal cues in real time and displays instant visual feedback. In this paper, we examine the theoretical underpinnings of nonverbal cues and their critical role in clinical encounters. We then describe opportunities for capturing nonverbal cues with SSP and explore visual designs for feeding back those social signals to enhance clinicians’ nonverbal communication.

    • WGSDesigning a Prototype Interface for Visual Communication of Pain
      A. Jang (Stanford Univ., USA), D. MacLean, J. Heer
      A. Jang (Stanford Univ., USA)D. MacLean (Stanford Univ., USA)J. Heer (Stanford Univ., USA)

      Thousands of people use Online Health Communities (OHCs) as a forum for expressing and collaborating on symptoms of pain. Despite the physical nature of pain, these exchanges typically comprise text. While pain referral diagrams have served as patient-physician communication aids for decades, little research has focused on translating them into an interactive digital interface. We propose that such an interface would provide a more efficient and accurate mechanism for expressing pain and would facilitate useful discussion around pain symptoms. In this work-in-progress, we present a pilot study in which users expressed physical symptoms using pen and paper. Our results uncovered several design considerations that are currently being used to inform the design of Body Diagrams, an interactive pain visualization tool that we plan to deploy to a pain-related OHC in the near future.

    • WKECuePBox: An Integrated Physical and Virtual Pillbox for Patient Care
      Y. Theng (Nanyang Technological Univ., SG), O. Fernando, C. Deshan, L. Goh, J. Hong, A. Sen, R. Poovaiah, S. Foo
      Y. Theng (Nanyang Technological Univ., SG)O. Fernando (Nanyang Technological Univ., SG)C. Deshan (Nanyang Technological Univ., SG)L. Goh (Nanyang Technological Univ., SG)J. Hong (Nanyang Technological Univ., SG)A. Sen (IIT Bombay , IN)R. Poovaiah (IIT Bombay, IN)S. Foo (Nanyang Technological Univ., SG)

      Based on three constructs of alerts, care, and education, we describe the design and development of CuePBox, an instrumental pillbox, with a physical as well as a virtual entity, that aims to address needs for enhanced patient care, in the monitoring of medication adherence on a continuous basis. CuePBox will be facilitated by social media technologies that support patient-to-patient communities and patient-to-healthcare communities to exchange state-of-affairs information and testimonials, with advice and encouragement towards speedy recovery. The care component along with the alerts (audio, visual, and vibration) integrated within the CuePBox hopes to empower patients to manage their health conditions.

    • WLNData-Driven Exploration of Care Plans for Patients
      A. Perer (IBM T.J. Watson Research Center, USA), D. Gotz
      A. Perer (IBM T.J. Watson Research Center, USA)D. Gotz (IBM T.J. Watson Research Center, USA)

      CareFlow is a novel visual analytics tool designed to help doctors devise a care plan for their patient. Using historical outcomes from clinically similar patients, CareFlow allows doctors to analyze which treatments have been effective for patients like theirs.

    • WLPA Digital Game to Support Voice Treatment for Parkinson’s Disease
      M. Krause (Univ. of Hannover, DE), J. Smeddinck, R. Meyer
      M. Krause (Univ. of Hannover, DE)J. Smeddinck (Univ. of Bremen, DE)R. Meyer (Univ. of Bremen, DE)

      Parkinson’s disease causes a wide range of motor impairments that also affect speech. Even patients with mild speech motor disabilities do suffer from symptoms such as reduced dynamics, melody, tone, pace and continuity of speech. Besides invasive or drug based treatments, effective logopedic treatments do exist. However, constant training is a key factor for this type of therapy. Digital games can be one way to enhance patient’s motivation for repetitive exercises both in therapy sessions and in prolonged use at home. This paper examines the possibilities of such a digital logopedic game developed for PD patients and reports first promising study results that indicate an increased peak voice loudness of the players’ voice when playing the game.

    • WNYResearch-Derived Guidelines for Designing Toddlers’ Healthcare Games
      M. Høiseth (Norwegian Univ. of Science and Technology (NTNU), NO), M. Giannakos, L. Jaccheri
      M. Høiseth (Norwegian Univ. of Science and Technology (NTNU), NO)M. Giannakos (Norwegian Univ. of Science and Technology (NTNU), NO)L. Jaccheri (Norwegian Univ. of Science and Technology (NTNU), NO)

      This paper presents the development of a set of research-derived design guidelines for healthcare games and applications for toddlers (children aged 1-3 years). An initial set of best practices was first developed through a workshop with experts; and afterwards, by employing an affinity diagram constructed by a HCI researchers’ focus group, a revised set of best practices was obtained. This set of best practices was connected with gaming application design principles and translated into design guidelines. The results should be useful for designers and researchers who work with design and evaluation of healthcare games and applications for toddlers.

    • WQBFaceIt: Supporting Reflection upon Social Anxiety Events with Lifelogging
      K. Rennert (Carnegie Mellon Univ., USA), E. Karapanos
      K. Rennert (Carnegie Mellon Univ., USA)E. Karapanos (Madeira Interactive Technologies Institute, PT)

      Many reasons prevent those with mental health problems from maintaining and maximizing effective therapy. In this paper we explore the merits of a multimodal mobile mental health intervention designed to enhance adherence and outcomes in using cognitive behavioral therapy methods for social anxiety disorder. This mobile system combines several facets of guided lifelogging to assist in meeting the challenges of completing cognitive behavioral therapy tasks and recording occurrence data helpful for treatment. FaceIt is a multi-level mobile intervention that supports recall and reflection for completing daily mood logs and exposure therapy, and also uses location, duration, and severity information to track where problems occur, how often, and their duration in order to document user progress.

    • WBSEvaluating User Experience of Autistic Children through Video Observation
      S. Mäkelä (Univ. of Eastern Finland, FI), R. Bednarik, M. Tukiainen
      S. Mäkelä (Univ. of Eastern Finland, FI)R. Bednarik (Univ. of Eastern Finland, FI)M. Tukiainen (Univ. of Eastern Finland, FI)

      Most of the current methods for user experience evaluation require that users are able to reflect on and communicate their own experience. Such methods, however, are not suitable when users have limited communication skills. We conducted video observations to evaluate user experience of four low-functioning children with an autism spectrum disorder while they were playing a prototype of a game. Our preliminary results suggest that despite its limitations, video observation can be a useful technique for evaluating episodic user experience of children with special needs.

    • WJFEncouraging Collaboration in Hybrid Therapy Games for Autistic Children
      S. Marwecki (Univ., DE), R. Rädle, H. Reiterer
      S. Marwecki (Univ., DE)R. Rädle (Univ., DE)H. Reiterer (Univ., DE)

      Social competence and communicative skills of children with autism spectrum disorders are supported by behavioral therapy. “Serious games”, especially therapeutic games on a hybrid medium, have been proven to serve as a useful tool for behavioral therapy. In this work, we present such a hybrid therapy game: “Invasion of the Wrong Planet”. Based on the game, we demonstrate essential design principles for the development of therapeutic games. We focus on specific aspects of behavioral therapy, depending on which desired behavior is encouraged and not enforced. The project provides a basis for discussion on how collaboration using therapeutic games in general can be improved.

    • WDMActive Collaboration in Healthcare Design: Participatory Design to Develop a Dementia Care App
      K. Slegers (KU Leuven – Univ. of Leuven, BE), A. Wilkinson, N. Hendriks
      K. Slegers (KU Leuven – Univ. of Leuven, BE)A. Wilkinson (MAD-Faculty, BE)N. Hendriks (CUO, BE)

      This paper describes a research project aimed at developing a mealtime data registration tool for people with dementia. As to actively involve all stakeholders in this healthcare design project and to generate empathy and involvement, methods from participatory design were used. For each of the three research phases (ethnography, ideation & conceptualization and prototyping) we describe our approach towards stakeholder involvement and active collaboration. We discuss lessons learned in terms of good practices and the issues we struggle with.

    • WKM“My Mobile Health, My Mobile Life”: Methods for Designing Health Interventions with Adolescents
      T. Peyton (Pennsylvania State Univ., USA), E. Poole
      T. Peyton (Pennsylvania State Univ., USA)E. Poole (Pennsylvania State Univ., USA)

      For adolescents with chronic health conditions, transition from pediatric to adult patient care is often haphazard, leading to gaps in care, lapses in treatment adherence, and unnecessary hospitalizations. A typical approach to addressing transition failures is to offer clinic-based programs that guide adolescents and their families through the process, but these initiatives are costly, may not appeal to adolescents, and have limited reach due to geographic constraints. In this study design paper, we describe our ongoing efforts in the participatory design of a mobile technology-based intervention that may overcome limitations of traditional approaches. We contribute a series of recommendations for conducting human-computer interaction research with adolescents who have chronic illnesses.

    • WHLExploring New Potentials In Preventing Unhealthy Computer Habits
      T. Sonne (Aarhus Univ., DK), K. Grønbæk
      T. Sonne (Aarhus Univ., DK)K. Grønbæk (Department of Computer Science, Aarhus Univ., DK)

      Each day millions of computer users experience pains due to unhealthy computer habits. Research in this field mainly focuses on encouraging users to take breaks and correct their posture. This paper shows that unhealthy computer habits calls for new sensing solutions. Based on a design process including experts in the field of computer-related injuries, The Habit-Aware Mouse prototype was developed. It provides high-accuracy sensing of whether a user’s fingers are hovering above the mouse. This kind of hovering is known to cause pains in the forearm. The integration of trans-parent sensing in existing products enables medical researchers to gain new insights on unhealthy habits. The Habit-Aware Mouse is a diagnostic sensing tool to get detailed knowledge about the user’s unhealthy computer habits. Sensing is the first step to enable feedback, preventing injuries from finger hovering.

    • WHRSupporting Distributed Collaborations between Mobile Health Workers and Expert Clinicians in Home Care
      J. Li (CSIRO ICT Centre, AU), L. Alem
      J. Li (CSIRO ICT Centre, AU)L. Alem (CSIRO, AU)

      The use of collaboration technology to allow community health workers, who provide care in patients’ homes, to be supported by remote expert clinicians can enhance the quality of home care services. We have explored the design of two collaboration tools to enable a health worker to discuss patient details with a remote clinician and to be guided by the clinician when performing a physical examination of a patient. One of the tools is hand-held tablet-based and designed to support real-time communication and information sharing, shared annotation on patient data as well as recording of rich media annotations for asynchronous review after the home visits. The second tool is a wearable unit consisting of a computer, a camera and a near-eye display and enables a clinician to use hand gestures to remotely guide a health worker in physical examinations. In this paper we describe our design considerations and outline our design approaches.

    • WJKInvestigating Healthcare Providers’ Acceptance of Personal Robots for Assisting with Daily Caregiving Tasks
      T. Mitzner (Georgia Institute of Technology, USA), C. Kemp, W. Rogers, L. Tiberio
      T. Mitzner (Georgia Institute of Technology, USA)C. Kemp (Georgia Institute of Technology, USA)W. Rogers (Georgia Institute of Technology, USA)L. Tiberio (National Research Council , IT)

      Robots have potential to provide assistance to healthcare providers in daily caregiving tasks. The healthcare providers’ acceptance of assistive robots will mediate the success or failure of implementation of robotic systems in care settings. It is essential to understand why and how providers would accept implementation of a robot in their daily work routines. We identified caregiving tasks with which healthcare providers would or would not accept assistance from a personal robot (Willow Garage’s PR2). We also explored preferences for human or robot assistance. The healthcare providers we interviewed were quite open to the idea of receiving robot assistance for certain tasks.

    • WJJAudio-Augmented Paper for the Therapy of Low-Functioning Autism Children
      A. Alessandrini (FBK, IT), A. Cappelletti, M. Zancanaro
      A. Alessandrini (FBK, IT)A. Cappelletti (FBK-IRST, IT)M. Zancanaro (FBK-irst, IT)

      In this paper, we present a prototype and an initial pilot study of audio-augmented paper to support the therapy of low-functioning autism children. The prototype supports the recording of audio on standard sheets of paper by using tangible tools that can be shared among the therapist and the child. The prototype is designed as tool for the therapist to engage a child in a storytelling activity.

    • WFTA Web-Based Collaborative Translation Management System for Public Health Workers
      A. Laurenzi (Univ. of Washington, USA), M. Brownstein, A. Turner, J. Kientz, K. Kirchhoff
      A. Laurenzi (Univ. of Washington, USA)M. Brownstein (Univ. of Washington, USA)A. Turner (Univ. of Washington, USA)J. Kientz (Univ. of Washington, USA)K. Kirchhoff (Univ. of Washington, USA)

      This paper reports on the design process of a web-based collaborative system for the production of multilingual health communication materials. The system is based on a workflow combining machine translation and human post-editing and has been designed for public health professionals who are bilingual domain experts but not necessarily trained translators. Our initial data gathering phase involved interviews and focus groups with local and regional public health departments. Based on the design recommendations extracted from the data, we implemented a web-based prototype collaborative translation management system. We further refined the system through an iterative design process that included informal user testing with multilingual participants. Future work will include usability studies with public health workers and the integration of additional collaborative features.

    • WNETowards Supporting Informal Information and Communication Practices Within a Brazilian Healthcare Environment
      R. Calderon (Univ. of British Columbia, CA), S. Fels, J. Anacleto, J. Leite de Oliveira
      R. Calderon (Univ. of British Columbia, CA)S. Fels (Univ. of British Columbia, CA)J. Anacleto (Federal Univ. of São Carlos, BR)J. Leite de Oliveira (Laboratorio Interacao Avancada., BR)

      We present the initial challenges of supporting ad-hoc socialization patterns that can promote community workflow behaviours using information and communication technologies. Following a participatory design process, we introduced a task-management system into a Brazilian community of healthcare professionals that have little or no previous experience with digital information technologies. Our initial observations point to designing simple interfaces that can be adapted by the community, focusing on semantic mining, and further understanding the socio-demographic, behavioural and intra-personal characteristics that promote reciprocal actions.

    • WLFTangible Games for Stroke Rehabilitation with Digital Box and Blocks Test
      C. Zhao (Beijing Institute of Technology, CN), C. Hsiao, N. M. Davis, E. Yi-Luen Do
      C. Zhao (Beijing Institute of Technology, CN)C. Hsiao (Georgia Institute of Technology, USA)N. M. Davis (Georgia Institute of Technology, USA)E. Yi-Luen Do (Georgia Institute of Technology, USA)

      The Digital Box and Block Test (DBBT) is a post-stroke rehabilitation assessment apparatus for in-home use. It is based on the clinically validated Box and Block Test used to measure unilateral gross manual dexterity. We show that the automated DBBT scoring algorithms achieve at least 90% accuracy on a scoring procedure that is traditionally labor intensive and subjective. Furthermore, we propose a tangible gaming system based on DBBT to increase patient motivation and make rehabilitation exercises more enjoyable.

    • WFVA Phone-based Support System to Assist Alcohol Recovery
      K. Wang, M. Hong, C. Kao, A. Lin, C. Wang, C. You, C. Pan, M. Huang, C. Liang, H. Chu
      K. WangM. HongC. Kao (National Taiwan Univ., TW)A. Lin (National Taiwan Univ., TW)C. WangC. YouC. PanM. HuangC. LiangH. Chu (National Taiwan Univ., TW)

      This study explores the use of mobile phones as a normal life support system that connects alcohol addict patients to their addiction physiatrists after they leave a rehabilitation center. This paper presents the design and implementation of this phone-based support system that enables continuous patient monitoring and provides feedback support to the patients.

    Interaction & Experience Design

    • WAMExperiential Perspectives on Road Congestions
      M. Obrist (Newcastle Univ., UK), D. Wurhofer, A. Krischkowsky, E. Karapanos, D. Wilfinger, N. Perterer, M. Tscheligi
      M. Obrist (Newcastle Univ., UK)D. Wurhofer (Univ. of Salzburg, AT)A. Krischkowsky (Univ. of Salzburg, AT)E. Karapanos (Madeira Interactive Technologies Institute, PT)D. Wilfinger (Univ. of Salzburg, AT)N. Perterer (Univ. of Salzburg, AT)M. Tscheligi (Univ. of Salzburg, AT)

      Commuting can be perceived as both ‘relaxing’ and ‘stressful’. An important cause for stress is getting stuck in traffic, which can – especially when unexpected – quickly turn commuting into a negative experience, often associated with frustration and the feeling of wasting time. Congestion experiences do not need to be frustrating and annoying. In our research, we aim to generate design solutions for turning the negative experiences into positive ones. We foster the experiential perspective on road congestions, and go beyond current automotive HCI research, which mainly focuses on safety, functionality, and usability. In this paper, we present our work-in progress on characterizing congestion experiences and needs, explored in a design workshop outlining future design directions for supporting positive experiences.

    • WDQAmbiguity in Design: An Airport Split-Flap Display Storytelling Installation
      C. Jorge (PT), V. Nisi, N. Nunes, G. Innella, M. Caldeira, D. Sousa
      C. Jorge (PT)V. Nisi (M-ITI, U. Madeira, PT)N. Nunes (Univ. of Madeira, PT)G. Innella (Northumbria Univ., UK)M. Caldeira (Madeira-ITI, PT)D. Sousa (Univ. of Madeira, PT)

      This paper describes MStoryG, a digital art installation to be situated in a future open-air museum. Our goal with MStoryG is to provoke and engage visitors in collaborative storytelling by exploiting the ambiguity that visitors interpret from an airport split-flap display used as a medium for supporting Exquisite Corpse. In order to evaluate our concept we created a software replica of an airport split-flap display, deployed as an interactive public art installation. Visitors tweet, or through an adjacent laptop, contribute to the overall storytelling process by providing a story fragment that appears on the split-flap display for other visitors to read and build on. We argue that in the right conditions ambiguity can trigger curiosity and invite interaction, but special care is needed to avoid confusing and alienating users. Here we report on our ongoing public installation and next steps in deploying MStoryG with the physical board in locus.

    • WGJA Life of Their Own: Museum Visitor Personas Penetrating the Design Lifecycle of a Mobile Experience
      M. Roussou (Univ. of Athens, GR), A. Katifori, L. Pujol, M. Vayanou, S. Rennick-Egglestone
      M. Roussou (Univ. of Athens, GR)A. Katifori (Univ. of Athens, GR)L. Pujol (Acropolis Museum, GR)M. Vayanou (Univ. of Athens, GR)S. Rennick-Egglestone (The Univ. of Nottingham, UK)

      Sets of ‘personas’ representing archetypical visitors of two very different museums, the Acropolis Museum in Greece and Cité de l’Espace in France, were defined and described as part of a multitude of user-centered design methods used to better understand the needs of visitors and develop for them a personalized mobile storytelling experience. Here we reflect on the role and impact that these personas have had, not only on the design process but also as a mechanism to support the story authors and to bootstrap personalization of experiences. We conclude with a discussion of research challenges inherent in the integration of personas directly into systems intended to support the personalization of experiences.

    • WBYStrolling with Street Atmosphere Visualization: Development of a Tourist Support System
      Y. Kinoshita (Univ. of Yamanashi, JP), S. Tsukanaka, K. Go
      Y. Kinoshita (Univ. of Yamanashi, JP)S. Tsukanaka (Univ. of Yamanashi, JP)K. Go (Univ. of Yamanashi, JP)

      Information about the characteristics or impressions of streets is useful to tourists. This paper introduces a strolling support system that utilizes street atmosphere visualization. The system runs on a smartphone and alerts users to the existence of nearby attractive streets and areas by vibration and visualized characterization of streets. For the visualization, subjective evaluation experiments were conducted to investigate the impression of streetscapes in Kyoto. Analysis of the evaluation results revealed three factors that are relevant to street characteristics. Using the factor scores of the evaluated streetscapes, the characteristics are visualized using colours. In user studies, eight participants examined its use while walking around the city. The user studies suggest that the system attracts users’ attention to surrounding environments and increases the amount of photography and conversation during their walk.

    • WESLost in Time: The Meaning of Temporal Aspects in User Experience
      S. Kujala (Aalto Univ., FI), M. Vogel, A. Pohlmeyer, M. Obrist
      S. Kujala (Aalto Univ., FI)M. Vogel (Technische Univ. Berlin, DE)A. Pohlmeyer (Delft Univ. of Technology, NL)M. Obrist (Newcastle Univ., UK)

      The long-term and dynamic nature of user experience (UX) is challenging both UX design and evaluation activities. Although the CHI community acknowledges the importance of a temporal perspective on UX, we are still lacking an understanding of time and the meaning of temporal aspects in UX. In order to close this gap, we organized a workshop at NordiCHI 2012 exploring the topic with researchers and practitioners, especially searching for a common understanding of long-term UX and its relevance to the field. In this paper, we analyze the current state of the topic, discuss definitions and theoretical models based on previous work and the outcome of the workshop. We conclude with a working definition for long-term UX, its relevance for design and summarize future research directions.

    • WGDA Trip into the Countryside: An Experience Design for Explorative Car Cruises
      M. Knobel (BMW Research and Technology, DE), M. Hassenzahl, M. Lamara, J. Schumann, K. Eckoldt, A. Butz
      M. Knobel (BMW Research and Technology, DE)M. Hassenzahl (Folkwang Univ. of the Arts, DE)M. Lamara (BMW Research and Technology, DE)J. Schumann (BMW Forschung und Technik GmbH, DE)K. Eckoldt (Folkwang Univ. of the Arts, DE)A. Butz (Ludwig-Maximilians-Univ. Munich, DE)

      In-car navigation systems are designed with effectiveness and efficiency (e.g., guiding accuracy) in mind. However, finding a way and discovering new places could also be framed as an adventurous, stimulating experience for the driver and passengers. Inspired by Gaver and Martin’s (2000) notion of “ambiguity and detour” and Hassenzahl’s (2010) Experience Design, we built ExplorationRide, an in-car navigation system to foster exploration. An empirical in situ exploration demonstrated the system’s ability to create an exploration experience, marked by a relaxed at-mosphere, a loss of sense of time, excitement about new places and an intensified relationship with the landscape.

    • WJYWeCurate: Multiuser Museum Interactives for Shared Cultural Experiences
      K. Hazelden (Goldsmiths College, UK), M. Yee-King, R. Confalonieri, F. Ghedini, D. de Jonge, N. Osman, C. Sierra, M. d’Inverno
      K. Hazelden (Goldsmiths College, UK)M. Yee-King (Goldsmiths College, UK)R. Confalonieri (Goldsmiths College, UK)F. Ghedini (Goldsmiths College, UK)D. de Jonge (Spanish National Research Council, ES)N. Osman (Spanish National Research Council, ES)C. Sierra (Spanish National Research Council, ES)M. d’Inverno (Goldsmiths College, UK)

      WeCurate is a multiuser museum interactive system that allows users to collaboratively create a virtual exhibition from a cultural image archive. WeCurate provides a synchronised image browser across multiple devices to enable a group of users to work together to curate a collection of images, through negotiation and collective decision making. This paper reports on the findings of a five day trial of WeCurate when it was installed at a major London museum. This paper focuses exclusively on the scope and characteristics of the social experience afforded through the collaborative use of the system.

    • WAQBlended Shelf: Reality-based Presentation and Exploration of Library Collections
      E. Kleiner (Univ., DE), R. Rädle, H. Reiterer
      E. Kleiner (Univ., DE)R. Rädle (Univ., DE)H. Reiterer (Univ., DE)

      We present the user interface Blended Shelf, which provides a shelf browsing experience beyond the physical location of the library. Blended Shelf offers a 3D visualization of library collections with the integration of real-world attributes like the size and availability of books. The application reflects the actual arrangement of items in the physical library and enables implicit serendipitous support of the shelf browsing process in the digital world. The interface offers multiple views with different levels of detail regarding the collection as well as various entrance points to it. The user can explore and search the shelves by touch interaction. Tracking the user’s position and line of sight ensures the ideal perspective on the interface. Thus, a user can explore collections in a familiar way and benefit from serendipitous browsing discoveries without forfeiting the advantages of the digital domain.

    • WBMWet Pixels: From Digital to Analogue Originals
      H. Kwon (Newcastle Univ., UK), J. Briggs, B. Freeth, K. Ladha, J. Thomas, M. Blythe, P. Olivier
      H. Kwon (Newcastle Univ., UK)J. Briggs (Northumbria Univ., UK)B. Freeth (Newcastle Univ., UK)K. Ladha (Newcastle Univ., UK)J. Thomas (Northumbria Univ., UK)M. Blythe (Northumbria Univ., UK)P. Olivier (Newcastle Univ., UK)

      This paper reports on experience design work currently in progress. “Wet Pixels” is intended to stimulate discussion around the notion of reproducing original digital images in a physical medium. The prototype’s design is informed by mechanical reproduction devices (e.g. relief press, large format camera) and retrospective print processes (halftone, dot matrix). The original conceptual design (Figure 1) constitutes a miniature camera encased in a wooden viewing frame that would enable viewers to select and capture photographs. This image could subsequently be printed onto Japanese paper using an Arduino-controlled matrix of stepper motors topped with paint-tipped sponges. When presented in a gallery, Wet Pixels provides users with greater sensory feedback (physical, visual, auditory) than entirely digital processes through tangible creative mark-making on to paper.

    • WPHLook What I Found! Augmenting Phone Calls with Memories of the Past
      É. Gouveia (Univ. of Madeira, PT), F. Azevedo, L. Ferreira, P. Caldeira, V. Almeida, R. Gouveia, E. Karapanos
      É. Gouveia (Univ. of Madeira, PT)F. Azevedo (Univ. of Madeira, PT)L. Ferreira (Univ. of Madeira, PT)P. Caldeira (Univ. of Madeira, PT)V. Almeida (Univ. of Madeira, PT)R. Gouveia (Madeira Institute of Technology, PT)E. Karapanos (Madeira Interactive Technologies Institute, PT)

      Photos have an enormous capacity in cueing memories of our past and supporting collective reminiscing. Yet, despite the considerable increase in our ability to efficiently capture photos, our digital photo collections remain to a large extent invisible to our everyday interactions with the physical world. We present the design of “Look what I found!”, a mobile application that aims at supporting collective reminiscing through making photos present in our daily phone calls. We then report the field trial of “Look what I found!” that discovered unexpected and often inventive ways in which users appropriate the application in their daily lives.

    • WBFDreamy Eyes: Exploring Dynamic Expression in Human-System Interaction
      J. Stienstra (Eindhoven Univ. of Technology, NL), P. Marti, M. Tittarelli
      J. Stienstra (Eindhoven Univ. of Technology, NL)P. Marti (Univ. of Siena, IT)M. Tittarelli (Univ. of Siena, IT)

      This paper describes the Emotional-Perspective design, a graphical-user-interface platform built to explore expression mappings. The platform utilizes emotional and social skills by shifting from representational and discrete to expression rich, contextualized and continuous-sustained interaction paradigms. A remote robot-view, used to control an assistive robot, allows people to take on the perspective of the robot and thereby explore its action-possibilities in context. This view is extended with a dynamic graphical layer (filters and shape-changing mask). This layer is expressively mapped to the robot’s ‘feelings’ constituted by its internal conditions and direct interaction with its surrounding (environment and person). The Emotional-Perspective design will be evaluated to address the expressive mapping and the emergence of meaning in interaction.

    • WCXKiTeMiROOM: A Fashion-Coordination System for Mobile Devices
      S. Masuko (Rakuten, Inc., JP), Y. Hayashi
      S. Masuko (Rakuten, Inc., JP)Y. Hayashi (Rakuten, Inc., JP)

      Recently the number of users who purchase fashion-related items using mobile devices has increased rapidly. However, most users find it hard to find their choice of apparel items due to the mobile’s limited screen space. Because the lists of items are displayed images optimized for viewing with a mobile device, it is hard for users to visualize the item size and how it will coordinate with other items. In this paper, we propose the “KiTeMiROOM” interface to quickly browse coordinating tops, bottoms, and shoes by adjusting the scale of the clothing images while simultaneously displaying them using carousel panels. To implement this function, we created clothing-only image data by mechanically extracting the images and features of various clothing from a huge collection of apparel on e-commerce websites. Finally, we compared our proposed method with an ordinal list-view method used in these websites and confirmed that the KiTeMiROOM interface enhances the experience of searching for coordinated clothing.

    • WELAn Interaction Vocabulary. Describing The How Of Interaction.
      S. Diefenbach (Folkwang Univ. of the Arts, DE), E. Lenz, M. Hassenzahl
      S. Diefenbach (Folkwang Univ. of the Arts, DE)E. Lenz (Folkwang Univ. of the Arts, DE)M. Hassenzahl (Folkwang Univ. of the Arts, DE)

      New technologies and opportunities in interaction design also come with new responsibilities. Besides the product’s visual aesthetics, design needs to address the aesthetics of interaction. We discuss the various starting points of emerging approaches and then present an own approach to the How of interaction. We suggest an interaction vocabulary, i.e., a set of eleven dimensions of descriptive, non-judgmental, non-technology bound attributes of interaction. First insights from applying the vocabulary in design and evaluation studies and future research are discussed.

    • WBZExperience, Engagement and Social Interaction at a Steam Locomotive Multimodal Interactive Museum Exhibit
      L. Clarke (Univ. of Strathclyde, UK), E. Hornecker
      L. Clarke (Univ. of Strathclyde, UK)E. Hornecker (Bauhaus Univ. Weimar, DE)

      This paper describes the on-going study of an interactive multimodal museum exhibit about a steam-powered locomotive at the Riverside Transport Museum in Glasgow, UK. We examine the role of multimodal interaction relating to effects on (1) visitors’ experience of the exhibit, (2) engagement with the subject matter, (3) social interaction and (4) engagement with the exhibit itself. We discuss key questions of our study, a set of initial findings, reflections and future work.

    Learning

    • WDUDesign, Reflect, Explore: Encouraging Children’s Reflections with Mechanix
      T. Tseng (Massachusetts Institute of Technology, USA), C. Bryant
      T. Tseng (Massachusetts Institute of Technology, USA)C. Bryant (Slate Learning, USA)

      The integration of meaningful and effective reflection interfaces with learning technologies remains an open yet important challenge. In this paper, we describe the incorporation of several interfaces for reflection into Mechanix, an interactive system for creating tangible simple machine designs. We also discuss the results of early user studies that demonstrate the potential of these interfaces to engage children in reflection and facilitate transformative shifts in understanding.

    • WHYA Set of Interactions to Rotate Solids in 3D Geometry Context
      D. BERTOLO (Univ. de Lorraine, FR), R. VIVIAN, J. DINET
      D. BERTOLO (Univ. de Lorraine, FR)R. VIVIAN (Univ. de Lorraine, FR)J. DINET (Univ. de Lorraine, FR)

      Tablets with touch-screens, multi-touch interfaces and various sensors are becoming increasingly common. More and more schools are testing them with their pupils in the hope of bringing pedagogic benefits. Thanks to this new type of devices, new sets of interactions can be thought of. Yet, user reception has to be tested before any pedagogic benefits can be evaluated. In this paper, a set of interactions using multi-touch and sensors to manage rotation of solids is presented. It was largely accepted by a test group of learners aged 9 to 15.

    • WHBFearless Cards: Addressing Emotional Barriers to Computer Learning among Extremely Marginalized Populations
      R. Gomez (Univ. of Washington, USA), I. Bayo, P. Reed, C. Wang, M. Silva
      R. Gomez (Univ. of Washington, USA)I. Bayo (Univ. of Washington, USA)P. Reed (Univ. of Washington, USA)C. Wang (Univ. of Washington, USA)M. Silva (Univ. of Washington, USA)

      We present a prototype for Fearless Cards, a novel design to help underserved communities such as Hispanic day laborers overcome emotional barriers to learn computer and internet use. Hispanic day laborers experience strong emotional barriers in addition to lacking technical skills: fear, anxiety, lack of self-confidence, and limited English language skills. Through an iterative process of design and testing we developed Fearless Cards, a set of basic computer literacy instructions that are bilingual, familiar, and easy to use. Fearless Cards help reach the deep pockets of exclusion and allow extremely marginalized populations such as immigrant day laborers gain self-confidence and overcome emotional barriers that prevent them from starting to use computers and the internet to meet their daily needs.

    • WHDHero: Designing Learning Tools to Increase Parental Involvement in Elementary Education in China
      Y. Zhao (Tsinghua Univ., CN), A. Hope, J. Huang, Y. Sumitro, J. Landay, Y. Shi
      Y. Zhao (Tsinghua Univ., CN)A. Hope (Univ. of Washington, USA)J. Huang (Tsinghua Univ., CN)Y. Sumitro (Univ. of Washington, USA)J. Landay (Univ. of Washington, USA)Y. Shi (Tsinghua Univ., CN)

      In this paper, we present the design of Hero, a suite of learning tools that combine teacher-created extracurricular challenges with in-class motivational tools to help parents become more involved in their child’s education, while also engaging students in their own learning. To inform the design, we conducted field studies and interviews involving 7 primary teachers and 15 different families. We analyzed Chinese parenting styles and problems related to parental involvement, and developed three major themes from the data. We then proposed three design goals and created a high-fidelity prototype after several iterations of user testing. A preliminary evaluation showed that teachers, parents, and students could all benefit from the design.

    • WNBTeachable Mo[bil]ment: Capitalizing on Teachable Moments with Mobile Technology in Zoos
      P. Jimenez Pazmino (Univ. of Illinois at Chicago, USA), B. Lopez Silva, B. Slattery, L. Lyons
      P. Jimenez Pazmino (Univ. of Illinois at Chicago, USA)B. Lopez Silva (Univ. of Illinois at Chicago, USA)B. Slattery (Univ. of Illinois at Chicago, USA)L. Lyons (Univ. of Illinois at Chicago, USA)

      Researchers and practitioners have studied how technology can support visitors’ learning in science centers, but few have considered technology specifically designed for science center docents; the staff that explains and interprets exhibits to visitors. We present a qualitative, exploratory study at a zoo where we designed and evaluated technological supports for docents running an immersive, embodied-interaction. Our study focused on the affordances of portable tablets and large fixed displays, as well as on a comparison of two approaches to docent notification (an orchestration approach vs. a just-in-time approach). Making use of docent interviews, video observations, and feedback from zoo educators, we recommend the use of a hybrid approach. Our main contribution is the identification of advantages and disadvantages of display options and notification approaches leading to a list of design considerations for technology that assists docents in delivering information to visitor audiences.

    • WFEEasyAuthor-Supporting Low Computer Proficiency Teachers In The Design of Educational Content for Adult Illiterates
      S. Chimalakonda (International Institute of Information Technology -Hyderabad, IN), K. V. Nori
      S. Chimalakonda (International Institute of Information Technology -Hyderabad, IN)K. V. Nori (International Institute of Information Technology -Hyderabad, IN)

      It is inevitable to make use of technology to support 287 million adult illiterates of India spread across 22 Indian Languages and dialects. However, even with many advances in end-user software engineering and a multitude of authoring tools, teachers often have to spend considerable effort to design and use technology for developing educational content. In this paper, we present EasyAuthor, a preliminary environment for end users (i.e., low computer proficiency teachers) to create and manage educational content for adult illiterates in India. The primary intent of EasyAuthor is to support teachers with the easy authoring of educational content and at the same time adhere to adult literacy learning methodologies. We describe the process of authoring educational content using EasyAuthor and the use of ontologies as a back-bone. We then briefly discuss a preliminary study of our tool with a few teachers and present some interesting aspects of EasyAuthor along with its limitations. Finally, we conclude with some promising future directions.

    • WEYPedagogical conversational agents for supporting collaborative learning: Effects of communication channels
      Y. Hayashi (Univ. of Tsukuba, JP)
      Y. Hayashi (Univ. of Tsukuba, JP)

      The present study investigated how a computer-based conversational agent facilitates better explanations from students in a collaborative activity. Pairs of students performed a task where they attempted to explain to their partners the meanings of technical psychological terms. During the task, they interacted with a simulated conversational agent, which was programmed to provide back-channel feedback and metacognitive suggestions through visual and/or audio output. Our findings suggest that the use of multiple communication channels for feedback facilitates collaborative learners’ understanding of concepts.

    • WHGAlert in the Cleanroom: Testing alerting modalities for a task guiding interface
      E. Strasser (Univ. of Salzburg, AT), A. Weiss, R. Buchner, M. Tscheligi
      E. Strasser (Univ. of Salzburg, AT)A. Weiss (ICT&S Center Univ. of Salzburg, AT)R. Buchner (Univ. of Salzburg, AT)M. Tscheligi (Univ. of Salzburg, AT)

      The presented study is the starting point for a series of task guidance studies, which are dedicated to ease the working conditions for operators in the cleanroom of a semiconductor factory. We want to clarify the question how to best indicate the occurrence of an irregular work operation that interrupts the main work stream. On the one hand such a signal has to alert the operator, on the other hand it doesn’t have to attract the attention too much to divert the operator from the main work stream. We compare the impact of alarming with a plain screen based task guidance interface, a task guidance interface with additional ambient light or with tactile feedback. The results show the greatest impact of alarming for tactile feedback. Regarding the attraction of attention, we were only able to observe a tendency, because this specific task switching seems to be too difficult. However, this tendency shows that the plain task guidance attracts attention least.

    • WGPEEG-Based Assessment of Video and In-Game Learning
      R. Wehbe (Univ. of Ontario Institute of Technology, CA), D. Kappen, D. Rojas, M. Klauser, B. Kapralos, L. Nacke
      R. Wehbe (Univ. of Ontario Institute of Technology, CA)D. Kappen (Univ. of Ontario Institute of Technology, CA)D. Rojas (Univ. of Toronto, CA)M. Klauser (Univ. of Ontario Technology Institute, CA)B. Kapralos (Univ. of Ontario Institute of Technology, CA)L. Nacke (Univ. of Ontario Institute of Technology, CA)

      People often learn game-related information in video games by taking turns playing and watching each other play. This type of in-game learning involves both observation and imitation of actions. However, games are also made to be learnt individually during gameplay. Our study seeks to assess which is more effective for learning: just playing a game yourself or watching somebody play it first. We compare two gameplay situations: playing a digital game before watching a game-play video and playing a digital game after watching a gameplay video. Using a between-participants design, to measure learning effectiveness we recorded Mu rhythms, which are indirectly linked to mirror neuron activation during imitation learning. We also analyze hemispheric frontal alpha asymmetry. Our results indicate that presentation order of the video game matters and players are more aroused when watching a gameplay video before playing.

    • WEZChildren’s Computer Interaction in Schools: A Case Study for Promoting Healthy Computer Use
      M. Ciccarelli (Curtin Univ., AU), C. Harris
      M. Ciccarelli (Curtin Univ., AU)C. Harris (Curtin Univ., AU)

      This paper describes the macro-ergonomics approach currently being delivered in collaboration with a West Australian school community to ensure healthy computing for students in middle school (ages 11- 17 Years). Background: Introduction of notebook computers in many schools has become integral to learning. While this is rewarding from an educational perspective, increased screen-based exposure has been associated with potential risks to physical and visual health. Unhealthy computing behaviours include frequent and long durations of exposure; awkward postures due to inappropriate furniture and workstation layout, and ignoring computer-related discomfort. Methods: This research uses a community-based participatory research approach. Students in Year 7 in 2011 at a co-educational middle school, their parents, and teachers have been recruited. Baseline data was collected on students’ knowledge of computer ergonomics, current notebook exposure, and attitudes towards healthy computing behaviours; and teachers’ and self-perceived competence to promote healthy notebook use among students, and what education they wanted. The intervention phase is a health promotion program that is being developed by an inter-professional team in collaboration with students, teachers and parents to embed concepts of ergonomics education in relevant school activities and school culture. End of year changes in reported and observed student computing behaviours will be used to determine the effectiveness of the program. Significance: Building a body of evidence regarding physical health benefits to students from this school-based ergonomics program can guide policy development on the healthy use of computers within children’s educational environments. Additionally, an approach that attends to epidemiological risk factors, whole community attitudes, environmental factors and the organizational environment and culture of the community is essential.

    • WFBAssessment Design for Emergent Game-Based Learning
      J. Asbell-Clarke (TERC, USA), E. Rowe, E. Sylvan
      J. Asbell-Clarke (TERC, USA)E. Rowe (TERC, USA)E. Sylvan (TERC, USA)

      Educational games may lend themselves to innovative forms of learning assessment. This paper reports on game-based science learning assessments that explore how to measure the emergent learning that takes place in games by revealing tacit knowledge development. This research combines video analysis and educational data mining to identify cognitive strategies that emerge through gameplay. By studying the video and click data from high school learners playtesting the game, Impulse, we identify systematic ways of predicting the observed strategies and making possible connections to formal science learning.

    • WHQLearnersourcing Subgoal Labeling to Support Learning from How-to Videos
      J. Kim (Massachusetts Institute of Technology, USA), R. Miller, K. Gajos
      J. Kim (Massachusetts Institute of Technology, USA)R. Miller (Massachusetts Institute of Technology, USA)K. Gajos (Harvard Univ., USA)

      Subgoal labeling [1] is a technique known to support learning new knowledge by clustering a group of steps into a higher-level conceptual unit. It has been shown to improve learning by helping learners to form the right mental model. While many learners view video tutorials nowadays, subgoal labels are often not available unless manually provided at production time. This work addresses the challenge of collecting and presenting subgoal labels to a large number of video tutorials. We introduce a mixed-initiative approach to collect subgoal labels in a scalable and efficient manner. The key component of this method is learnersourcing, which channels learners’ activities using the video interface into useful input to the system. The presented method will contribute to the broader availability of subgoal labels in how-to videos.

    • WJXCircuit in Pieces: Understanding Electricity from Electrons to Light Bulbs
      E. Beheshti (Northwestern Univ., USA), C. Fitzpatrick, A. Hope, A. Piper, M. Horn
      E. Beheshti (Northwestern Univ., USA)C. Fitzpatrick (Northwestern Univ., USA)A. Hope (Northwestern Univ., USA)A. Piper (Northwestern Univ., USA)M. Horn (Northwestern Univ., USA)

      Electrical circuits are difficult to understand. Novices tend to have incorrect understandings of what happens at the level of atoms and electrons in a circuit, which leads to difficulty in understanding and predicting the outcomes of various electrical circuits. We are designing an interactive learning tool called Circuit in Pieces (CiP) that enables learners to interact with representations of electrical circuits at both a micro and a macro level. Using a research through design process that includes interviews and sessions with six students, we explore different approaches for interacting in and between levels. In this paper, we offer preliminary results and design implications for supporting switching between macro and micro level views.

    • WKKiSpy: RFID-Driven Language Learning Toy Integrating Living Environment
      S. Lee (KAIST, KR), Y. Doh
      S. Lee (KAIST, KR)Y. Doh (KAIST, KR)

      Learning English through playing is expected to help with the effort of seeking new possibilities, from understanding that play is fundamental to the development of a child’s capacity to learn. This extended abstract describes the function and system of a second-language learning toy while referring to some educational points to be considered in second-language education. We present iSpy, an interactive language-learning toy for preschool children. Along with the features and values that could be offered by iSpy, concerns and their reflection on the design of iSpy are introduced. Design of iSpy also includes building a collaborating system, consisting of the: toy itself, database, and application to a smart device. iSpy utilizes the living environment as a language learning resource. It is achieved by providing rich audio contents related to the surrounding objects based on the RFID tag mapping information. Tag reading histories are stored and processed to provide constant updates and feedback for parents. The system as a whole is expected to provide a new scenario for the learning toy in terms of creating a sustainable structure.

    • WMVLet’s Learn! Enhancing User’s Engagement Levels Through Passive Brain-Computer Interfaces
      M. Andujar (Clemson Univ., USA), J. Gilbert
      M. Andujar (Clemson Univ., USA)J. Gilbert (Clemson Univ., USA)

      This work in progress paper describes a proof-of-concept that explores the question: “Can users retain more information by incrementing their reading engagement physiologically?” This may help users to better learn the material even when it is uninteresting. Further, this paper explains how using Brain-Computer Interfaces can be used to measure/capture the engagement levels of a user while he or she is performing a task, in this case reading. Also this explores, how beneficial it may be for reading engagement physiologically to deliver the best reading experience.

    • WPUCrowdsourced Ethics with Personalized Story Matching
      H. Lieberman (Massachusetts Insititute of Technology, USA), K. Dinakar, B. Jones
      H. Lieberman (Massachusetts Insititute of Technology, USA)K. Dinakar (Massachusetts Institute of Technology, USA)B. Jones (Massachusetts Institute of Technology, USA)

      Cyberbullying is a widespread and growing social problem, threatening the viability of social networks for youth. We believe that one of the best ways to combat this problem is to use these incidents as “teaching moments”, encouraging teens to reflect on their behavior and choices. Sites that offer community discussions around the ethical aspects of social situations can help teens feel less alone in their plight, and provide useful advice and emotional support. But the success of these “crowdsourced ethics” sites depends critically on the user feeling like discussions are relevant to their own personal experience. We have augmented the crowdsourced ethics site “Over The Line”, offered by MTV Networks, with a personalized story matcher that classifies stories according to dynamically discovered high-level themes like “sending nude pictures online” or “feeling pressure in relationships”. The matcher uses a mixed-initiative LDA machine learning technique [2], and a commonsense knowledge base specialized to the bullying problem. The site is currently public, and attracts an audience of thousands of users daily.

    • WQEMovers and Shakers: Designing Meaningful Conflict in a Tablet-Based Serious Game
      K. Mitgutsch (Massachusetts Institute of Technology, USA), S. Schirra, S. Verrilli
      K. Mitgutsch (Massachusetts Institute of Technology, USA)S. Schirra (Massachusetts Institute of Technology, USA)S. Verrilli (Massachusetts Institute of Technology, USA)

      Movers and Shakers is a two-player tablet game that explores how subversive game design elements can foster meaningful conversational conflict in a serious game. It relates recent insights into recursive and transformative learning theories to a game prototype that can be used as a research tool to explore how social design can influence serious game experiences. In this paper, we outline the game’s theoretical foundations, highlight its central design elements and outline the research design for a study on the impacts of the game on the communication flow of its players.

    Multimedia

    • WBRActivityDesk: Multi-Device Configuration Work using an Interactive Desk
      S. Houben (IT Univ. of Copenhagen, DK), J. Bardram
      S. Houben (IT Univ. of Copenhagen, DK)J. Bardram (IT Univ. of Copenhagen, DK)

      Recent studies have shown that knowledge workers are increasingly using multiple devices, such as notebooks, tablets and smartphones to interact with different types of information that are part of their daily activities. Using multiple devices introduces a configuration overhead as users have to manually reconfigure all devices according to ongoing activities. Especially in an environment such as an office, where the use of multiple devices is more common, the process of configuring them in context of ongoing activities is cumbersome. In this paper, we present the initial explorations of the ActivityDesk system, an interactive desk that supports multi-device configuration work and workspace aggregation into a personal ad hoc smart space for knowledge workers. The main goal of ActivityDesk is to reduce the configuration work required to use multiple devices at the same time by using an interactive desk as a configuration space.

    • WKYFeeling the Unseen: Physical Interaction with Depth-embedded Images
      S. Kim (KAIST (Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology), KR), B. Han, D. Kwon
      S. Kim (KAIST (Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology), KR)B. Han (KAIST (Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology), KR)D. Kwon (KAIST (Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology), KR)

      In this paper, we propose a method that produces a 2D image that can self-contain physical information such as the object geometry. To associate additional physical information with a 2D image without changing its original input format, we employed a steganography method that manipulates the digital information by exploiting the low sensitivity of human beings to high-frequency brightness variations. With the proposed method, 2D images can have its own tactility. The main advantage of this method over previous information-association methods is that the resultant format remains compatible with that of the original 2D image. For example, if the original image is a PNG file, the resulting image can remain as a PNG file. Note that maintaining compatibility becomes important especially when we use digital media practically in existing platforms. We conclude this paper with explorations of geometry-based interactive applications and discussions of compatibility and transparency issues.

    Music & Audio

    • WPZTowards a more Flexible and Creative Music Mixing Interface
      S. Gelineck (Aalborg Univ. CPH, DK), M. Büchert, J. Andersen
      S. Gelineck (Aalborg Univ. CPH, DK)M. BüchertJ. Andersen

      This paper presents the ongoing work towards creating a novel interface for mixing music. It identifies 5 key design factors crucial for the development and evaluation of such an interface. It then shortly presents an initial prototype, which implements a stage metaphor control structure. Finally two initial evaluation activities are briefly presented and discussed, one of which compares multi touch to two different tangible user interface interaction schemes. Preliminary results suggest that tangible controls outperform and are preferred over multi touch.

    • WCJReactive Music: When User Behavior Affects Sounds in Real-Time
      C. Bauer (Vienna Univ. of Economics and Business, AT), F. Waldner
      C. Bauer (Vienna Univ. of Economics and Business, AT)F. Waldner

      It is a natural predisposition of humans to respond to the rhythmical qualities of music. Now, we turn the setting around: The music responds to the user’s behavior. So-called ‘reactive music’ is a non-linear format of music that is able to react to the listener and her or his environment in real-time. Giant Steps is an iPhone application that implements such reactive music in correspondence to a jogger’s movements and the sounds in her or his environment. We hope that our approach contributes to a better understanding of ‘machine to user’ adaption, and to mobile sports applications in particular.

    • WJMThe Sound of Light: Induced Synesthesia for Augmenting the Photography Experience
      J. San pedro (Telefonica Research, ES), K. Church
      J. San pedro (Telefonica Research, ES)K. Church (Telefonica Research, ES)

      This paper presents a novel approach to assist users of digital cameras and augment their photograph taking experience. To this end, a realtime analysis of the images framed by the camera is conducted to assess composition, exposure and presence of human subjects. The resulting information is used to give users feedback about their photographs before they release the shutter. The main contribution of this paper is the use of synesthetic feedback: a musical composition that maps aspects resulting from the realtime analysis of images is composed and played back to the photographer. A preliminary study shows that musical attributes can be controlled to provide effective feedback about the visual modality.

    • WBNStickEar: Augmenting Objects and Places Wherever Whenever
      K. Yeo (Singapore Univ. of Technology and Design, SG), S. Nanayakkara
      K. Yeo (Singapore Univ. of Technology and Design, SG)S. Nanayakkara (Singapore Univ. of Technology and Design, SG)

      Sticky notes provide a means of anchoring visual information on physical objects while having the versatility of being redeployable and reusable. StickEar encapsulate sensor network technology in the form factor of a sticky note that has a tangible user interface, offering the affordances of redeployablilty and reusability. It features a distributed set of network-enabled sound-based sensor nodes. StickEar is a multi-function input/output device that enables sound-based interactions for applications such as remote sound monitoring, remote triggering of sound, autonomous response to sound events, and controlling of digital devices using sound. In addition, multiple StickEars can interact with each other to perform novel input and output tasks. We believe this work would provide non-expert users with an intuitive and seamless method of interacting with the environment and its artifacts though sound.

    • WJCKIKIWAKE: Sound Source Separation System for Children-Computer Interaction
      T. Taguchi (Tokyo Univ. of Science, JP), M. Goseki, R. Egusa, M. Namatame, M. Sugimoto, F. kusunoki, E. Yamaguchi, S. Inagaki, Y. Takeda, H. Mizoguchi
      T. Taguchi (Tokyo Univ. of Science, JP)M. Goseki (Tokyo Univ. of Science, JP)R. Egusa (Kobe Univ., JP)M. Namatame (Tsukuba Univ. of Technology, JP)M. Sugimoto (Hokkaido Univ., JP)F. kusunoki (Tama art Univ., JP)E. Yamaguchi (Kobe Univ., JP)S. Inagaki (Kobe Univ., JP)Y. Takeda (Kobe Univ., JP)H. Mizoguchi (Tokyo Univ. of Science, JP)

      In general living environments, in order to separate children’s voices from backgrounds noise, we developed a sound separation system by a microphone array. We created a game by use of this developed system, and conducted evaluation experiment intended for elementary school children. As a result, we confirmed this system could separate 3 voices, and the game promotes children’s interest in or concerns about a microphone array in a quantitative way.

    • WJDHarmonic Paper: Interactive Music Interface for Drawing
      L. Kang (Cornell Univ., USA), T. Gu, G. Gay
      L. Kang (Cornell Univ., USA)T. Gu (Cornell Univ., USA)G. Gay (Cornell Univ., USA)

      This paper describes the project ‘Harmonic Paper’, an interactive interface that converts a user’s drawing into music. By means of a microcontroller and series of photocells, the installation can detect diverse features (location, thickness) of physical drawing in a letter-size paper, and convert them into musical components (note, volume, tempo) with visual feedback (color light). We also provide a custom-designed software that allows users to virtually practice this hardware installation. This set of software and hardware helps user to explore new musical and visual expression through an understanding of audio-visual relationship.

    • WKSToward a Method and Toolkit for the Design of Auditory Displays, based on Soundtrack Composition
      D. MacDonald (Queen Mary, Univ. of London, UK), T. Stockman
      D. MacDonald (Queen Mary, Univ. of London, UK)T. Stockman (Queen Mary, Univ. of London, UK)

      Auditory displays use sound to convey information within the context of human-computer interaction. The use of sound in the interface is becoming more important as technologies are becoming increasingly ubiquitous and ‘every-day’. However, its been argued that often ad-hoc approaches are used for the creation of auditory displays, which in turn often lack consideration for usability and aesthetics. This paper presents an approach suitable for the design of auditory displays based on the working practices of soundtrack composers. We describe our initial investigation into the feasibility of the idea. This has involved a literature review and the distributing of an on going survey to ascertain the working practices of soundtrack composers. We justify our ideas for the initial method and toolkit for its execution from the initial results of both the review and the survey. We then conclude by discussing further plans for development and evaluation, which involve identifying key points within an HCI scenario for sound design.

    • WPBExploring Adverse Effects of Adaptive Voice Menu
      S. Asthana (Indraprastha Institute of Information Technology, IN), P. Singh, A. Singh
      S. Asthana (Indraprastha Institute of Information Technology, IN)P. Singh (Indraprastha Institute of Information Technology, IN)A. Singh (Indraprastha Institute of Information Technology, IN)

      Menus are one of the effective user interfaces which is used for navigation in many systems like desktop applications, voice system, etc. Placement of each menu item in the menu tree is known as menu configuration. Deciding optimal configuration in a menu based system is a challenging task. This task to decide the optimal configuration dynamically can be done through adaptive interfaces. Adaptive interfaces play significant role when optimality varies with time. However, the negative impacts of adaptive interfaces on the users familiar with the system discourage its use. There is a need to have separate design for handling users familiar and unfamiliar with the system. In this work, we study the adverse effect of adaptive voice menu on the experienced users. We also propose strategies to reduce the adverse effect of adaptivity. We design and deploy a menu based voice system to conduct a control experiment to evaluate proposed strategies. The proposed strategies try to differentiate between familiar and unfamiliar users and takes remedial steps to suppress the adverse effect of adaptive interfaces for familiar users.

    • WMLSurvey of Audio Programming Tools
      A. Adams (Univ. of North Carolina at Charlotte, USA), C. Latulipe
      A. Adams (Univ. of North Carolina at Charlotte, USA)C. Latulipe (Univ. of North Carolina at Charlotte, USA)

      Audio programming can be an overwhelming and confusing task that many developers are not adequately prepared for. Even the seemingly simple task of choosing the right software developers kit (SDK) to use can become a difficult task. This paper presents an analysis of the most extensive and widely used audio programming SDKs organized by audio task and highlighting factors such as usability, support, and functionality.

    Privacy

    • WANMIBA: Multitouch Image-Based Authentication on Smartphones
      D. Ritter (Ulm Univ., DE), F. Schaub, M. Walch, M. Weber
      D. Ritter (Ulm Univ., DE)F. Schaub (Ulm Univ., DE)M. Walch (Ulm Univ., DE)M. Weber (Ulm Univ., DE)

      Graphical password schemes can provide better usability than text passwords, especially on smartphones where typing complex passwords on a virtual keyboard can be tedious. However, in order to achieve password strength comparable to text passwords, graphical password schemes require multiple rounds and, therefore, have longer entry times. We propose MIBA as an image-based authentication method that leverages multitouch in order to increase the password space by supporting multiple fingers for click point selection. We outline the MIBA concept, report on practical constraints for multitouch click point selection, and discuss preliminary results that indicate short entry times and the usability of MIBA.

    • WAPImproving Privacy Settings for Facebook by Using Interpersonal Distance as Criterion
      M. Kauer (Technische Univ. Darmstadt, Institute of Ergonomics, DE), B. Franz, T. Pfeiffer, M. Heine, D. Christin
      M. Kauer (Technische Univ. Darmstadt, Institute of Ergonomics, DE)B. Franz (Technische Univ. Darmstadt, Institute of Ergonomics, DE)T. Pfeiffer (Institute of Ergonomics, DE)M. Heine (Technische Univ. Darmstadt, DE)D. Christin (Technische Univ. Darmstadt, DE)

      The possibility to define custom privacy settings in Facebook has been improved over the last years. Still, numerous users do not know how to change those settings or do not use the settings because they are cumbersome to use. Within this paper a new method for defining the privacy settings in online social networks is presented that uses the social distance between users as setting criterion. This approach was tested as a paper prototype in a first user study with 10 participants. Results show that the number of errors was significantly decreased and that the subjective evaluation of the interface was promising.

    • WHXWhat Does Your Profile Really Say About You?: Privacy Warning Systems and Self-disclosure in Online Social Network Spaces
      L. Emanuel (Univ. of Bath, UK), C. Bevan, D. Hodges
      L. Emanuel (Univ. of Bath, UK)C. Bevan (Univ. of Bath, UK)D. Hodges (Univ. of Oxford, UK)

      This paper reports current progress on the design and initial evaluation of an innovative privacy feedback system aimed to provide social network users with tailor-made feedback about their identity exposure online. Preliminary results suggest our feedback system, based on a research driven model of identity, appears to reduce the amount of information individuals disclose about themselves in social network spaces. We discuss the impact of our feedback system on the way individuals share information online, as well as suggestions for a more fine-grained evaluation and future development of this feedback system.

    • WJQLocation Privacy Revisited: Factors of Privacy Decisions
      B. Henne (Leibniz Univ. Hannover, DE), M. Harbach, M. Smith
      B. Henne (Leibniz Univ. Hannover, DE)M. Harbach (Leibniz Univ. Hannover, DE)M. Smith (Leibniz Univ. Hannover, DE)

      The privacy problems associated with disclosing location information have repeatedly been the subject of research during the past decade. Yet, only the increasing adoption of smartphones today unveils real world implications, since a large number of users currently use location-based services and GPS-enabled devices for a multitude of purposes. Recently, research suggested that location privacy is not a relevant problem for today’s users. However, a study we conducted indicates that it might be too early to call off investigations of location privacy: In a survey of 414 users on online media sharing behavior, we found that location was rated as the type of photo metadata that poses the highest risk to privacy. Therefore, we revisit the discussion on location privacy in this paper and propose factors that can explain the conflicting views.

    • WNCUnlocking the Privacy Paradox: Do Cognitive Heuristics Hold the Key
      S. Sundar (The Pennsylvania State Univ., USA), H. Kang, M. Wu, E. Go, B. Zhang
      S. Sundar (The Pennsylvania State Univ., USA)H. Kang (The Pennsylvania State Univ., USA)M. Wu (The Pennsylvania State Univ., USA)E. Go (The Pennsylvania State Univ., USA)B. Zhang (The Pennsylvania State Univ., USA)

      Even though users have become increasingly concerned about their privacy online, they continue to disclose deeply personal information in a number of online venues, including e-commerce portals and social networking sites. Scholars have tried to explain this inconsistency between attitudes and behavior by suggesting that online users consciously weigh the trade-off between the costs and benefits of online information disclosure. We argue that online user behaviors are not always rational, but may occur due to expedient decision-making in the heat of the moment. Such decisions are based on cognitive heuristics (i.e., rules of thumb) rather than on a careful analysis of each transaction. Based on this premise, we seek to identify the specific triggers for disclosure of private information online. In the experiment reported here, we explore the operation of two specific heuristics——benefit and fuzzy boundary——in influencing privacy-related attitudes and behaviors. Theoretical and design implications are discussed.

    • WNGAndroid and iOS Users’ Differences concerning Security and Privacy
      Z. Benenson (Univ. of Erlangen-Nuremberg, DE), F. Gassmann, L. Reinfelder
      Z. Benenson (Univ. of Erlangen-Nuremberg, DE)F. Gassmann (Saarland Univ., DE)L. Reinfelder (Univ. of Erlangen-Nuremberg, DE)

      We compare Android and iOS users according to their demographic differences, security and privacy awareness, and reported behavior when installing apps. We present an exploratory study based on an online survey with more than 700 German students and describe directions for further research.

    • WQKIn the Balance in Saudi Arabia: Security, Privacy and Trust
      D. Alghamdi (Univ. of Oxford, UK), I. Flechais, M. Jirotka
      D. Alghamdi (Univ. of Oxford, UK)I. Flechais (Univ. of Oxford, UK)M. Jirotka (Univ. of Oxford, UK)

      Bank policies must meet their clients’ requirements to provide effective security. However, bank policies in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia seem to run contrary to their clients’ requirements when they prevent them from sharing their authentications with their family. We investigated Saudi participants behaviour towards authentication and found that credentials are shared between couples as a sign of mutual trust. This, may extend to siblings and parents too. The consequence of such behaviour is that these account holders are liable for any loss, and this also increases the opportunities for so-called spouse attacks. Saudi bank policies need, at one and the same time, to match their clients’ behaviour and simultaneously to provide complete and effective security for them.

    Social Computing

    • WBPHow Personality Influences Users’ Needs for Recommendation Diversity?
      L. Chen (Hong Kong Baptist Univ. (HKBU), CN), W. Wu, L. He
      L. Chen (Hong Kong Baptist Univ. (HKBU), CN)W. Wu (Hong Kong Baptist Univ., CN)L. He (East China Normal Univ., CN)

      The existing approaches for enhancing diversity in online recommendations neglect the user’s spontaneous needs that might be potentially influenced by her/his personality. In this paper, we report our ongoing research on exploring the actual impact of personality values on users’ needs for recommendation diversity. The results from a preliminary user survey are reported, that show the significantly causal relationship from personality factors (such as conscientiousness) to the users’ diversity preference (not only over the item’s individual attributes but also on all attributes when they are combined). We further present our plan for the follow-up work and discuss its practical implications.

    • WGYGenerating Annotations for How-to Videos Using Crowdsourcing
      P. Nguyen (Massachusetts Institute of Technology, USA), J. Kim, R. Miller
      P. Nguyen (Massachusetts Institute of Technology, USA)J. Kim (Massachusetts Institute of Technology, USA)R. Miller (Massachusetts Institute of Technology, USA)

      How-to videos can be valuable for learning, but searching for and following along with them can be difficult. Having labeled events such as the tools used in how-to videos could improve video indexing, searching, and browsing. We introduce a crowdsourcing annotation tool for Photoshop how-to videos with a three-stage method that consists of: (1) gathering timestamps of important events, (2) labeling each event, and (3) capturing how each event affects the task of the tutorial. Our ultimate goal is to generalize our method to be applied to other domains of how-to videos. We evaluate our annotation tool with Amazon Mechanical Turk workers to investigate the accuracy, costs, and feasibility of our three-stage method for annotating large numbers of video tutorials. Improvements can be made for stages 1 and 3, but stage 2 produces accurate labels over 90% of the time using majority voting. We have observed that changes in the instructions and interfaces of each task can improve the accuracy of the results significantly.

    • WEVOnegai: A Demand-Driven Photo Sharing Tool with Location Reference
      L. Wan (Univ. of Siegen, DE), J. Hess, B. Ley, V. Wulf, V. Sjablow
      L. Wan (Univ. of Siegen, DE)J. Hess (Univ. of Siegen, DE)B. Ley (Univ. of Siegen, DE)V. Wulf (Univ. of Siegen, DE)V. Sjablow (Univ. of Siegen, DE)

      Onegai is a location-based photo sharing service for mobile devices. We chose the name ‘Onegai’ (it means ‘please’ in Japanese) as the unique sharing model offers users the possibility to define their requests of information to each other. This work is motivated by the fact that there is a lack of possibilities to reflect the receiver’s wishes when the sender is capturing or sharing information. This informational asymmetry may result in unnecessary or annoying information for the passive receiver. We suggest that “demand-driven sharing” is a good alternative to existing sharing practices and tested the concept in a case study. We will discuss how the users have adopted our prototype in their social practices. In particular, we have observed a highly altruistic culture in users’ interaction using Onegai, which is barely seen in today’s social media landscape.

    • WPKFamily Communication in Rural and Slum Regions of Kenya
      E. Oduor (Simon Fraser Univ., CA), C. Neustaedter, S. Hillman, C. Pang
      E. Oduor (Simon Fraser Univ., CA)C. Neustaedter (Simon Fraser Univ., CA)S. Hillman (Simon Fraser Univ., CA)C. Pang (Simon Fraser Univ., CA)

      We report the findings of a small scale exploratory qualitative study on 13 participants from rural and slum regions of Kenya communicated with remote family members using technology. We focus on communication practices that enabled family members to support economic sustenance activities and also investigate the social aspects of using technology to provide or receive moral, emotional or other forms of support from distributed family members.

    • WBUSomeone to Watch over Me: Presence of an Assistant Agent on SNS Inhibits Negative Blaming Statements in Tweeting
      M. Onuma (Tokyo Denki Univ., JP), A. Kimura, H. Sasaki, N. Mukawa
      M. Onuma (Tokyo Denki Univ., JP)A. Kimura (Tokyo Denki Univ., JP)H. Sasaki (Tokyo Denki Univ., JP)N. Mukawa (Tokyo Denki Univ., JP)

      This study explored whether artificial cues of others on social networking sites (SNS) have an effect on a user’s tweeting behavior in frustrating situations. By manipulating artificial cues of others, we measured the statements posted by participants on a hypothetical SNS under two different experimental situations: one was the agent condition, in which task instructions were given by an assistant agent throughout the task, and the other was the control condition in which task instructions were given through a text box. In each condition, participants were first asked to read fictional stories including frustrating interpersonal and intrapersonal events and to adopt these situations as their own. Participants were then asked to tweet about their feelings on the hypothetical SNS. The negativity and aggressiveness of each statement in both conditions were assessed by other participants. Results demonstrate that the statements for the frustrating interpersonal event posted by participants under the agent condition were more often evaluated as non-negative and less often evaluated as negative-and-blaming-of-others than those posted under the control condition. Conversely, there was no difference between conditions in the statements for the frustrating intrapersonal event. These findings suggest that the implication of the presence of others, such as an assistant agent, in the tweeting environment inhibits disparaging tweeting behavior on SNS.

    • WNZAre Computers Still Social Actors?
      H. Lang (Ulm Univ., DE), M. Klepsch, F. Nothdurft, T. Seufert, W. Minker
      H. Lang (Ulm Univ., DE)M. Klepsch (Institute of Psychology and Education, DE)F. Nothdurft (Institute of Communications Engineering, DE)T. Seufert (Institute of Psychology and Education, DE)W. Minker (Institute of Communications Engineering, DE)

      The initial idea behind the study described in this paper was to assess the perceived socialness of anthropomorphic agents in computer human interaction. In a nuclear power plant simulation scenario users were assisted by an anthropomorphic agent completing several tasks. Afterwards the agent was assessed using questionnaires that were presented in three different modalities. One group completed a pen and paper questionnaire, another one used a web-based version of the questionnaire, and the third group was asked the questions directly by the agent. We expected the group assessed directly by the agent to behave more politely and to overall give the best ratings. While we did not attain the expected results our study revealed first evidence that the “Computers as Social Actors” paradigm might have to be reconsidered. We argue that the prevalence of computers nowadays might have caused computers not to be treated as “standalone social entities” anymore but to be rather perceived as a “window to the Internet” rendering social behavior towards computers obsolete under certain conditions.

    • WJUOn How Event Size and Interactivity Affect Social Networks
      B. Xu (Cornell Univ., USA), A. Chin, D. Cosley
      B. Xu (Cornell Univ., USA)A. Chin (Nokia, CN)D. Cosley (Cornell Univ., USA)

      Participating in social events or activities in the physical world is an important way for us to make new friends and build social networks. We aim to explore the role of event size and interactivity in affecting social networking behaviors. In this paper, we obtained data from an event-based social network site and conducted a quantitative analysis that reveals a relationship between online following behavior and characteristics of real-world events. We also employ behavior setting theory, social role theory, and user interview data to help us understand the quantitative results. Our finding that small events on average promote more new connections between individuals than large events has important implications for event organizers, event participants, and social media designers.

    • WBTFacilitating Natural Flow of Information among “Taste-based” Groups
      Y. Liu (Waseda Univ., JP), T. Alexandrova, S. Hirade, T. Nakajima
      Y. Liu (Waseda Univ., JP)T. Alexandrova (Waseda Univ., JP)S. Hirade (Waseda Univ., JP)T. Nakajima (Waseda Univ., JP)

      Social science studies have shown that the disconnection of people from different social classes or opinion groups may reinforce serious problems to our society (e.g., residential segregation, group polarization, or confirmation bias). With the emerging trend of the Web 2.0, however, different kinds of people are likely having less chance to share information with each other. How to design for supporting better information flow among different social, taste, or opinion groups of people becomes a challenging question for digital designers. In this work-in-progress paper we present our on-going research of exploring a crowd-based system for facilitating natural information flow among different types of people. We conducted a Wizard-of-OZ study to simulate push-based human powered recommendation, and learn how participants react when receiving unexpected information. Based on the findings, we designed and implemented a web application for encouraging different kinds of people to exchange information in a peer-to-peer way. Next steps include designing pairing strategy and conducting user study.

    • WECCrowdfunding: A Resource Exchange Perspective
      M. Greenberg (Northwestern Univ., USA), J. Hui, E. Gerber
      M. Greenberg (Northwestern Univ., USA)J. Hui (Northwestern Univ., USA)E. Gerber (Northwestern Univ., USA)

      Online crowdfunding has gained attention among novice entrepreneurs as an effective platform for funding their ventures. However, a focus on the financial nature of the relationship has obscured the complex interpersonal interactions involving the exchange of non-financial resources. Drawing from resource exchange theory in the marketing literature, we look at the exchange of resources and the mechanisms that facilitate this exchange in online crowdfunding. We analyzed 81 popular online crowdfunding platforms to reveal the exchange of various resources including: money, love, information, status, goods, and services through mediated, unmediated, and hybrid structures. Using resource exchange theory as a lens, we examine crowdfunding as a new type of crowdwork platform and explain how resource exchange theory can help the HCI community understand new, crowdwork platforms.

    • WLDUnderstanding Crowdfunding Work: Implications for Support Tools
      J. Hui (Northwestern Univ., USA), M. Greenberg, E. Gerber
      J. Hui (Northwestern Univ., USA)M. Greenberg (Northwestern Univ., USA)E. Gerber (Northwestern Univ., USA)

      Crowdfunding is changing the way people realize their work by providing a new way to gain support from a distributed audience. This study seeks to understand the work of crowdfunding project creators in order to inform the design of crowdfunding support tools and systems. We conducted interviews with 30 project creators from three popular crowdfunding platforms in order to understand what tasks are involved and what tools people use to accomplish crowdfunding work. Initial results suggest that project creators carry out three main types of work—preparing the campaign material, marketing the project, and following through with project goals—and have adapted general support tools to facilitate doing this work. From our initial findings, we hope to improve and design future crowdfunding support tools and systems.

    • WPQMixsourcing: A Remix Framework as a Form of Crowdsourcing
      S. Hallacher (ITP, USA), J. Rodenhouse, A. Monroy-Hernandez
      S. Hallacher (ITP, USA)J. Rodenhouse (Microsoft Research, USA)A. Monroy-Hernandez (Microsoft Research, USA)

      In this paper, we introduce the concept of mixsourcing as a modality of crowdsourcing focused on using remixing as a framework to get people to perform creative tasks. We explore this idea through the design of a system that helped us identify the promises and challenges of this peer-production modality.

    • WLQScript-Based Story Matching for Cyberbullying Prevention
      J. Macbeth (Massachusetts Institute of Technology, USA), H. Adeyema, H. Lieberman, C. Fry
      J. Macbeth (Massachusetts Institute of Technology, USA)H. Adeyema (Massachusetts Institute of Technology, USA)H. Lieberman (Massachusetts Insititute of Technology, USA)C. Fry (Massachusetts Institute of Technology, USA)

      While the Internet and social media help keep today’s youth better connected to their friends, family, and community, the same media are also the form of expression for an array of harmful social behaviors, such as cyberbullying and cyber-harassment. In this paper we present work in progress to develop intelligent interfaces to social media that use commonsense knowledge bases and automated narrative analyses of text communications between users to trigger selective interventions and prevent negative outcomes. While other approaches seek merely to classify the overall topic of the text, we try to match stories to finer-grained “scripts” that represent stereotypical events and actions. For example, many bullying stories can be matched to a “revenge” script that describes trying to harm someone who has harmed you. These tools have been implemented in an initial prototype system and tested on a database of real stories of cyberbullying collected on MTV’s “A Thin Line” Web site.

    • WHFPower of Friends: When Friends Guess About Their Friends’ Guess
      D. Aggarwal (IIIT Hyderabad, IN), R. Khot, V. Choppella
      D. Aggarwal (IIIT Hyderabad, IN)R. Khot (Royal Melbourne Institute of Techonology, AU)V. Choppella (International Institute of Information Technology, IN)

      Friendsourcing games aim to collect useful information about individuals by targeting their socially connected groups or friends. The current method of eliciting information is to pose direct questions to friends and expect a truthful response in return. However, such an approach not only becomes monotonous after some time but also suffers from problems like social awkwardness and reticence and thus, affecting the accuracy of the generated responses. In this paper, we present Power of Friends, a novel approach to friendsourcing games, which involves identifying the unanimous opinion of all the friends about a question related to an individual. We tested our proposed approach with seven different groups and were able to generate 47 facts about members of the selected groups. Participants particularly enjoyed the guesswork and interactive elements of the game. Based on the feedback obtained from the study, we propose four strategies for designing similar friendsourcing games.

    • WCFClarifications and Question Specificity in Synchronous Social Q&A
      M. Kato (Kyoto Univ., JP), R. White, J. Teevan, S. Dumais
      M. Kato (Kyoto Univ., JP)R. White (Microsoft Research, USA)J. Teevan (Microsoft Research, USA)S. Dumais (Microsoft Research, USA)

      Synchronous social question-and-answer (Q&A) systems help people find answer by connecting them with others via instant messaging. To understand how such systems can quickly and effectively establish fruitful connections, we analyze conversations collected from a working enterprise social Q&A system. We show that when askers start with underspecified questions (e.g., “I need help with mail access”), they receive clarification requests, extended dialogs, and poor responses. To address this we are implementing and deploying support within a Q&A system to foster more complete questions, reduce the need for clarification, and benefit both askers and answerers.

    • WCGThe Path is the Reward: Considering Social Networks to Contribute to the Pleasure of Urban Strolling
      M. Traunmueller (Univ. College London, UK), A. Fatah gen Schieck, J. Schöning, D. Brumby
      M. Traunmueller (Univ. College London, UK)A. Fatah gen Schieck (Univ. College London, UK)J. Schöning (Hasselt Univ. – tUL – iMinds, BE)D. Brumby (Univ. College London, UK)

      Most (mobile) online map services focus on providing their users the most efficient route to their target location. In this paper we investigate the relationship between the physical and digital urban navigation to improve wayfinding for pedestrians by enhancing their experiences when strolling through a city. With our application “Space Recommender System” we describe a new wayfinding approach by implementing common digital online methods of commenting and recommender systems into the physical world, using voting data from social network services. Initial findings highlight the general importance of the walking experience to the public and suggest that implementing social media based recommendations in route finding algorithms enhance the pleasure of urban strolling. The initial user tests of the system in a real world context together with collected feedback and the observations throughout the design process stimulate the discussions of wider issues and highlight its potential for future novel wayfinding applications.

    • WKLDesigning to Improve Interpersonal Impression Accuracy in Online Peer Production
      J. Marlow (Carnegie Mellon Univ., USA), L. Dabbish
      J. Marlow (Carnegie Mellon Univ., USA)L. Dabbish (Carnegie Mellon Univ., USA)

      In online peer production, users assess potential collaborators’ expertise and warmth to inform interactions. However, people often make inaccurate first impressions. These false impressions hurt collaboration and lead to conflict based on incorrect behavioral attributions. Online peer production interface design can reduce or enhance impression accuracy. In this paper, we suggest ways to reduce bias in online impression formation. Based on our own previous research and social psychology literature on impression formation, we propose ways of presenting individuals’ work history and interaction traces to reduce bias in impression formation. The design recommendations we present should improve efficiency and satisfaction with interactions in large-scale online peer production settings.

    • WKNCrowdsourcing as a Method for Indexing Digital Media
      S. Ha (Seoul National Univ., KR), D. Kim, J. Lee
      S. Ha (Seoul National Univ., KR)D. Kim (Seoul National Univ., KR)J. Lee (Seoul National Univ., KR)

      As people spend more time online, watching YouTube or playing games, a number of research studies arose in ways to make use of the time and energy from the crowd in doing such activities. In this paper, we have explored the possibility of converting the collective resources from the crowd in making useful information back to people. We collected posts from the online forums about soap operas on the air, and extracted instances when the name of characters in the play has been mentioned. These crowdsourced indexes become good search keywords to find the scenes where the characters mentioned in the posts appear.

    Second Rotation: Wednesday and Thursday

    Augmented Reality

    • WADExploring the Benefits of Fingernail Displays
      R. Wimmer (Univ. of Regensburg, DE), F. Echtler
      R. Wimmer (Univ. of Regensburg, DE)F. Echtler (Univ. of Regensburg, DE)

      Fingers are an important interface both to the physical and the digital world. We propose research on artificial fingernails which contain tiny displays and sensors. These fingernail displays greatly supplement other input and output channels, offering novel interaction possibilities. We present three contributions: (1) the general concept and use cases for fingernail displays, (2) a technique for capturing touch events at the fingernails and interaction methods supported by this technique, and (3) an overview of relevant research questions.

    • WALAR Pen and Hand Gestures: A New Tool for Pen Drawings
      H. Kim (Samsung Electronics, KR), H. Kim, S. Chae, J. Seo, T. Han
      H. Kim (Samsung Electronics, KR)H. Kim (Yonsei Univ., KR)S. Chae (Yonsei Univ., KR)J. Seo (Yonsei Univ., KR)T. Han (Yonsei Univ., KR)

      This paper explores the interaction possibilities when artists use their non-dominant hand, while drawing with a pen in their dominant hand. We propose a new interactive AR-based pen tool which can overlay virtual images onto a physical drawing in real time. This system allows artists to control the augmented images with gestures of a non-dominant hand while drawing. By interacting with the visually augmented contents using hand gestures and a pen bimanually, artists can draw pictures more creatively. We also made a standalone pen system integrated with a pico-projector and a camera, and suggest a set of useful scenarios for the conventional pen-and-paper drawing.

    • WCCBouldAR – Using Augmented Reality to Support Collaborative Boulder Training
      F. Daiber (DFKI GmbH, DE), F. Kosmalla, A. Krüger
      F. Daiber (DFKI GmbH, DE)F. Kosmalla (Saarland Univ., DE)A. Krüger (DFKI Saarbrücken, DE)

      Nowadays smartphones are ubiquitous and – to some extent – already used to support sports training, e.g. runners or bikers track their trip with a gps-enabled smartphone. But recent mobile technology has powerful processors that allow even more complex tasks like image or graphics processing. In this work we address the question on how mobile technology can be used for collaborative boulder training. More specifically, we present a mobile augmented reality application to support various parts of boulder training. The proposed approach also incorporates sharing and other social features. Thus our solution supports collaborative training by providing an intuitive way to create, share and define goals and challenges together with friends. Furthermore we propose a novel method of trackable generation for augmented reality. Synthetically generated images of climbing walls are used as trackables for real, existing walls.

    • WDVUser-defined Gestures for Augmented Reality
      T. Piumsomboon (Univ. of Canterbury , NZ), A. Clark, M. Billinghurst, A. Cockburn
      T. Piumsomboon (Univ. of Canterbury , NZ)A. Clark (Univ. of Canterbury , NZ)M. Billinghurst (Univ. of Canterbury , NZ)A. Cockburn (Univ. of Canterbury, NZ)

      Recently there has been an increase in research of hand gestures for interaction in the area of Augmented Reality (AR). However this research has focused on developer designed gestures, and little is known about user preference and behavior for gestures in AR. In this paper, we present the results of a guessability study focused on hand gestures in AR. A total of 800 gestures have been elicited for 40 selected tasks from 20 partic-ipants. Using the agreement found among gestures, a user-defined gesture set was created to guide design-ers to achieve consistent user-centered gestures in AR.

    • WGGSmarter Objects: Using AR Technology to Program Physical Objects and their Interactions
      V. Heun (Massachusetts Institute of Technology, USA), S. Kasahara, P. Maes
      V. Heun (Massachusetts Institute of Technology, USA)S. Kasahara (Sony Cooperation, JP)P. Maes (Massachusetts Institute of Technology, USA)

      The Smarter Objects system explores a new method for interaction with everyday objects. The system associates a virtual object with every physical object to support an easy means of modifying the interface and the behavior of that physical object as well as its interactions with other “smarter objects”. As a user points a smart phone or tablet at a physical object, an augmented reality (AR) application recognizes the object and offers an intuitive graphical interface to program the object’s behavior and interactions with other objects. Once reprogrammed, the Smarter Object can then be operated with a simple tangible interface (such as knobs, buttons, etc). As such Smarter Objects combine the adaptability of digital objects with the simple tangible interface of a physical object. We have implemented several Smarter Objects and usage scenarios demonstrating the potential of this approach.

    • WJBExploring Augmented Reality for User-Generated Hyperlocal News Content
      H. Väätäjä (Tampere Univ. of Technology, FI), M. Ahvenainen, M. Jaakola, T. Olsson
      H. Väätäjä (Tampere Univ. of Technology, FI)M. Ahvenainen (Tampere Univ. of Technology, FI)M. Jaakola (Tampere Univ. of Technology, FI)T. Olsson (Tampere Univ. of Technology, FI)

      To support and enrich crowdsourcing, sharing and consuming of hyperlocal news content created by the readers we created four scenarios that utilize augmented reality (AR). We used the scenarios to gain an initial understanding of the feasibility and utility of AR in this context by interviewing five contributors of hyperlocal news content to explore their perceptions and further ideas on the scenarios. Findings indicate that AR is an interesting and acceptable solution for the content creators: AR can be applied in hyperlocal news 1) in the crowdsourcing processes to support crowdworkers’ activity and its planning and 2) for sharing and consuming location-based user-generated content. In implementation of AR solutions, attention needs to be paid to the interestingness of tasks and created content, ensuring the quality of the content as well as how interaction with the AR application and access to the information and content are implemented.

    • WAJAteGau: Projector-Based Online Fashion Coordination System
      Y. Hayashi (Rakuten, Inc., JP), S. Masuko
      Y. Hayashi (Rakuten, Inc., JP)S. Masuko (Rakuten, Inc., JP)

      We propose AteGau, a system that enables intuitive fashion coordination using both clothes from an online store and clothes from the user’s own wardrobe. In our prototype, a projector is used to project images of clothes from an online store next to the user’s real-world clothes. As an associated user interface, we implemented the tuck-in / tuck-out switcher, a clothes positioning guide and occasion selector. The user is able to make selections from a store’s and real-world clothes to determine how they combine with each other.

    • WLLThe Potentials of In-Situ-Projection for Augmented Workplaces in Production. A Study with Impaired Persons
      O. Korn (Univ. of Stuttgart, DE), S. Albrecht, H. Thomas
      O. Korn (Univ. of Stuttgart, DE)S. Albrecht (Univ. of Stuttgart, DE)H. Thomas (Univ. of Applied Sciences Esslingen, DE)

      Interactive projections have been around for more than a decade. We measured their potentials for augmented workplaces in production. For this purpose we built the prototype of an assistive system projecting instructions directly into the workspace (in situ). While it can be applied in every production environment, the system was first implemented and tested where it is needed the most: in a sheltered work organization employing persons with impairments. It could be shown that the assembly times could be slightly reduced by the augmented system. However it had a “catalytic” effect on the test subjects’ work quality: While some seem to be overwhelmed by the new information density and perform worse, others perform much better than the control group and significantly reduce error rates. The qualitative results show that although impaired persons retain a critical perspective on systems directly changing the way they have been working for years, all users would like to retry working with the system. When looking at additional aids like the projection of a real-sized model in the workspace, the users invariantly accept its benefits for their assembly work.

    • WMNScaled Reality: Interfaces For Augmenting Information On Small-Scale Tangible Objects
      A. Lee (Massachusetts Institute of Technology, USA), K. Marwah
      A. Lee (Massachusetts Institute of Technology, USA)K. Marwah (MIT , USA)

      In this paper, we introduce the concept of Scaled Reality with a set of interfaces to distort, deform and resize our comprehensible spatial world to help us augment and visualize information on physical objects that cannot be accessed otherwise due to their size or orientation. We introduce three interfaces: a mirrored table top, a see through lens system and a L-shaped display to scale, view and manipulate object forms in novel ways. As a proof-of-concept application, we show augmentation and retrieval of information tagged onto tangibles with a relatively microscopic form factor.

    • WEEInfluence on User’s Communication in BHS Videoconferencing: Superimposition of a Remote Person’s Figure on the Local Background
      M. Nawahdah (Univ. of Tsukuba, JP), T. Inoue
      M. Nawahdah (Univ. of Tsukuba, JP)T. Inoue (Faculty of Library, Information and Media Science, Univ. of Tsukuba, JP)

      A high-presence videoconferencing system called “Being Here System (BHS)” has been proposed and implemented. The system superimposes the remote person’s extracted figure on the local site front view in the display. Though a user study by questionnaire was conducted, the user’s actual behavior was left out. Thus in this paper, the influence on user’s communication behavior is investigated. The analysis of the recorded video of the study revealed that the system affected user’s communication behavior such as turn taking, speech time, speech overlapping, and gaze. The result suggests that considering the local site front view as a background of the remote person is one practical way to create the same-room illusion, which facilitates communication.

    • WMDOneSpace: Shared Depth-Corrected Video Interaction
      D. Ledo (Univ. of Calgary, CA), B. Aseniero, S. Greenberg, S. Boring, A. Tang
      D. Ledo (Univ. of Calgary, CA)B. Aseniero (Univ. of Calgary, CA)S. Greenberg (Univ. of Calgary, CA)S. Boring (Univ. of Copenhagen, DK)A. Tang (Univ. of Calgary, CA)

      Video conferencing commonly employs a video portal metaphor to connect individuals from remote spaces. In this work, we explore an alternate metaphor, a shared depth-mirror, where video images of two spaces are fused into a single shared, depth-corrected video space. We realize this metaphor in OneSpace, where the space respects virtual spatial relationships between people and objects as if all parties were looking at a mirror together. We report preliminary observations of OneSpace’s use, noting that it encourages cross-site, full-body interactions, and that participants employed the depth cues in their interactions. Based on these observations, we argue that the depth mirror offers new opportunities for shared video interaction.

    Emotions

    • WKPBear-With-Me: An Embodied Prototype to Explore Tangible Two-Way Exchanges of Emotional Language
      A. Fong (Univ. of Maryland, USA), Z. Ashktorab, J. Froehlich
      A. Fong (Univ. of Maryland, USA)Z. Ashktorab (Univ. of Maryland, USA)J. Froehlich (Univ. of Maryland, USA)

      Given the busy day-to-day schedule of families and couples, communication between loved ones is often limited to text-messaging, email, or phone calls. These forms of communication do not allow for more tangible modes of intimate expression like hugging. While previous work has explored sending tangible forms of emotion like hugging, this work has been limited by not supporting or encouraging users to reciprocate emotional pings or “hugs.” In this paper, we introduce Bear-With-Me, a prototype system that allows users to exchange tangible expressions of emotions, such as hugs, in real-time. In contrast to previous work, Bear-With-Me is mobile, tangible, bi-directional, and real-time allowing for new types of exchanges of emotional, embodied communication. In this paper, we present our system design, results from a preliminary pilot study, and a discussion of future work.

    • WQGExhibiting Emotion: Using Digital Technologies to Discover Emotional Connections
      G. Alelis (Univ. of Kent, UK)
      G. Alelis (Univ. of Kent, UK)

      This paper discusses the ongoing development of an engaging system that will allow museum visitors to understand their emotional connections to artefacts. Through structured interviews with museum visitors and qualitative analysis, insight is gained as to how artefacts affect visitors which will provide the foundation for the design of an interactive system within the museum. The system, which will include a mobile device and contextual visualization, aims to encourage reflection and recognition of emotional responses to objects.

    • WHZExpressing a Robot’s Confidence with Motion-based Artificial Subtle Expressions
      S. Yamada (National Institute of Informatics, JP), K. Terada, K. Kobayashi, T. Komatsu, K. Funakoshi, M. Nakano
      S. Yamada (National Institute of Informatics, JP)K. Terada (Gifu Univ., JP)K. Kobayashi (Shinshu Univ., JP)T. Komatsu (Meiji Univ., JP)K. Funakoshi (Honda Research Institute Japan Co., Ltd., JP)M. Nakano (Honda Research Institute Japan Co., Ltd., JP)

      In this paper, motion-based Artificial Subtle Expression (ASE) as a novel implementation of ASE is described, in which a robot expresses confidence in its advice to a human. Confidence in advice is one of robot’s useful internal states, and it is an important goal to develop a practical and inexpensive methodology to correctly express it. To achieve this goal, we propose motion-based ASE in which a robot slowly hesitates by turning to a human before giving advice with low confidence. We conducted experiments to evaluate the effectiveness of motion-based ASE with participants, and obtained promising results.

    • WFXVisualizing Ambivalence: Showing What Mixed Feelings Look Like
      G. Panger (Univ. of California, Berkeley, USA), B. Rea, S. Weber
      G. Panger (Univ. of California, Berkeley, USA)B. Rea (Univ. of California, Berkeley, USA)S. Weber (Univ. of California, Berkeley, USA)

      Measures of ambivalence in public opinion have grown in prominence in recent years within a variety of fields because of evidence that they may better represent how people hold opinions than traditional Likert-type scales. Rather than assume people hold only positive or negative feelings toward a person or issue, these measures assume positive and negative feelings may co-occur as mixed feelings. Using information visualization and interactive storytelling techniques, we aim to show a broad audience how ambivalence data might be interpreted and demonstrate the utility of measuring ambivalence. Our resulting visualization, MixedFeelings.us, shows data from a survey of undergraduates on 14 topics of public interest and uses design elements like small multiples and animation as well as brief narratives to illustrate core concepts.

    • WAZA Playback System that Synchronizes the Musical Phrases with Listener’s Respiration Phases
      T. Sato (NTT, JP), Y. Kamamoto, N. Harada, T. Moriya
      T. Sato (NTT, JP)Y. Kamamoto (NTT, JP)N. Harada (NTT, JP)T. Moriya (NTT, JP)

      We propose a novel sound presentation system that utilizes a listener’s respiration (breath) information. The system uses sound data, targets of the respiration phase bounded to the sound data and the listener’s respiration trace. In replaying the sound, the system attempts to change the replay speed to minimize the difference between the target of respiration phase and the observed (listener’s) respiration phase. Thus, a listener using the system has more chances to listen to a specific phrase with a specific respiration phase. In an experiment, chromatic scale movements were presented with different replay strategies to evaluate the system. Although the participant did not know about the control system, they reported a difference in their arousal feeling. The results indicate that music presentation that follows the listener’s respiration will have significant effect on the impression of sound, suggesting that we may extend the possibility of sound presentation.

    • WHTAffectCam: Arousal- Augmented SenseCam for Richer Recall of Episodic Memories
      C. Sas (Lancaster Univ., UK), T. Frątczak, M. Rees, H. Gellersen, V. Kalnikaite, A. Coman, K. Höök
      C. Sas (Lancaster Univ., UK)T. Frątczak (Lancaster Univ., UK)M. Rees (Lancaster Univ., UK)H. Gellersen (Lancaster Univ., UK)V. Kalnikaite (Dovetailed, UK)A. Coman (Transylvania Univ. Brasov, RO)K. Höök (KTH – Royal Institute of Technology, SE)

      This paper describes the design and evaluation of AffectCam, a wearable system integrating SenseCam and BodyMedia SenseWear for capturing galvanic skin response as a measure of bodily arousal. AffectCam’s algorithms use arousal as a filtering mechanism for selecting the most personally relevant photos captured during people’s ordinary daily life, i.e. high arousal photos. We discuss initial findings showing that emotional arousal does improve the quality of memory recall associated with emotionally arousing events. In particular, the high arousal photos support richer recall of episodic memories than low arousal ones, i.e. over 50% improvement. We also consider how various phenomenological characteristics of autobiographical memories such as event, emotions, thoughts, place and time are differently cued by the AffectCam.

    • WNQCAAT – A Discrete Approach to Emotion Assessment
      B. Cardoso (Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologias, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, PT), T. Romão, N. Correia
      B. Cardoso (Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologias, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, PT)T. Romão (CITI, Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia/Universidade Nova de Lisboa, PT)N. Correia (CITI, Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia Universidade Nova de Lisboa, PT)

      In this work we present a new way of assessing affective states through direct selection of emotion words from a discrete set. The proposed tool, the Circumplex Affect Assessment Tool (CAAT), is built upon Robert Plutchik’s circumplex model of emotions and, as far as our preliminary tests have shown, is a pleasant and reliable way to assess user’s affective states, with significant correlations with Self Assessment Manikin ratings.

    • WNTActed Emotional Expressions of Game-playing Children: Investigating the Influence of Emotion Intensity on Recognition Rates
      S. Shahid (Tilburg Univ., NL), B. Erven, E. Krahmer
      S. Shahid (Tilburg Univ., NL)B. Erven (Tilburg Univ., NL)E. Krahmer (Tilburg Univ., NL)

      While the intensity of emotions is likely of great importance to automatic emotion recognition systems, it is not an ordinary feature in emotion databases. This paper presents a database of children acting out six basic emotions, in which the intensity of said emotions was manipulated. A judgment task showed emotions were better recognized than chance could predict, while differences in intensity were perceived in two manipulated conditions. In addition, we establish a correlation between intensity and recognition rates for this database. Finally, possibilities for future research are discussed.

    • WMKImproving Digital Reading Experiences With Mood-Based Content Selection
      W. Verhavert, J. Vanattenhoven, D. De Grooff
      W. VerhavertJ. Vanattenhoven (Social Spaces – iMinds, BE)D. De Grooff (IBBT-KU Leuven, BE)

      Many present-day reading platforms for news consumption use topic selection and reading histories to filter reading content and feed the various recommender systems. In an attempt to overcome the deficiencies of this approach, we suggest an alternative: mood-based content selection with personalizations, based on the reading context (time and place). In this work,we conducted contextual inquiry sessions and designed an interactive prototype with iterative user feedback.

    Game/Play

    • WCKGame Principles: Choice, Change & Creativity: Making Better Games
      H. Desurvire (User Behavioristics Research, Inc., USA), D. Wixon
      H. Desurvire (User Behavioristics Research, Inc., USA)D. Wixon (Univ. of Southern California, USA)

      Heuristics or player experience principles have evolved to assist designers and evaluators in creating better games. Heuristics are intended to provide a structure for improving game design. The technique of using heuristics to review designs has gained wide acceptance in productivity products. The PLAY heuristics [2] is the further iteration of HEP [1], general principles of optimal player experience. GAP is another set of principles, focused on first time player, tutorial use and initial game play. We conducted a study to assess the benefits of using heuristics for games. Results showed that heuristics are more effective than “unassisted intuition” not only in identifying problems, but also in inspiring recommendations for enhancements to the games’ player experience. Future analysis of the data will take this analysis further, examining the quality of recommendations.

    • WEUDesigning Children’s Digital Games on Nutrition with Playability Heuristics
      K. Khanana (Univ. of Leicester, UK), E. Law
      K. Khanana (Univ. of Leicester, UK)E. Law (Univ. of Leicester, UK)

      To design digital educational games (DEGs) for children that are both enjoyable and educationally effective is challenging. In this paper we report how Playability Heuristics (PH) has been used as a design tool for a DEG on nutrition. We translated the criteria of PH into a set of statements understandable for children and compiled them into a questionnaire, which was integrated with four existing web-based DEGs on food groups to create an online tool. It was used in a pilot study with 100 school children to identify which game features they perceived most desirable. We will synthesize such features to create two new DEGs and compare them in terms of their experiential and educational values. A robust game reference model on DEGs is the ultimate goal of our future work.

    • WAFBuilding a Dictionary of Game-Descriptive Words to Study Playability
      M. Zhu, X. Fang, S. Chan, J. Brzezinski
      M. ZhuX. Fang (DePaul Univ., USA)S. ChanJ. Brzezinski

      This work-in-progress paper reports the development of a dictionary of game-descriptive words. Inspired by the lexical approach [1] used by psychologists to study personality traits, it is proposed that the same approach can be used in computer game research. The premise is that if computer games display some common traits, players ought to use natural language to describe them. By studying the language used by game players, we can explore the common traits of computer games which may reveal playability problems and information about game classification. As the first step to use the lexical approach, this study attempts to build a dictionary of game-descriptive words for future lexical analyses. The detailed development process was discussed.

    • WGRGEMS: A Location-Based Game for Supporting Family Storytelling
      J. Procyk (Simon Fraser Univ., CA), C. Neustaedter
      J. Procyk (Simon Fraser Univ., CA)C. Neustaedter (Simon Fraser Univ., CA)

      GEMS is a location-based game designed to support the telling and sharing of stories and to enhance knowledge of place among family members and close friends. The game narrative and mechanics prompt players to reflect on meaningful places from their past and to travel to those places and create geolocated digital memory records that capture the personal significance of the places in question. Other players can then visit the locations to collect and view the records.

    • WAVAttention, Time Perception and Immersion in Games
      A. Nordin (Univ. of York, UK), J. Ali, A. Animashaun, J. Asch, J. Adams, P. Cairns
      A. Nordin (Univ. of York, UK)J. Ali (Univ. of York, UK)A. Animashaun (Univ. of York, UK)J. Asch (Univ. of York, UK)J. Adams (Univ. of York, UK)P. Cairns (Univ. of York, UK)

      Immersion is a phenomenon experienced whilst playing digital games. Some argue that it is linked to time perception, where gamers claim that they are losing track of time while they are immersed in the game. In this work in progress, we describe an attempt to investigate the relationship between immersion and time perception. We manipulated attention because it is known to influence immersion and time perception differently. The results suggest that the experimental manipulation only affects time perception but not immersion. We therefore argue that there is a dissociation between immersion and time perception but further work is needed to investigate this in detail.

    • WDCDecomposing Immersion: Effects of Game Demand and Display Type on Auditory Evoked Potentials
      S. Fairclough (Liverpool John Moores Univ., UK), C. Burns
      S. Fairclough (Liverpool John Moores Univ., UK)C. Burns (Liverpool John Moores Univ., UK)

      Immersion is used to describe the degree of psychological engagement with a computer game. A study was performed to investigate the relative contribution of game demand (easy, hard, impossible) and display type (small 5” display, large TV display, head-mounted display) on the experience of immersion. Fifteen participants played a racing game in a range of conditions. Players’ experience of immersion was captured via a subjective questionnaire and evoked cortical potentials to an auditory oddball task. Results indicated that slow wave potentials were sensitive to task demand, i.e. impossible demand reduced attention to the game. There was also a weak effect of display type at both frontal and central sites that was indicative of greater immersion for the large TV screen compared to other display types. This study provides preliminary data on the decomposition of immersion into sensory and cognitive components.

    • WFLDo Games Attract or Sustain Engagement in Citizen Science? A Study of Volunteer Motivations
      I. Iacovides (Univ. College London, UK), C. Jennett, C. Cornish-Trestrail, A. Cox
      I. Iacovides (Univ. College London, UK)C. Jennett (Univ. College London, UK)C. Cornish-Trestrail (Univ. College London, UK)A. Cox (Univ. College London, UK)

      Increasingly, games are being incorporated into online citizen science (CS) projects as a way of crowdsourcing data; yet the influence of gamification on volunteer motivations and engagement in CS projects is still unknown. In an interview study with 8 CS volunteers (4 from Foldit, 4 from Eyewire), we found that game elements and communication tools are not necessary for attracting new volunteers to a project; however they may help to sustain engagement over time, by allowing volunteers to participate in a range of social interactions and through enabling meaningful recognition of achievements.

    • WJSAssessing User Preference of Video Game Controller Button Settings
      W. Ellick (Univ. of Sussex, UK), P. Mirza-Babaei, S. Wood, D. Smith, L. Nacke
      W. Ellick (Univ. of Sussex, UK)P. Mirza-Babaei (Univ. of Sussex, UK)S. Wood (Univ. of Sussex, UK)D. Smith (MindLab International Ltd., UK)L. Nacke (Univ. of Ontario Institute of Technology, CA)

      Only very few studies exist linking preference in controller usage to physiological effects and user experience (UX). While many games already feature different controller layouts, there is a lack of research on whether giving control to participants over their button choices affects their UX in the game. In our study, participants were given two predetermined button configurations for playing FIFA 12. Their preferences were assessed through electroencephalography (EEG) and a Game Experience Questionnaire (GEQ). Our results show no significant difference in EEG intensity between participants using their preferred or non-preferred button settings. Preference also appears to have no significant effect on subjective feelings assessed by the GEQ. We have identified three distinct factors that may have potentially compromised this study. These findings could help to structure future research in this area.

    • WNUThe Cake can be a Lie: Placebos as Persuasive Videogame Elements
      L. Duarte (Univ. of Lisbon, PT), L. Carriço
      L. Duarte (Univ. of Lisbon, PT)L. Carriço (Univ. of Lisbon, PT)

      This paper presents a research which aimed at exploring the effects that videogame temporary reinforcements (commonly known in the domain as power-ups or bonuses) have on players from a physiological and performance perspective. We specifically address this type of mechanic from a persuasion point-of-view, questioning whether the knowledge of the existence of such elements within a game is sufficient to provoke any alterations on the player, regardless of a real reinforcement being provided. Testing was performed with two different games, and a total of sixty users to validate our findings. Results show that different persuasive technique designs can effectively be used to improve player performance as well as regulating their physiological state into a decreased stress status. We provide a brief analysis of these results along with a discussion regarding the design implications and opportunities of these findings and how they are related with existing videogame literature.

    • WPRExploring Social Interaction in Co-located Multiplayer Games
      D. Kappen (Univ. of Ontario Institute of Technology, CA), J. Gregory, D. Stepchenko, R. Wehbe, L. Nacke
      D. Kappen (Univ. of Ontario Institute of Technology, CA)J. Gregory (Univ. of Ontario Institute of Technology, CA)D. Stepchenko (Univ. of Ontario Institute of Technology, CA)R. Wehbe (Univ. of Ontario Institute of Technology, CA)L. Nacke (Univ. of Ontario Institute of Technology, CA)

      Games have always been a social activity. Playing digital games affords spending time with people; helps build personal connections between individuals and helps to redefine the personality of the player while in play. Games also enable to build the concept of togetherness as a means to foster and enhance the concept of social connectedness, mutual dependencies, collaboration, community living and social interaction. We present a work in progress digital game installation to create multi-level social interactions between the player, the spatial game environment and the digital game. We discuss MagicDuel, a multiplayer digital game, where we are in the process of evaluating the socio-spatial contextual relationship between the players, the audience and gameplay elements for this specific digital game.

    • WDPUnderstanding Handicapping for Balancing Exertion Games
      D. Altimira (Univ. of Canterbury, NZ), M. Billinghurst, F. Mueller
      D. Altimira (Univ. of Canterbury, NZ)M. Billinghurst (Univ. of Canterbury, NZ)F. Mueller (RMIT Univ., AU)

      Balancing play can be important for engaging people in games since it allows players with different skills to play together and still feel challenged. Balancing play in exertion games has previously been explored by altering the physical effort. To further our understanding of how to design more balanced experiences, we extend this prior work by studying the affect on play of using a score handicap, which gives the less skilled player an initial score advantage. A performance handicap was also studied by asking the most skilled player to play with the non-dominant hand. We studied digital and non-digital table tennis games, which provide different game interactions, as examples of non-parallel, competitive games. Our results show that these different game interactions influenced the impact that the different handicaps had on player’s scores. Therefore, we suggest that the game interaction is a key element to understand the suitability of score and performance balancing methods.

    • WMYGameplay Experience Evaluation Centered on Participation: The Fátima Game Design Case
      L. Pereira (Univ. of Coimbra, PT), L. Roque
      L. Pereira (Univ. of Coimbra, PT)L. Roque (Univ. of Coimbra, PT)

      In this paper we demonstrate the use of a model that supports gameplay experience evaluation through gameplay metrics of player’s participation in the game context. This model aims to have a guiding role in the identification and interpretation of the metrics that are best suited to the character of a given videogame, so as to close the gap between game experience evaluation and the game design domain. In order to illustrate the use of this participation model as support for game experience evaluation, we describe the analysis of “Fátima”, a videogame which places the sightings of Our Lady of Fátima, in a playful context. As a result, by characterizing players’ participation, it was possible to objectively measure the game design’s success in accomplishing its originally established design intentions.

    • WHPDisassembling Gamification: The Effects of Points and Meaning on User Motivation and Performance
      E. Mekler (Univ. of Basel, CH), F. Brühlmann, K. Opwis, A. Tuch
      E. Mekler (Univ. of Basel, CH)F. Brühlmann (Univ. of Basel, CH)K. Opwis (Univ. of Basel, CH)A. Tuch (Univ. of Copenhagen, DK)

      Interest in gamification is growing steadily. But as the underlying mechanisms of gamification are not well understood yet, a closer examination of a gamified activity’s meaning and individual game design elements may provide more insights. We examine the effects of points — a basic element of gamification, — and meaningful framing — acknowledging participants’ contribution to a scientific cause, — on intrinsic motivation and performance in an online image annotation task. Based on these findings, we discuss implications and opportunities for future research on gamification.

    • WKQBody-Controlled Trampoline Training Games Based on Computer Vision
      L. Holsti (Aalto Univ., FI), T. Takala, A. Martikainen, R. Kajastila, P. Hämäläinen
      L. Holsti (Aalto Univ., FI)T. Takala (Aalto Univ., FI)A. Martikainen (Aalto Univ., FI)R. Kajastila (Aalto Univ., FI)P. Hämäläinen (Aalto Univ., FI)

      This work in progress -paper describes our efforts in developing trampoline training games using computer vision technology. The study is part of a project about developing digitally augmented exercise environments for faster, safer and more engaging sports training. We describe four initial prototypes and the feedback obtained from testing them both with circus students and with people with no background in trampolining.

    • WPDFidget Widgets: Secondary Playful Interactions in Support of Primary Serious Tasks
      M. Karlesky (Polytechnic Institute of New York Univ., USA), K. Isbister
      M. Karlesky (Polytechnic Institute of New York Univ., USA)K. Isbister (Polytechnic Institute of New York Univ., USA)

      We present our early work in developing a playful technology to purposefully engage users’ interrelated bodily motions, affective states, and cognitive functions to selectively enhance creativity, focus, etc. integral to modern productivity. Building interactions inspired by and embodying the elements of fidgeting, doodling, and other “mindless” activities, we seek to demonstrate the value of secondary human computer interactions able to enhance a user’s state in primary productivity tasks.

    • WGXSocial Playware with an Enhanced Reach for Facilitating Group Interaction
      A. Miura (Univ. of Tsukuba, JP), T. Isezaki, K. Suzuki
      A. Miura (Univ. of Tsukuba, JP)T. Isezaki (Univ. of Tsukuba, JP)K. Suzuki (Univ. of Tsukuba, JP)

      This study proposes a small wireless interface that measures and visualizes group dynamics in order to promote and enhance social interaction. The developed device, Enhanced Reach (ER), can be attached to sportswear or sports equipments, and it is capable of estimating geometric relationships by using the signal strength of the wireless communication between devices. An illumination-based visualization method was developed to influence interaction within the group and encourage social interaction. We evaluated the device by using it to assist communication between children with pervasive developmental disorders. Through experiments, we confirmed the unobtrusive presence of the ER and its ability to promote interaction between the children.

    Gesture

    • WABComparing Avatar Game Representation Preferences across Three Age Groups
      M. Rice (Institute for Infocomm Research, SG), R. Koh, Q. Liu, Q. He, M. Wan, V. Yeo, J. Ng, W. Tan
      M. Rice (Institute for Infocomm Research, SG)R. Koh (Institute for Infocomm Research , SG)Q. Liu (Temasek Polytechnic, SG)Q. He (Temasek Polytechnic, SG)M. Wan (Institute for Infocomm Research , SG)V. Yeo (Institute for Infocomm Research , SG)J. Ng (Institute for Infocomm Research, SG)W. Tan (Temasek Polytechnic , SG)

      Avatar representation is an important interaction component of game design. In a game study of 36 mixed-age participants (teenagers, younger adults and older adults), we investigated three distinct types of avatars to differentiate user preferences and interests, primarily to determine if age affected the rating of these modalities. The results identified significant differences in the perceived attractiveness, homophily, engagement and expressiveness of the avatar representations across the three age groups, particularly in relation to the older adults. Moreover, we identified subjective variations in player’s preferences towards the movement and customization of the avatar features designed. The implications of this work are briefly discussed.

    • WPEOpen Sesame: Re-envisioning the Design of a Gesture-Based Access Control System
      M. Karlesky (Polytechnic Institute of New York Univ., USA), E. Melcer, K. Isbister
      M. Karlesky (Polytechnic Institute of New York Univ., USA)E. Melcer (Polytechnic Institute of New York Univ., USA)K. Isbister (Polytechnic Institute of New York Univ., USA)

      We present results of an exploratory study employing a Wizard of Oz mockup of a new gesture-based access control system we are constructing for our lab’s entryway. Among user interactions witnessed, we have identified several behaviors of interest to security researchers and HCI researchers alike. We discuss our security system design approach as an extrapolation of two identified trends, demonstrating the potential for the felt experience of pleasurable and playful systems to help solve difficult interaction problems. We also show the great value of prototyping a mockup to reveal designers’ assumptions about human interactions with new technology use cases.

    • WDLDocumenting Natural Interactions
      B. Altakrouri (Univ. of Luebeck, DE), J. Groeschner, A. Schrader
      B. Altakrouri (Univ. of Luebeck, DE)J. Groeschner (Univ. of Luebeck, DE)A. Schrader (Univ. of Luebeck, DE)

      The human computer interaction (HCI) research continues to furiously enrich the natural interaction paradigm. Hence, new novel interaction techniques employ the whole body movements for interactions with ambient interactive systems. The recent wide spread adoption of this paradigm critically invokes the problem of interaction documentation. We therefore, as part of our research on dynamic interaction ensembles in ambient spaces, aim at a standard machine and human readable documentation method for natural interactions. Our approach extends previous research on movement description and analysis methods inspired by dance choreography, physical therapy, and drama. Particularly, we are focusing on Labanotation (Kinetography) as a documentation method to preserve and share kinetic-based interactions.

    • WEDWriting and Sketching in the Air, Recognizing and Controlling on the Fly
      S. Vikram (Univ. of California Berkeley, USA), L. Li, S. Russell
      S. Vikram (Univ. of California Berkeley, USA)L. Li (Univ. of California Berkeley, USA)S. Russell (Univ. of California, Berkeley, USA)

      Recent technologies in vision sensors are capable of capturing 3D finger positions and movements. We propose a novel way to control and interact with computers by moving fingers in the air. The positions of fingers are precisely captured by a computer vision device. By tracking the moving patterns of fingers, we can then recognize users’ intended control commands or input information. We demonstrate this human input approach through an example application of handwriting recognition. By treating the input as a time series of 3D positions, we propose a fast algorithm using dynamic time warping to recognize characters in online fashion. We employ various optimization techniques to recognize in real time as one writes. Experiments show promising recognition performance and speed.

    • WLHBody-Tracking Camera Control for Demonstration Videos
      D. Cheng (Univ. of California, Berkeley, USA), P. Chi, T. Kwak, B. Hartmann, P. Wright
      D. Cheng (Univ. of California, Berkeley, USA)P. Chi (Univ. of California, Berkeley, USA)T. Kwak (Univ. of California, Berkeley, USA)B. Hartmann (Univ. of California, Berkeley, USA)P. Wright (Univ. of California, Berkeley, USA)

      A large community of users creates and shares how-to videos online. Many of these videos show demonstrations of physical tasks, such as fixing a machine, assembling furniture, or demonstrating dance steps. It is often difficult for the authors of these videos to control camera focus, view, and position while performing their tasks. To help authors produce videos, we introduce Kinectograph, a recording device that automatically pans and tilts to follow specific body parts, e.g., hands, of a user in a video. It utilizes a Kinect depth sensor to track skeletal data and adjusts the camera angle via a 2D pan-tilt gimbal mount. Users control and configure Kinectograph through a tablet application with real-time video preview. An informal user study suggests that users prefer to record and share videos with Kinectograph, as it enables authors to focus on performing their demonstration tasks.

    • WBDGesture-Supported Document Creation on Pen and Touch Tabletops
      F. Matulic (ETH Zurich, CH), M. Norrie, I. Al Kabary, H. Schuldt
      F. Matulic (ETH Zurich, CH)M. Norrie (ETH Zurich, CH)I. Al Kabary (Univ. of Basel, CH)H. Schuldt (Univ. of Basel, CH)

      We present an ongoing effort to design and implement a prototype system for pen and touch-operated digital workdesks supporting the activity of document creation. Our application exploits asymmetric bimanual gestures to perform common document editing operations including element manipulations, text input, clipart retrieval and insertion in a mostly direct way. For many of our gestures, we rely on pen-mode switching actions triggered by postures of the non-dominant hand, which allows us to provide a largely widget-free yet efficient user interface.

    • WHCMotionDraw: a Tool for Enhancing Art and Performance Using Kinect
      D. Rodrigues (Universidade Federal de São Carlos, BR), E. Grenader, F. Nos, M. Dall’Agnol, T. Hansen, N. Weibel
      D. Rodrigues (Universidade Federal de São Carlos, BR)E. Grenader (Univ. of California, San Diego, USA)F. Nos (Pontifícia Universidade Católia do Rio Grande do Sul, BR)M. Dall’Agnol (Universidade de São Paulo, BR)T. Hansen (IT Univ. of Copenhagen, DK)N. Weibel (Univ. of California, San Diego, USA)

      Contemporary staged performances frequently utilize advanced lighting and projection techniques. The design and creation of these stage effects are rarely accessible to the actual performers and must be designed by professional lighting designers or highly-paid programmers. With MotionDraw we want to create an affordable system that is easily controlled and manipulated by performers. With intuitive gestures, non-specialized users can control the MotionDraw visual library and interact with the captured visual record of their own movements. Possible uses for our system grew out of research with dancers and performers, and the current technical implementation sets a framework for including additional visual libraries and capabilities.

    • WCTThe Interactive Join: Recognizing Gestures for Database Queries
      A. Nandi (The Ohio State Univ., USA), M. Mandel
      A. Nandi (The Ohio State Univ., USA)M. Mandel (The Ohio State Univ., USA)

      Direct, ad-hoc interaction with databases has typically been performed over console-oriented conversational interfaces using query languages such as SQL. With the rise in popularity of gestural user interfaces and computing devices that use gestures as their exclusive mode of interaction, database query interfaces require a fundamental rethinking to work without keyboards. Unlike domain-specific applications, the scope of possible actions is significantly larger if not infinite. Thus, the recognition of gestures and their consequent queries is a challenge. We present a novel gesture recognition system that uses both the interaction and the state of the database to classify gestural input into relational database queries. Preliminary results show that using this approach allows for fast, efficient and interactive gesture-based querying over relational databases.

    • WMZHow We Gesture Towards Machines: An Exploratory Study of User Perceptions of Gestural Interaction
      S. Grandhi (Eastern Connecticut State Univ., USA), C. Wacharamanotham, G. Joue, J. Borchers, I. Mittelberg
      S. Grandhi (Eastern Connecticut State Univ., USA)C. Wacharamanotham (RWTH Aachen Univ., DE)G. Joue (RWTH Aachen Univ., DE)J. Borchers (RWTH Aachen Univ., DE)I. Mittelberg (RWTH Aachen Univ., DE)

      This paper explores if people perceive and perform touchless gestures differently when communicating with technology vs. with humans. Qualitative reports from a lab study of 10 participants revealed that people perceive differences in the speed of performing gestures, sense of enjoyment, feedback from the communication target. Preliminary analysis of 1200 gesture trials of motion capture data showed that hand shapes were less taut when communicating to technology. These differences provide implications for the design of gestural user interfaces that use symbolic gestures borrowed from human multimodal communication.

    Inputs

    • WNJDesigning Natural Speech Interactions for the Living Room
      L. Stifelman (Microsoft, USA), A. Elman, A. Sullivan
      L. Stifelman (Microsoft, USA)A. Elman (Microsoft, USA)A. Sullivan (Microsoft, USA)

      Speech technology promises to enable ‘natural’ experiences that remove the translation between a user’s desires and a system’s actions. While speech systems can translate speech into text, they cannot yet understand the vast range of users’ intentions. The use of speech is also expanding from mobile contexts to environments like the living room. Given these shifts, key design questions emerge. How do we encourage natural speech while conveying scope? How do we provide feedback of understanding? What is the role of text-to-speech in this context? This paper presents findings from studying a prototype speech system enabling users to find movies and TV shows. We show the influence of a novel approach for conveying examples, a method for seamlessly integrating text and audio feedback, and share guidance on the use of text-to-speech in the living room.

    • WCZTouch or Remote: Comparing Touch-and Remote-type Interfaces for Short Distance Wireless Device Connection
      J. Woo (KAIST (Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology), KR), H. Suk, H. Lee, Y. Lim
      J. Woo (KAIST (Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology), KR)H. Suk (KAIST (Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology), KR)H. Lee (Hongik Univ., KR)Y. Lim (KAIST (Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology), KR)

      In this paper, we compare two different gestures for short distance wireless connection interfaces: Touch and Remote. These two types are compared for usability, emotional quality, and overall preference. We conducted an experiment with 30 participants and the results showed a significant difference in usability and emotional quality between these two types. However, there was no significant difference in preference. With the results, we analyzed the characteristics of each gesture type and present important issues in short distance wireless connection interface design.

    • WCNError-proof, High-performance, and Context-aware Gestures for Interactive Text Edition
      L. Leiva (ITI/DSIC, Univ. Politècnica de València, ES), V. Alabau, E. Vidal
      L. Leiva (ITI/DSIC, Univ. Politècnica de València, ES)V. Alabau (Univ. Politècnica de València (UPV), ES)E. Vidal (Univ. Politècnica de València, ES)

      We present a straightforward solution to incorporate text-editing gestures to mixed-initiative user interfaces (MIUIs). Our approach provides (1) disambiguation from handwritten text, (2) edition context, (3) virtually perfect accuracy, and (4) a trivial implementation. An evaluation study with 32 e-pen users showed that our approach is suitable to production-ready environments. In addition, performance tests on a desktop PC and on a mobile device revealed that gestures are really fast to recognize (0.1 ms on average). Taken together, these results suggest that our approach can help developers to deploy simple but effective, high-performance text-editing gestures.

    • WGNInteractive Space: A Prototyping Framework for Touch and Gesture On and Above the Desktop
      Y. Liu (Univ. of California, San Diego, USA), N. Weibel, J. Hollan
      Y. Liu (Univ. of California, San Diego, USA)N. Weibel (Univ. of California, San Diego, USA)J. Hollan (Univ. of California, San Diego, USA)

      Prototyping gestural and multitouch applications for desktop and mid-air interaction still requires expensive non-portable equipment, complex setup and calibration, and often reimplementation of tracking algorithms. We present Interactive Space, a prototyping framework designed to ease exploration of touch and gestural interaction in real-world settings. For us this is a first step in developing interfaces for electronic medical records to be evaluated in clinical settings. The main contribution is a simple flexible system that supports interaction on and above the desktop, and includes a semi-automatic calibration mechanism that makes it highly portable. We describe the framework, SDK, calibration method, limitations, availability, and a preliminary evaluation.

    • WQDOvercoming Limitations of the Trackpad for 3D Docking Operations
      D. Glesser (Ensimag, FR), F. Bérard, J. Cooperstock
      D. Glesser (Ensimag, FR)F. Bérard (Grenoble-INP, FR)J. Cooperstock (McGill Univ., CA)

      From notebook trackpads to mobile phones to tabletop surface computing, multitouch input surfaces have become one of the most dominant interfaces for human-computer interaction. Although these are clearly effective for interaction with 2D graphical user interfaces, we suspect that they are not as well suited for interaction requiring greater degrees of freedom (DoF). Here, we consider the possibility of exploiting two such surfaces, one for each hand, as a means of affording efficient control over higher dimensional tasks. We investigate performance on a 6 DoF task, comparing such a two-surface multitouch input device against the results obtained using a standard 2D mouse, a single multitouch surface, and a 6 DoF free-space device. Our results indicate that two multitouch surfaces significantly improve user performance compared to the mouse and to a single surface.

    • WBJEnhancing Visuospatial Attention Performance with Brain-Computer Interfaces
      R. Trachel (CNRS – UMR 7289, Aix-Marseille Univ., FR), T. Brochier, M. Clerc
      R. Trachel (CNRS – UMR 7289, Aix-Marseille Univ., FR)T. Brochier (CNRS – UMR 7289, Aix-Marseille Univ., FR)M. Clerc (INRIA Sophia Antipolis – Mediterranee, FR)

      Visuospatial attention is often investigated with features related to the head or the gaze during Human-Computer Interaction (HCI). However the focus of attention can be dissociated from overt responses such as eye movements, and impossible to detect from behavioral data. Actually, Electroencephalography (EEG) can also provide valuable information about covert aspects of spatial attention. Therefore we propose a innovative approach in view of developping a Brain-Computer Interface (BCI) to enhance human reaction speed and accuracy. This poster presents an offline evaluation of the approach based on physiological data recorded in a visuospatial attention experiment. Finally we discuss about the future interface that could enhance HCI by displaying visual information at the focus of attention.

    • WBQSinkpad: A Malleable Mouse Pad Consisted of an Elastic Material
      T. Kuribara (Univ. of Tsukuba, JP), B. Shizuki, J. Tanaka
      T. Kuribara (Univ. of Tsukuba, JP)B. Shizuki (Univ. of Tsukuba, JP)J. Tanaka (Univ. of Tsukuba, JP)

      The computer mouse has been used for more than 40 years; users, however, can only perform simple actions. To solve this problem, we present “Sinkpad”, an augmented mouse pad that has a malleable surface consisted of an elastic material. Sinkpad augments mouse functionality by allowing the user to sink the mouse into the pad and tilt the mouse on the pad. In addition, the pad provides the user with haptic feedback via the mouse. Moreover, the user can use Sinkpad as a conventional mouse pad because the pad serves as a flat surface unless the user sinks the mouse. Sinkpad allows the user to perform interesting techniques: sink, tilt, and sink+move. We also present three example applications to explore the possibilities of our techniques using the pad.

    • WCPThe Potential of Fusing Computer Vision and Depth Sensing for Accurate Distance Estimation
      J. Dostal (Univ. of St Andrews, UK), P. Kristensson, A. Quigley
      J. Dostal (Univ. of St Andrews, UK)P. Kristensson (Univ. of St Andrews, UK)A. Quigley (Univ. of St Andrews, UK)

      Accurately inferring the distance between the user and the interface enables the design of a variety of proximity-aware user interfaces. This paper reports our work-in-progress on designing a toolkit called SpiderEyes that will enable systems to accurately estimate the distance between the user and the interface by fusing computer vision with depth sensing. Potential advantages of this approach include increased accuracy and the ability to reliably estimate the user’s distance to the interface even when the user is far from the sensor (up to five metres). We evaluated the feasibility of this approach in a controlled experiment and found that it is likely to yield distance estimations with less than a 10 cm estimation error when users are between 50 cm and 5 metres away from the system.

    • WDGComparing Modalities and Feedback for Peripheral Interaction
      D. Hausen (Univ. of Munich (LMU), DE), C. Wagner, S. Boring, A. Butz
      D. Hausen (Univ. of Munich (LMU), DE)C. Wagner (Univ. of Munich (LMU), DE)S. Boring (Univ. of Copenhagen, DK)A. Butz (Univ. of Munich (LMU), DE)

      When executing one task on a computer, we are frequently confronted with secondary tasks (e.g., controlling an audio player or changing the IM state) that require shifting our attention away from the actual task, thus increasing our cognitive load. Peripheral interaction aims at reducing that cognitive load through the use of the periphery of our attention for interaction. In previous work, token- or tag-based systems alongside wearable and graspable devices were the dominant way of interacting in the periphery. We explore touch and freehand interaction in combination with several forms of visual feedback. In a dual-task lab study we found that those additional modalities are fit for peripheral interaction. Also, feedback did not have a measurable influence, yet it assured participants in their actions.

    • WDRInfluence of Subliminal Cueing on Visual Search Tasks
      B. Pfleging (Univ. of Stuttgart, DE), N. Henze, D. Rau, B. Reitschuster, A. Schmidt
      B. Pfleging (Univ. of Stuttgart, DE)N. Henze (Univ. of Stuttgart, DE)D. Rau (Univ. of Stuttgart, DE)B. Reitschuster (Univ. of Stuttgart, DE)A. Schmidt (Univ. of Stuttgart, DE)

      The phenomenon of subliminal perception is studied in psychology and is a compelling idea to unobtrusively yet effectively convey information from the computer to the user. Previous research reports conflicting results regarding the effectiveness of subliminal stimuli in graphical user interfaces (GUIs). These experiments are often reported on application level and are generally hard to reproduce. We aim at isolating the effect to learn how subliminal cueing can become a basis for future GUI widgets. Therefore, we look at specific properties and functions that can be realized using subliminal presentation. In this paper we present our ongoing work towards highlighting parts of the interface to guide the user’s gaze. In the conducted study, participants had to look at targets appearing at different screen locations. Using different cueing variants, the participants received hints of the next location. The results indicate that visible cues are effective, whereas the studied simple and non-blinking subliminal cueing method does not improve visual search performance.

    • WDSFun with Bananas: Novel Inputs on Enjoyment and Task Performance
      E. Sun (Cornell Univ., USA), S. Han
      E. Sun (Cornell Univ., USA)S. Han (Cornell Univ., USA)

      Educators are often finding ways to increase intrinsic motivation for students, one of which is making a task more enjoyable. We hypothesized that using a novel input device would increase enjoyment and performance for a task. In order to test our hypothesis, participants played a game with a keyboard, large pads (created from aluminum foil and cardboard), and bananas as input devices by using a Makey Makey. Our results indicate that enjoyment, interest, excitement, and enthusiasm with bananas was higher than with a standard keyboard input despite a worse performance and lower preference ranking. We discuss potential implications and future work around the implementation of novel input devices.

    • WEBThumb Widgets: Apply Thumb-Tracking to Enhance Capabilities of Multi-touch on Mobile Devices
      X. Zeng (Chinese Academy of Sciences, CN), F. Tian, Y. Jiang, X. Zhang, G. Dai, H. Wang
      X. Zeng (Chinese Academy of Sciences, CN)F. Tian (Chinese Academy of Sciences, CN)Y. Jiang (Chinese Academy of Sciences, CN)X. Zhang (Pennsylvania State Univ., USA)G. Dai (Chinese Academy of Sciences, CN)H. Wang (Chinese Academy of Sciences, CN)

      While multi-touch design allows natural and flexible figure gestures in interacting with mobile devices, the palm-size screen often limits its potential in application and arouses issues such as inefficient mode switch and incomplete gesture. To enrich the vocabulary of finger gestures in user interaction, we present Thumb Widgets, a mechanism that adopts thumb as assisted input channel to enhance the capabilities of multi-touch on touch-based mobile devices. Thumb Widgets expand the design space in gesture-based UIs and promote efficiency for tasks such as mode switching, parameter setting, etc. Also, Thumb Widgets enable incomplete gestures to be performed around the periphery of the device.

    • WEQMemory Stones: An Intuitive Copy-and-Paste Method between Multi-touch Computers
      K. Ikematsu (Ochanomizu Univ., JP), I. Siio
      K. Ikematsu (Ochanomizu Univ., JP)I. Siio (Ochanomizu Univ., JP)

      When we use a combination of personal computing devices, such as mobile phones, tablets, notebooks, and desktop PCs, we often want to transfer information from one device to another.Though a copy-and-paste function on the same computing device is easy it becomes cumbersome in a multiple computing environment, where we have to first locate and then select the target device from a list of devices on a network, even if the device is right in front of us.This paper proposes a novel direct manipulation technique for executing copy-and-paste operations between multi-touch devices. Under our interface concept, dubbed “Memory Stones,” a user can “pick up” a data object displayed on one device screen, “carry” it to another device screen, and “put down” the object on that device using only his or her fingers.During this copy-and-paste operation, the user is invited to pantomime the act of carrying a tangible object (the “stone”) and to keep his or her fingertip positions unchanged. The system identifies the source and target devices by matching the shape of the polygon formed by the fingertips when touching the respective screens. We have developed a prototype system for small-to-large-sized multi-touch computers including smartphones, tablets, notebooks, and desktop PCs, and have carried out a preliminary evaluation of its feasibility.

    • WFGInEar BioFeedController: A Headset For Hands-Free And Eyes-Free Interaction With Mobile Devices
      D. Matthies (Univ. of Munich (LMU), DE)
      D. Matthies (Univ. of Munich (LMU), DE)

      Nowadays control of a mobile device usually requires the use of a touch screen. In everyday life, while engaged in real world tasks, it is sometimes impossible to control a device with one’s hands. Speech control is the most common solution to tackle this problem, but it is still error prone, uncomfortable and works poorly when ambient noise is present. Alternative control concepts must work in everyday surroundings with significant levels of noise and should not make use of the hands or require visual focus on the device itself. The prototype presented here is an attempt to provide a better solution to such situations: a headset that enables hands-free and eyes-free interaction for incoming phone calls as well as music player control. It enables safe control of the device in mobile situations as it neither requires the user to come to a standstill, nor does it distract his visual focus.

    • WHEA Zooming Interface for Accurate Text Input on Mobile Devices
      N. Koarai (Saitama Univ., JP), T. Komuro
      N. Koarai (Saitama Univ., JP)T. Komuro (Saitama Univ., JP)

      In this paper, we propose a system which uses two cameras in combination with a touch panel. The cameras detect a continuous finger depth, which realizes zooming in/out the screen together with the finger movement. The system realizes comfortable selection operation of small objects by directly touching enlarged objects. We conducted an experiment and confirmed the effectiveness of the proposed method with zooming. In the virtual keyboard application, the number of mistypes with the proposed method was less than half of the number without zooming.

    • WKGTouchShield: A Virtual Control for Stable Grip of a Smartphone Using the Thumb
      J. Hong (KAIST (Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology), KR), G. Lee
      J. Hong (KAIST (Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology), KR)G. Lee (KAIST (Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology), KR)

      People commonly manipulate their smartphones using the thumb, but this is often done with an unstable grip in which the phone lays on their fingers, while the thumb hovers over the touch screen. In order to offer a secure and stable grip, we designed a virtual control called TouchShield, which provides place in which the thumb can pin the phone down in order to provide a stable grip. In a user study, we confirmed that this form of control does not interfere with existing touch screen operations, and the possibility that TouchShield can make more stable grip. An incidental function of TouchShield is that it provides shortcuts to frequently used commands via the thumb, a function that was also shown to be effective in the user study.

    • WKRElaScreen: Exploring Multi-dimensional Data using Elastic Screen
      K. Yun (Seoul National Univ., KR), J. Song, K. Youn, S. Cho, H. Bang
      K. Yun (Seoul National Univ., KR)J. Song (Seoul National Univ., KR)K. Youn (Seoul National Univ. , KR)S. Cho (Seoul National Univ., KR)H. Bang (Seoul National Univ., KR)

      In this paper, we present a novel ‘push-able’ interface by utilizing a stretchable elastic screen. This interface enables an intuitive exploration through complex & multi-dimensional data structures. By deforming the elastic membrane of the screen, users can manipulate not only their points of interest, such as traditional mouse cursors, but also their surrounding regions as well. Also by its force of restoration, the elastic screen gives users a natural passive force feedback when it is stretched, which in turn makes more intuitive interactions possible. We have applied this system to several applications including a browser for computed tomography data of human body and a graph navigation scheme based on physical user interaction forces.

    • WLJTowards Utilising One-Handed Multi-Digit Pressure Input
      G. Wilson (Univ. of Glasgow, UK), S. Brewster, M. Halvey
      G. Wilson (Univ. of Glasgow, UK)S. Brewster (Univ. of Glasgow, UK)M. Halvey (Glasgow Caledonian Univ., UK)

      This paper explores the potential uses of pressure input from multiple digits (i.e., all 4 fingers and the thumb) of one hand squeezing a mobile device: multiple digits may provide multiple inputs. The potential advantages for mobile interaction include freeing the second hand for other tasks, and providing access to multiple functions simultaneously. A range of possible interactions is discussed including the benefits and challenges posed by complex pressure-based input on mobile devices. An example usage scenario is described and tested: pressure-based input for simultaneous zooming and rotating in a map task. Results suggest multi-digit pressure input may be a useful means of interaction with mobile devices.

    • WMBEarPut: Augmenting Behind-the-Ear Devices for Ear-based Interaction
      R. Lissermann (Technische Univ. Darmstadt, DE), J. Huber, A. Hadjakos, M. Mühlhäuser
      R. Lissermann (Technische Univ. Darmstadt, DE)J. Huber (Technische Univ. Darmstadt, DE)A. Hadjakos (Technische Univ. Darmstadt, DE)M. Mühlhäuser (Technische Univ. Darmstadt, DE)

      In this work-in-progress paper, we make a case for leveraging the unique affordances of the human ear for eyes-free, mobile interaction. We present EarPut, a novel interface concept, which instruments the ear as an interactive surface for touch-based interactions and its prototypical hardware implementation. The central idea behind EarPut is to go beyond prior work by unobtrusively augmenting a variety of accessories that are worn behind the ear, such as headsets or glasses. Results from a controlled experiment with 27 participants provide empirical evidence that people are able to target salient regions on their ear effectively and precisely. Moreover, we contribute a first, systematically derived interaction design space for ear-based interaction and a set of exemplary applications.

    • WDDUsing Delboeuf’s Illusion to Improve Point and Click Performance for Older Adults
      N. Hollinworth (Univ. of Reading, UK), F. Hwang, D. Field
      N. Hollinworth (Univ. of Reading, UK)F. Hwang (The Univ. of Reading, UK)D. Field

      Older computer users often exhibit poorer performance in point and click tasks on a computer than younger adults. This paper reports on the first phase of research that examines whether a visual illusion that makes an object appear to be larger (Delboeuf’s Illusion), can help to improve point and click performance for older computer users. In this first phase, we look at the effect sizes for different configurations of the Delboeuf illusion. The study finds that the target size is overestimated by 8% for both older and younger adults in one configuration, and 12% for older adults in another configuration. The results will inform the design of a second phase, in which the configurations which demonstrate the largest effects will be investigated using a Fitts’-style study of pointing performance.

    • WNMInput Method Using Divergence Eye Movement
      S. Kudo (Univ., JP), H. Okabe, T. Hachisu, M. Sato, S. Fukushima, H. Kajimoto
      S. Kudo (Univ., JP)H. Okabe (Univ., JP)T. Hachisu (Univ., JP)M. Sato (Univ., JP)S. Fukushima (Univ., JP)H. Kajimoto (Univ., JP)

      A gaze input interface offers hands-free operation by using the view-point position as the cursor coordinates on the display. However, the selection operation of a button is indistinguishable from viewing; this is known as the Midas touch problem. We propose a new input method that measures divergence eye movement, thereby enabling users to “press” a button by moving their viewpoint forward. Comparison of our method and the conventional blinking input method confirms that input speed and accuracy are similar.

    • WEPExploring the Interaction Design Space for Interactive Glasses
      A. Lucero (Nokia Research Center, FI), K. Lyons, A. Vetek, T. Järvenpää, S. White, M. Salmimaa
      A. Lucero (Nokia Research Center, FI)K. Lyons (Nokia, USA)A. Vetek (Nokia Research Center, FI)T. Järvenpää (Nokia Research Center, FI)S. White (Nokia, USA)M. Salmimaa (Nokia Research Center, FI)

      In this paper, we explore the interaction design space for interactive glasses. We discuss general issues with interactive glasses (i.e., optics, technology, social, form factors), and then concentrate on the topic of the nature of interaction with glasses and its implications to provide a delightful user experience with the NotifEye.

    • WFCBeyond the Familiar? Exploring Extreme Input in Brainstorms
      A. Jansen (iMinds – KU Leuven, BE), N. Sulmon, M. Van Mechelen, B. Zaman, J. Vanattenhoven, D. De Grooff
      A. Jansen (iMinds – KU Leuven, BE)N. Sulmon (iMinds – KU Leuven, BE)M. Van Mechelen (iMinds – KU Leuven, BE)B. Zaman (iMinds – KU Leuven, BE)J. Vanattenhoven (iMinds – KU Leuven, BE)D. De Grooff (iMinds – KU Leuven, BE)

      This paper explores the potential of extreme input stimuli in brainstorming. Extreme stimuli contain unfamiliar, ambiguous, critical and or provocative elements. The instrumental use of extreme input has only recently been investigated as a promising technique in ideation to get participants to think beyond the already known. It is not clear, though, which extreme mechanisms are most likely to trigger creativity. To investigate this, four brainstorm sessions were organized, of which three relied on extreme input stimuli: Extreme Ideas, Extreme Characters and Extreme Personas. The fourth session did not employ extreme input. Four experts assessed the output via a creative-idea-count. The preliminary results suggest that using Extreme Ideas as input for brainstorming in the early ideation phase leads to more original ideas than employing Non-Extreme Ideas.

    • WGVAssessing Recovery from Cognitive Load through Pen Input
      L. Luo (National ICT Australia, AU), R. Taib
      L. Luo (National ICT Australia, AU)R. Taib (National ICT Australia, AU)

      This paper explores the impact of rest duration on recovery from cognitively demanding tasks, focusing on pen input features as an indicator of load and recovery. We designed a user experiment involving a cognitively loading task with three levels of difficulty, followed by a controlled rest period, and then a fixed difficulty task. The participants answered the tasks by writing alphabet letters on a tablet monitor. Subjective ratings validated the increasing difficulty of the first task (Friedman ANOVA p<<0.05), and also indicated that the rest duration had a significant impact on the perceived difficulty of the subsequent task (p=0.048). In terms of pen features, the height of the written characters decreased significantly when the rest duration was reduced (ANOVA p<<0.05), and the pen pressure decreased significantly as the task difficult increased (p=0.009). These encouraging results suggest the addition of a crucial time factor in the cognitive load theory, and benefits to HCI practitioners through better control of content and information pace.

    PDA & Mobile

    • WKBThe Relationship Between Encumbrance and Walking Speed on Mobile Interactions
      A. Ng (Univ. of Glasgow, UK), S. Brewster
      A. Ng (Univ. of Glasgow, UK)S. Brewster (Univ. of Glasgow, UK)

      The effects of encumbrance (holding cumbersome objects while using mobile devices) have received little attention when examining mobile interactions. People often carry items while on the move and use their mobile devices at the same time, causing interaction problems. The study presented is part of an on-going project examining the relationship between encumbrance and walking speed and the impact the relationship has on targeting performance on a touchscreen mobile phone. We also compare two evaluation techniques used in mobile studies: 1)walking on a treadmill and 2)walking on the ground and found a drop in preferred walking speed (PWS) of 27% on the treadmill. The results show that when users walked on the ground at a fixed PWS, targeting error increased as much as 112% compared to standing still when holding a bag in the dominant hand.

    • WCBCameraMatch: Automatic Recognition of Subjects using Smartphones—toward Entertaining Photo Sessions
      K. Matsumura (Future Univ. Hakodate, JP), Y. Sumi
      K. Matsumura (Future Univ. Hakodate, JP)Y. Sumi (Future Univ. Hakodate, JP)

      We seek to increase both the enjoyment in a photo session and the amount of information of a photo by appending Manga iconography to photos automatically. By reducing the number of dimensions in a video to that of a photo, a user can easily understand events and the context of the video in less time. However, it is not easy to realize such a system. In this paper, toward automatic Manga iconography generation, we report on our feasibility study in which we attempted to associate subjects in a video with their smartphones.

    • WHKUtilizing Contextual Information for Mobile Communication
      J. Knittel (Univ. of Stuttgart, DE), A. Sahami Shirazi, N. Henze, A. Schmidt
      J. Knittel (Univ. of Stuttgart, DE)A. Sahami Shirazi (Univ. of Stuttgart, DE)N. Henze (Univ. of Stuttgart, DE)A. Schmidt (Univ. of Stuttgart, DE)

      Mobile phones enable us to be reachable by phone calls anywhere and anytime. However, it is not always appropriate to answer a phone call. Even a ringing or vibrating phone can be inappropriate in some situations. The information required to assess if a call is appropriate is split between the caller and the callee. Only the caller knows the importance of the call and only the callee knows her context. Sharing parts of this context with the potential caller would enable the caller to make a better decision. Based on previous work we conducted a survey to learn about the contextual information that users believe to be important for this decision. We derive context information that users will to share and consider relevant and helpful. Further, we present a mobile application that augments users’ address book with contextual information that we aim to study in the large.

    • WAKReading with a Digital Roll
      C. Pillias (CNAM, FR), S. Hsu, P. Cubaud
      C. Pillias (CNAM, FR)S. Hsu (CNAM, FR)P. Cubaud (CNAM, FR)

      We introduce the Digital Roll, a cylindrical hand-held device wrapped with a curved display, that can be rotated by hand to provide a continuous scrolling of text. We present design considerations for such a device and report on a preliminary experiment designed to assess its acceptance for casual reading, using a simulator. Encouraging results and their implications on the design of the device are then discussed.

    • WDE“I’d Sit at Home And Do Work Emails”: How Tablets Affect the Work-Life Balance of Office Workers
      K. Stawarz (Univ. College London, UK), A. Cox, J. Bird, R. Benedyk
      K. Stawarz (Univ. College London, UK)A. Cox (Univ. College London, UK)J. Bird (Univ. College London, UK)R. Benedyk (Univ. College London, UK)

      Advances in technology, in particular the widespread use of mobile devices, have changed work practices and transformed our everyday lives. However, as well as facilitating new ways for combining work and personal life, these new technologies can also blur the boundary between the two domains. In recent years tablets have become popular, first as leisure devices, and lately as business tools helping people to stay connected with work anywhere, anytime. Through an online questionnaire supported by a qualitative study, we investigated why, how, and where office workers use tablets and what impact those devices may have on work-life balance. The results show that, while useful for both home and work tasks, tablets have the potential to blur the boundary between work and personal life by encouraging and enabling people to complete work tasks during home time and vice versa. This could have negative impacts on work-life balance.

    • WFZDesign and Evaluation of Mobile Phonebook Application with Stereoscopic 3D User Interface
      J. Häkkilä (Univ. of Oulu, FI), M. Posti, O. Koskenranta, L. Ventä-Olkkonen
      J. Häkkilä (Univ. of Oulu, FI)M. Posti (Univ. of Oulu, FI)O. Koskenranta (Univ. of Oulu, FI)L. Ventä-Olkkonen (Univ. of Oulu, FI)

      During recent years, stereoscopic 3D (S3D) mobile devices have entered the mass markets. Yet, mobile S3D user experience (UX) design has not been widely studied, and stereoscopy in today’s products is used for purely visual design, whilst the potential for holistic UX has been neglected. In this work-in-progress paper we introduce the design, implementation and preliminary evaluation of a mobile S3D phonebook application, where stereoscopy was used to augment the 2D user interface (UI) design to provide information related to the time when the last call with each phonebook contact was made.

    • WGHInvestigating and Supporting Undirected Navigation for Runners
      D. McGookin (Univ. of Glasgow, UK), S. Brewster
      D. McGookin (Univ. of Glasgow, UK)S. Brewster (Univ. of Glasgow, UK)

      We present an analysis of how runners navigate the environment when running. Results from 153 questionnaire, and 8 interview participants found navigation was often not pre-planned, had no clear route and changed organically as running was undertaken. From this we present the design of RunNav, a novel navigation system that uses Foursquare to provide support for the navigation practices runners employ. We illustrate its basic design, and plans for its future development and evaluation.

    • WMRInsights into Co-located Shared Mobile Search
      S. Reis (Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia da Universidade Nova de Lisboa, PT), K. Church
      S. Reis (Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia da Universidade Nova de Lisboa, PT)K. Church (Telefonica Research, ES)

      Recently, the use of mobile search among co-located groups to satisfy casual, shared information needs has grown in popularity. In this paper we describe a proof-of-concept research prototype, which is designed to enhance such social experiences by providing an easy means of interacting with and sharing mobile Web content among co-located groups. We present initial results of an exploratory field study of our prototype and outline a number of design implications that could enhance next-generation social mobile services.

    • WDNGeo-locked Photo Sharing on Mobile Devices
      D. Vyas (ABB Corporate Research, IN), A. Nijholt, G. van der Veer, E. Keijl, R. Akker
      D. Vyas (ABB Corporate Research, IN)A. Nijholt (Univ. of Twente, NL)G. van der Veer (Open Univ. Netherlands, NL)E. Keijl (Univ. of Twente, NL)R. Akker (Univ. of Twente, NL)

      We introduce the idea of geo-locking through a mobile phone based photo sharing application called Picalilly (figure 1). Using its geo-locking feature, Picalilly allows its users to manually define geographical boundaries for sharing photos – limiting sharing within user-defined boundaries as well as facilitating open sharing between strangers within such boundaries. To explore the potential of geo-locking, we carried out a small scale field trial of Picalilly involving two groups of students, who were part of a two-week long introduction program at a university. Our preliminary results show that Picalilly facilitated 1) sharing of ‘places’ and 2) localized explorations.

    • WLYMobile Experiences for Tourism: Brick City Tours
      B. O’Keefe (Rochester Institute of Technology, USA), B. Slutsky, N. Iuliucci, A. Nalbandian, A. Thanedar, S. Mokey, O. Mival
      B. O’Keefe (Rochester Institute of Technology, USA)B. Slutsky (Rochester Institute of Technology, USA)N. Iuliucci (Rochester Institute of Technology, USA)A. Nalbandian (Rochester Institute of Technology, USA)A. Thanedar (Rochester Institute of Technology, USA)S. Mokey (Rochester Institute of Technology, USA)O. Mival (Edinburgh Napier Univ., UK)

      We present a mobile user experience design prototype called Brick City Tours (BCT), which is aimed at prospective university students who are visiting the Rochester Institute of Technology (RIT) campus. Our ongoing research and development is looking at improving key visitor problem areas while on an RIT tour. Our goal is to leverage user-centered design methods to develop a mobile service to strengthen the connection and facilitate visitors to make an informed decision when choosing which school to attend. This paper discusses the project’s design rationale, process, and outcomes, while introducing the evaluation iterations for a mobile service aimed at prospective students so they can experience the innovations of RIT students and faculty.

    • WNVSkateboards as a Mobile Technology
      S. Hauser (Simon Fraser Univ., CA), A. Desjardins, R. Wakkary
      S. Hauser (Simon Fraser Univ., CA)A. Desjardins (Simon Fraser Univ., CA)R. Wakkary (Simon Fraser Univ., CA)

      Grounded in investigations of everyday design, this study explores the appropriative, creative, and adaptive practice of skateboarding as a way to reveal a new perspective on mobile technology and their influence on mobility. We describe how skateboarding, a technology seen as an embodied practice, encourages practitioners to engage with the environment and thereby changes their mobility, even though the technology requires extensive practice and is not easy to use. Comparing these aspects to other mobile technologies offers new directions for the design of mobility and the influence of technologies.

    • WMCChili: Viewpoint Control and On-Video Drawing for Mobile Video Calls
      H. Jo (Chili Interactive, KR), S. Hwang
      H. Jo (Chili Interactive, KR)S. Hwang (KAIST (Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology), KR)

      We introduce Chili, a mobile video call system with viewpoint control of the remote scene and augmentation of the live video with freehand drawing. To enable the viewpoint control with ordinary mobile devices, Chili uses visualization and human action instead of any additional mechanics or optics, and also exploits remote switching between the front and rear cameras. The drawings are world-stabilized by vision-gyroscope sensor fusion, and the users can draw even larger than the field-of-view by moving the device itself. Chili is a step forward to unleash the utility of mobile video calls, which has kept to just facing each other so far.

    • WPLWalkMinder: Encouraging an Active Lifestyle Using Mobile Phone Interruptions
      S. Hirano (Univ. of California, Irvine, USA), R. Farrell, C. Danis, W. Kellogg
      S. Hirano (Univ. of California, Irvine, USA)R. Farrell (IBM T.J. Watson Research Center, USA)C. Danis (IBM T.J. Watson Research Center, USA)W. Kellogg (IBM T.J. Watson Research Center, USA)

      Medical research suggests that avoiding lengthy periods of physical inactivity can have significant health benefits. The pervasive nature of mobile phones increasingly allows individuals to track and measure their own physical activity thus creating opportunities for them to reflect on their behavior and make informed changes. In this work, we investigated two mechanisms for encouraging a more active lifestyle: a glanceable display of an individual’s level of physical activity and mobile phone vibrations to interrupt extended periods of inactivity. We found that both mechanisms can help users become more aware of their activity patterns but may be ignored unless coupled with concrete advice on how to incorporate active moments into their day.

    Sustainability

    • WAHPromoting Sustainable Print Behavior
      J. Willamowski (Xerox Research Center Europe, FR), Y. Hoppenot, A. Grasso
      J. Willamowski (Xerox Research Center Europe, FR)Y. Hoppenot (Xerox Research Center Europe, FR)A. Grasso (Xerox Research Center Europe, FR)

      We have designed the Personal Assessment Tool (PAT) to promote more sustainable print behaviour in a corporate work environment. Therefore, PAT provides its users with ambient awareness on their printing habits. We have experimented PAT in our research centre and describe this experiment along with our findings and observations. PAT definitely motivated the participating users to change their print behaviour. Nevertheless it also highlighted the constrained aspects of printing in a work environment calling for organizational changes of established work processes.

    • WCVAchieving Sustainable Society through Micro-level Crowdfunding
      M. Sakamoto (Waseda Univ., JP), T. Nakajima, Y. Liu, T. Alexandrova
      M. Sakamoto (Waseda Univ., JP)T. Nakajima (Waseda Univ., JP)Y. Liu (Waseda Univ., JP)T. Alexandrova (Waseda Univ., JP)

      This paper proposes a new approach for motivating people to participate in achieving a sustainable society. The method is called Micro-Crowdfunding, and encourages people living in urban cities to support and contribute to the sustainability of small common resources, such as public sinks, toilets, shelves, office areas and so on. Micro-Crowdfunding is based on the crowdfunding concept and uses the local currency idea, as tools of the social mechanism, to increase people’s awareness of how they participate in keeping the sustainability of common resources. Our approach aims to maintain the sustainability of common resources with people’s small efforts. In this approach, an organizer introduces a new mission for keeping the sustainability of a resource, and investors fund it. Finally, a performer executes the mission, and completes it with minimal efforts achieving the resource’s sustainability.

    • WFMNormification: Using Crowdsourced Technology to Affect Third-Party Change
      E. Massung (Univ. of Bristol, UK), C. Preist
      E. Massung (Univ. of Bristol, UK)C. Preist (Univ. of Bristol, UK)

      Previous work has shown how smartphone applications can support community activism groups by enabling crowdsourced data collection. In this paper we theorize that the data collected by the app can then be used to bring about positive environmental behavior change by illustrating the adoption of new social norms, a process we term normification. We provide a theoretical framework for how this may be accomplished, both in general terms and specifically with examples from the Close the Door campaign.

    • WHMImproving User Comfort and Office Energy Efficiency with POEM (Personal Office Energy Monitor)
      M. Milenkovic (Intel Corporation, USA), U. Hanebutte, Y. Huang, D. Prendergast, H. Pham
      M. Milenkovic (Intel Corporation, USA)U. Hanebutte (Intel Corporation, USA)Y. Huang (Intel Corporation, USA)D. Prendergast (Intel, IE)H. Pham (DesignSwinger Ltd., UK)

      Consensus exists in much of industry and academia that engaging end-users is an essential element for improving energy efficiency in office buildings. We present our experiences implementing and deploying POEM (Personal Office Energy Monitor) with real office users. POEM is an end-user eco-feedback application. It provides detailed personalized data on energy usage and ambient conditions to each office user, as well as reporting aggregates for building-level management and policy setting. The POEM UI also allows users to state their subjective feeling of comfort. The system aggregates those inputs and informs the building manager to take corrective action if needed – thus closing the control loop between the people and the building. We report our findings from pilot tests of POEM prototype.

    • WJLDesigning Motivational Features for Sustainable Urban Mobility
      S. Gabrielli (CREATE-NET, IT), R. Maimone, P. Forbes, J. Masthoff, S. Wells, L. Primerano, G. Bo, M. Pompa, L. Haverinen
      S. Gabrielli (CREATE-NET, IT)R. Maimone (CREATE-NET, IT)P. Forbes (Univ. of Aberdeen, UK)J. Masthoff (Univ. of Aberdeen, UK)S. Wells (Univ. of Aberdeen, UK)L. Primerano (Fondazione Legambiente Innovazione, IT)G. Bo (I-maginary srl, IT)M. Pompa (I-maginary srl, IT)L. Haverinen (Univ. of Helsinki, FI)

      This paper describes the User-Centred Design process followed within the SUPERHUB project in order to investigate requirements, elicit user feedback and refine motivational features of a mobile app fostering the adoption of sustainable behaviors for urban mobility. We report the main lessons learnt from focus groups, participatory design sessions, and low-mid fidelity prototyping of the motivational features designed. These lessons are currently informing our implementation work in SUPERHUB and could be of interest for designers in the eco-sustainability field.

    • WKFTake It Personally: Personal Accountability and Energy Consumption in Domestic Households
      Y. Guo (Swansea Univ., UK), M. Jones, B. Cowan, R. Beale
      Y. Guo (Swansea Univ., UK)M. Jones (Swansea Univ., UK)B. Cowan (Univ. of Birmingham, UK)R. Beale (Univ. of Birmingham, UK)

      We explore the overlooked area of personal energy consumption in the context of a shared domestic household. We discuss the potential benefits of such an approach. We report the results of a lab study and field trial with four households using a personal energy monitoring system. We describe the results of the studies and discuss how such previously hidden information might raise awareness of individual energy consumption and the benefits and problems this entails.

    • WKHDesigning a System for Land Change Science Meta-Study
      A. Young (Univ. of Maryland, Baltimore County, USA), W. Lutters, N. Magliocca, E. Ellis
      A. Young (Univ. of Maryland, Baltimore County, USA)W. Lutters (Univ. of Maryland, Baltimore County, USA)N. Magliocca (Univ. of Maryland, Baltimore County, USA)E. Ellis (Univ. of Maryland, Baltimore County, USA)

      In this work-in-progress paper, we present GLOBE, a system that enables the quantitative comparison and synthesis of local case study data to support meta-analyses of global environmental change. Using data from a workshop on the state-of-the-art of meta-study in the land change science research community, we highlight the limitations of current approaches and illustrate how our system can be designed to enhance data accuracy and produce globally relevant results.

    • WMQCool and the Gang: Design Insights for Engaging Student Energy Interventions
      D. Foster (Univ. of Lincoln, UK), C. Linehan, M. Schoonheyt, S. Lawson
      D. Foster (Univ. of Lincoln, UK)C. Linehan (Univ. of Lincoln, UK)M. Schoonheyt (Hague Univ. of Applied Sciences, NL)S. Lawson (Univ. of Lincoln, UK)

      Interventions that aim to motivate students in halls of residence to engage in more eco-friendly behaviour face a number of unique problems. Specifically, a large portion of university accommodation provides utilities such as electricity, water and gas at fixed cost as part of tenancy contracts. In the absence of financial motivators, energy interventions for special groups such as students require a stronger focus on participatory and experience design to understand the design implications of successful technology-led energy interventions. This work presents the findings of a thematic analysis drawn from a large corpus of qualitative design challenge data including focus groups, questionnaires and interviews. Findings provided design insights for developing ‘cool’ and engaging energy interventions for students.

    • WNPThe Stroppy Kettle: An Intervention to Break Energy Consumption Habits
      B. Cowan (Univ. of Birmingham, UK), C. Bowers, R. Beale, C. Pinder
      B. Cowan (Univ. of Birmingham, UK)C. Bowers (Univ. of Birmingham, UK)R. Beale (Univ. of Birmingham, UK)C. Pinder (Univ. of Birmingham, UK)

      Changing human behaviours using persuasive technology has been a focus of the CHI community in recent years. Much of this research aims to change behaviour through feedback of information. This is predicated on the fact that raising awareness will drive changes in behaviour, but psychological research shows that in the case of highly habitual behaviours this form of intervention is unlikely to be effective. We present a prototype device, the Stroppy Kettle, a targeted behavioural intervention aiming to break users’ habitual kettle overfill behaviours, by breaking the link between habitual behaviour and goal attainment.

    • WCHTeenagers Talking about Technologies: Designing Technology to Reduce Teen Energy Use
      B. Bell (Northumbria Univ., UK), N. Toth, J. Read, M. Horton, D. Fitton, L. Little, R. Beale, Y. Guo
      B. Bell (Northumbria Univ., UK)N. Toth (Northumbria Univ., UK)J. Read (Univ. of Central Lancashire, UK)M. Horton (Univ. of Central Lancashire, UK)D. Fitton (Univ. of Central Lancashire, UK)L. Little (Northumbria Univ., UK)R. Beale (Univ. of Birmingham, UK)Y. Guo (Swansea Univ., UK)

      This paper describes the methodology through which a set of guidelines that inform the design and development of energy-use reduction technologies for teenagers were created. The presented research forms part of a wider project that aims to design, develop and evaluate mobile solutions to change teen attitudes and behavior to energy consumption. In order to understand how to approach the design of technologies that reduce teen electricity consumption, researchers engaged teenagers in a comprehensive user-centered evaluation of relevant existing prototypes. The evaluation feedback was used to generate a set of seven guidelines that will inform the design and development of future energy-reduction devices for teenagers as part of the final stages of this overall research project.

    • WNDGreenify: Fostering Sustainable Communities Via Gamification
      J. Lee (Teachers College, USA), E. Matamoros, R. Kern, J. Marks, C. de Luna, W. Jordan-Cooley
      J. Lee (Teachers College, USA)E. Matamoros (Teachers College, USA)R. Kern (Teachers College, USA)J. Marks (Teachers College, USA)C. de Luna (Teachers College, USA)W. Jordan-Cooley (Teachers College, Columbia Univ., USA)

      At Teachers College, Columbia University, the Games Research Lab has created Greenify, an online social platform designed to foster flourishing sustainable communities. Gamification elements facilitated the creation and completion of user-generated missions, encouraging interaction between geographically proximate communities of peers. Three elements were identified as necessary components to achieve sustainable communities: a healthy climate and environment, social well-being, and economic security. This paper describes our approach in addressing these elements through a crowdsourced, gamified system. Implications for HCI are also discussed.

    • WJVChoice Architecture for Environmentally Sustainable Urban Mobility
      E. Bothos (National Technical Univ. of Athens (NTUA), GR), D. Apostolou, G. Mentzas
      E. Bothos (National Technical Univ. of Athens (NTUA), GR)D. Apostolou (Univ. of Piraeus, GR)G. Mentzas (National Technical Univ. of Athens (NTUA), GR)

      Personal transportation greatly contributes to environmental pollution from CO2 emissions and persuasive technologies could assist travellers in reducing their ecological impact. In this work we focus on the design of persuasive travel recommenders in order to support travellers, who have a pre-existing interest in taking action to lessen their impact on the environment, adopt green transportation habits. Our approach examines recommender systems under a choice architecture framework and aims at providing urban travellers with a personalized travel recommender that helps them plan routes while considering the environmentally friendliest travel modes.

    Tabletops & Displays

    • WAUTangeo: Geometric Drawing with Tangibles on an Interactive Table-Top
      S. Zhen (The Univ. of Auckland, NZ), R. Blagojevic, B. Plimmer
      S. Zhen (The Univ. of Auckland, NZ)R. Blagojevic (The Univ. of Auckland, NZ)B. Plimmer (The Univ. of Auckland, NZ)

      We introduce Tangeo, a drawing system that combines tangible drawing tools, such as rulers, protractors and set squares with a table-top environment. Geometric drawing on computers is often constrained to abstract widget tools and metaphoric, indirect input methods such as mouse and keyboard. Tangeo allows users to construct geometric drawings in a more direct manner by manipulating virtual data with familiar physical objects and drawing with a finger. User evaluations on Tangeo yielded a high rate of user satisfaction and indicated that the system is effective at enhancing geometric drawing.

    • WDJMessy Tabletops: Clearing Up the Occlusion Problem
      E. Freeman (Univ. of Glasgow, UK), S. Brewster
      E. Freeman (Univ. of Glasgow, UK)S. Brewster (Univ. of Glasgow, UK)

      When introducing interactive tabletops into the home and office, lack of space will often mean that these devices play two roles: interactive display and a place for putting things. Clutter on the table surface may occlude information on the display, preventing the user from noticing it or interacting with it. We present a technique for dealing with clutter on tabletops which finds a suitable unoccluded area of the display in which to show content. We discuss the implementation of this technique and some design issues which arose during implementation.

    • WFHIAMHear: A Tabletop Interface with Smart Mobile Devices using Acoustic Location
      S. Kim (KAIST (Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology), KR), B. Kim, W. Yeo
      S. Kim (KAIST (Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology), KR)B. Kim (KAIST, KR)W. Yeo (KAIST (Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology), KR)

      IAMHear is a novel tabletop interface for music performance and sound making, in which smart mobile devices are used as on-table objects for interaction. Thanks to the advanced features of smart mobile devices, IAMHear is by nature multi-modal and highly interactive. The system also allows for acoustic location mechanism using virtually inaudible sound without any special sensors, making itself simpler in structure and easier to implement. In addition, use of “everyday objects” also evokes interaction by intuitive gestures such as placement, movement, and rotation. As a music sequencer, IAMHear enables the user to make music by placing objects on table; inspired by the idea of spectrographic mapping with virtual scan line, pitch and timbre of sounds are determined by the location/orientation of tabletop objects as well as ambient noise. We present IAMHear as a simple and novel alternative to interactive tabletop interface for music and various multimedia applications as well.

    • WKCConceptual Framework for Surface Manager on Interactive Tabletops
      N. Hamdan (RWTH Aachen Univ., DE), S. Voelker, J. Borchers
      N. Hamdan (RWTH Aachen Univ., DE)S. Voelker (RWTH Aachen Univ., DE)J. Borchers (RWTH Aachen Univ., DE)

      To date, most tabletop systems are designed with only a single application visible and accessible at any time, which is, in many cases, an underuse of the tabletop spacious surface, and counter-intuitive to the normal working environment of a table. Desktop window managers provide users facilities to launch and interact with concurrent applications, as well as manage their work items. However, these managers are designed for single-user systems and cannot be directly utilized in tabletops without sacrificing usability. In our research, we want to bring window manager facilities to tabletops. We approach this by first constructing a conceptual framework based on workplace theories and tabletop investigations to understand how users structure their work in these environments. We will then use the resulting framework to guide our design of a sample surface manager.

    • WBVPermulin: Collaboration on Interactive Surfaces with Personal In- and Output
      R. Lissermann (Technische Univ. Darmstadt, DE), J. Huber, J. Steimle, M. Mühlhäuser
      R. Lissermann (Technische Univ. Darmstadt, DE)J. Huber (Technische Univ. Darmstadt, DE)J. Steimle (Massachusetts Institute of Technology, USA)M. Mühlhäuser (Technische Univ. Darmstadt, DE)

      Interactive tables are well suited for co-located collaboration. Most prior research assumed users to share the same overall display output; a key challenge was the appropriate partitioning of screen real estate, assembling the right information “at the users’ finger-tips” through simultaneous input. A different approach is followed in recent multi-view display environments: they offer personal output for each team member, yet risk to dissolve the team due to the lack of a common visual focus. Our approach combines both lines of thought, guided by the question: “What if the visible output and simultaneous input was partly shared and partly private?” We present Permulin as a concrete corresponding implementation, based on a set of novel interaction concepts that support fluid transitions between individual and group activities, coordination of group activities, and concurrent, distraction-free in-place manipulation. Study results indicate that users are able to focus on individual work on the whole surface without notable mutual interference, while at the same time establishing a strong sense of collaboration.

    • WACOvercoming Interaction Blindness through Curiosity Objects
      S. Houben (IT Univ. of Copenhagen, DK), C. Weichel
      S. Houben (IT Univ. of Copenhagen, DK)C. Weichel (Lancaster Univ., UK)

      In recent years there has been a widespread installation of large interactive public displays. Longitudinal studies however show that these interactive displays suffer from interaction blindness – the inability of the public to recognize the interactive capabilities of those surfaces. In this paper, we explore the use of curiosity-provoking artifacts, (curiosity objects) to overcome interaction blindness. Our study confirmed the interaction blindness problem and shows that introducing a curiosity object results in a significant increase in interactivity with the display as well as changes in movement in the spaces surrounding the interactive display.

    • WBXSensing and Reacting to Users’ Interest: an Adaptive Public Display
      G. Schiavo (Univ. of Trento & FBK, IT), E. Mencarini, K. Vovard, M. Zancanaro
      G. Schiavo (Univ. of Trento & FBK, IT)E. Mencarini (FBK, IT)K. Vovard (FBK, IT)M. Zancanaro (FBK, IT)

      In this paper we describe a public display system that detects the users’ interest and adapts the on-screen content accordingly. An interest estimation algorithm based on the analysis of the users’ non-verbal behaviour, including the users’ position, their orientation and the social context, is proposed. A preliminary field study suggests that an adaptive public display may be more appealing than a control condition, where the same content is offered without any adaptation. We argue that behavioural-based measures are valuable data to inform and adapt a public display in a social-aware way, improving the users’ engagement.

    Tactile

    • WEKSensing Fork: Eating Behavior Detection Utensil and Mobile Persuasive Game
      A. Kadomura (Ochanomizu Univ., JP), C. Li, Y. Chen, K. Tsukada, I. Siio, H. Chu
      A. Kadomura (Ochanomizu Univ., JP)C. Li (National Taiwan Univ., TW)Y. Chen (National Taiwan Univ., TW)K. Tsukada (Japan Science and Technology Agency, JP)I. Siio (Ochanomizu Univ., JP)H. Chu (National Taiwan Univ., TW)

      We propose a fork-type sensing device, Sensing Fork, which detects children’s eating behavior (eating actions and chosen food) and a smartphone game to address children’s eating problems. This paper describes the design and implementation of the Sensing Fork prototype and the play-based eating game called Hungry Panda.

    • WBGPeripheral Information Displays Using Vibro-Tactile Stimuli
      M. Pielot (Telefonica Research, ES), R. Oliveira
      M. Pielot (Telefonica Research, ES)R. Oliveira (Telefonica Research, ES)

      We conducted an initial attempt to study the boundaries of peripheral perception using vibro-tactile stimuli. For three days, we exposed 12 subjects to a continual vibration pattern created by a mobile device worn in the trouser pocket. In order to guarantee that the stimuli would not require the subjects’ focal attention, they were asked to set the vibration intensity to just above their personal detection threshold when sitting still. At random intervals, the vibration stopped. Participants were asked to acknowledge these events as soon as they noticed. Our findings reveal that only 16.7% of events were acknowledged within one minute, and participants reported not to be annoyed by the signal in more than 95% of the events. These results provide first evidence that vibration patterns can form non-annoying, light-weight information displays, which can be consumed at the periphery of attention.

    • WPCFeel the Action: Dynamic Tactile Cues in the Interaction with Deformable UIs
      J. Kildal, M. Boberg
      J. KildalM. Boberg (Nokia Research Center, FI)

      Deformable User Interfaces (DUIs) often require external confirmation of the status of the interface, which is normally provided visually. We propose that tactile cues can also be employed for this end. In a user study that presents both visual and tactile cues in redundancy, we found that both channels can be combined with no loss in user experience or performance. This validates our design for further research on multimodal designs that make use of no redundancy in the supporting cues.

    • WAETactile Notifications for Ambulatory Users
      H. Qian (Univ. of Maryland, Baltimore County, USA), R. Kuber, A. Sears
      H. Qian (Univ. of Maryland, Baltimore County, USA)R. Kuber (Univ. of Maryland, Baltimore County, USA)A. Sears (Rochester Institute of Technology, USA)

      Difficulties are often associated with perceiving tactile feedback from a mobile device while ambulatory. In this paper, we describe a study conducted using multi-parameter tactile icons (tactons) with a view to identifying designs to better resist the masking effects associated with walking. Our findings suggest that tactons encoded with longer durations (800ms) or those with stronger intensities (Amplitude: 2.1g Frequency: 255Hz) offer promise to individuals on-the-move. In terms of future work, we aim to identify ways to reduce the recognition time and the levels of cognitive workload experienced when resolving multi-parameter tactons, to augment the human-mobile interaction experience.

    • WCDTowards Tactile Expressions of Emotion Through Mediated Touch
      G. Huisman (Univ. of Twente, NL), A. Darriba Frederiks
      G. Huisman (Univ. of Twente, NL)A. Darriba Frederiks (Amsterdam Univ. of Applied Sciences, NL)

      In this paper we investigate the expression of emotions through mediated touch. Participants used the Tactile Sleeve for Social Touch (TaSST), a wearable sleeve that consists of a pressure sensitive input layer, and a vibration motor output layer, to record a number of expressions of discrete emotions. The aim was to investigate if these participants could make meaningful distinctions in their tactile expressions of the emotions.

    • WDFAccelerative Effect of Tactile Feedback on Turn-Taking Control in Remote Verbal-Communication
      H. CAO (Univ. de Technologie de Compiègne, FR), D. Aubert, O. GAPENNE
      H. CAO (Univ. de Technologie de Compiègne, FR)D. Aubert (Univ. de Technologie de Compiègne, FR)O. GAPENNE (Univ. de Technologie de Compiègne, FR)

      The aim of our research is to provide evidence of a new effect of tactile feedback on turn-taking control in a remote, synchronous, multi-user verbal communication. 10 groups of 3 participants, separated in different rooms, are involved in the experiment. Each group is encouraged to reach an agreement on sorting a disordered sequence of images. We compared two types of turn-taking control interfaces: 5 control groups use a classical graphic interface displayed on a computer screen while 5 experimental groups use the same interface but enhanced by tactile feedback. Our results show a significant effect of acceleration of turn alternation in tactile groups.

    • WDKPerception of Thermal Stimuli for Continuous Interaction
      M. Halvey (Glasgow Caledonian Univ., UK), G. Wilson, S. Brewster, S. Hughes
      M. Halvey (Glasgow Caledonian Univ., UK)G. Wilson (Univ. of Glasgow, UK)S. Brewster (Univ. of Glasgow, UK)S. Hughes (SAMH Engineering, IE)

      Thermal stimulation represents a relatively unexplored and potentially beneficial area of research for interface design. To date no research on thermal interfaces has looked at continuous thermal stimulation in detail. Here we begin to explore the design space offered by continuous thermal stimulation by conducting a controlled experiment that investigates perception of various thermal stimuli relative to a range of starting temperatures. Based on the experimental results, we discuss design implications and possible future work.

    • WFKMouse Mode of OnScreenDualScribe: Three Types of Keyboard-Driven Mouse Replacement
      T. Felzer (Technische Univ. Darmstadt, DE), S. Rinderknecht
      T. Felzer (Technische Univ. Darmstadt, DE)S. Rinderknecht (Technische Univ. Darmstadt, DE)

      An innovative type of keyboard-driven mouse control, called DualMouse, is introduced. In addition to allowing its user to perform pointer operations using the keyboard only, the technique, currently implemented as a stand-alone program, facilitates precise clicking by zooming in on the target area. This work is part of a larger project about OnScreenDualScribe, a tool tailored to the needs of persons with neuromuscular diseases, replacing the large standard keyboard with a small number pad-like special-purpose keyboard. Although OnScreenDualScribe has its primary focus on text entry, efficient usage calls for an integrated mouse mode. We believe that DualMouse has the potential to make OnScreenDualScribe an even more helpful tool, and we justify that claim by comparing it to other possibilities.

    • WQJHaptic Cues: Texture as a Guide for Non-Visual Tangible Interaction
      K. Wolf (TU Berlin, Deutsche Telekom Laboratories, Berlin, DE), P. Bennett
      K. Wolf (TU Berlin, Deutsche Telekom Laboratories, Berlin, DE)P. Bennett (Univ. of Bristol, UK)

      Tangible User Interfaces (TUIs) represent digital information via a number of sensory modalities including the haptic, visual and auditory senses. We suggest that interaction with tangible interfaces is commonly governed primarily through visual cues, despite the emphasis on tangible representation. We do not doubt that visual feedback offers rich interaction guidance, but argue that emphasis on haptic and auditory feedback could support or substitute vision in situations of visual distraction or impairment. We have developed a series of simple TUIs that allows for the haptic and auditory exploration of visually hidden textures. Our technique is to transmit the force feedback of the texture to the user via the attraction of a ball bearing to a magnet that the user manipulates. This allows the detail of the texture to be presented to the user while visually presenting an entirely flat surface. The use of both opaque and transparent materials allows for controlling the texture visibility for comparative purposes. The resulting Feelable User Interface (FUI), shown in Fig. 1, allows for the exploration of which textures and structures are useful for haptic guidance. The findings of our haptic exploration shall provide basic understanding about the usage of haptic cues for interacting with tangible objects that are visually hidden or are in the user’s visual periphery.

    • WFRA Temerature-based Touch-sensor for Non-Emissive Textile Displays
      R. Peiris (National Univ. of Singapore, SG), R. Nakatsu
      R. Peiris (National Univ. of Singapore, SG)R. Nakatsu (National Univ. of Singapore, SG)

      Non-light-emissive textile displays have become a popular research area that allows subtle and ambient animations on our textiles. This work explores one such existing technology which uses thermochromic inks and peltier semiconductors to implement a textit{touch sensitive} non-light-emissive textile display. To achieve this we investigate a new method that detects temperature transients (caused by a touch) in order to detect a touch which allows interactive touch sensitive textile displays without any changes to the existing hardware.

    • WKXWave Alchemy: Perception and Reminiscence of Expressive Moments through Waves
      D. Sawada (Massachusetts Institute of Technology, USA), A. Sharma, S. Chowdhury, C. Hsieh, A. Miller
      D. Sawada (Massachusetts Institute of Technology, USA)A. Sharma (Massachusetts Institute of Technology, USA)S. Chowdhury (Massachusetts Institute of Technology, USA)C. Hsieh (Massachusetts Institute of Technology, USA)A. Miller (Harvard Univ., USA)

      Life is full of moments that come with obvious or subtle expressions of energy. It is common for us as human beings to attach different emotions to such expressions. However, when we want to capture it and interact with them, we are often constrained to flat, 2D encapsulations of video, audio, or photographic recordings. Moreover, the way we would look back at a memory in this digital age is now often through a screen with hundreds of files digitally stored away, further removing the experience of the event’s emotion. Authors question what if there was a way to experience this emotional energy again, and dynamically interact with it in infinitely complex ways. Here we present a concept and prototype that explores a novel physical-visual language of dynamic, emotionally expressive waveforms, designed to transform the way we perceive different forms of energy as we go about our daily lives. With the power of computation hidden within the physical materials used in the interface, we create an interactive form that takes one form of energy and transmute it into a waveform as its output, or Wave Alchemy.

    • WATTangibleRings: Nestable Circular Tangibles
      A. Ebert (Univ. of Kaiserslautern, DE), C. Weber, D. Cernea, S. Petsch
      A. Ebert (Univ. of Kaiserslautern, DE)C. Weber (Univ. of Kaiserslautern, DE)D. Cernea (Univ. of Kaiserslautern, Germany, DE)S. Petsch (Univ. of Kaiserslautern, DE)

      The multitouch functionality of tabletop computers is often augmented by the use of tangible objects that offer an intuitive and haptic alternative to interaction and manipulation. However, employing tangibles can also lead to less desirable effects, such as occlusion or lack of precision. In this paper we highlight the design and implementation of ring-like tangible objects: TangibleRings. They do not occlude the objects underneath them and also support the detection of touch events inside their perimeter. Additionally, multiple rings may be nested within one another in order to combine ring functionality or produce more complex filters.

    • WGUA One-Handed Multi-Touch Mating Method for 3D Rotations
      D. Scheurich (York Univ., CA), W. Stuerzlinger
      D. Scheurich (York Univ., CA)W. Stuerzlinger (York Univ., CA)

      Rotating 3D objects is a difficult task. We present a new rotation technique based on collision-free “mating” to expedite 3D rotations. It is specifically designed for one-handed interaction on tablets or touchscreens. A user study found that our new technique decreased the time to rotate objects in 3D by more than 60% in situations where objects align. We found similar results when users translated and rotated objects in a 3D scene. Also, angle errors were 35% less with mating. In essence, our new rotation technique improves both the speed and accuracy of common 3D rotation tasks.

    • WKZTouch Through: Experiencing Remote Touch Across Different Modalities
      G. Le Bihan (Univ. of Technology of Compiègne (UTC), FR), C. Lenay, M. Tixier, J. Mara
      G. Le Bihan (Univ. of Technology of Compiègne (UTC), FR)C. Lenay (Univ. of Technology of Compiègne (UTC), FR)M. Tixier (Univ. of Technology of Compiègne (UTC), FR)J. Mara (Univ. of Technology of Compiègne (UTC), FR)

      This paper presents Touch Through (TT), an innovative smartphone application which provides an alternative way of experiencing interpersonal touch at a distance. Through the design of TT, we are interested in the issue of allowing people at a distance to share emotions and have a feeling of presence. The originality of our approach is to focus on the functional properties of touch highlighted by the study of sensory supplementation systems. TT transforms stimuli associated with touch into visual and/or auditory and/or vibratory sensations.

    Ubiquitous Computing

    • WPSWhen the Tissue Box Says “Bless You!”: Using Speech to Build Socially Interactive Objects
      H. Jia (Pennsylvania State Univ., USA), M. Wu, E. Jung, A. Shapiro, S. Sundar
      H. Jia (Pennsylvania State Univ., USA)M. Wu (The Pennsylvania State Univ., USA)E. Jung (The Pennsylvania State Univ., USA)A. Shapiro (Pennsylvania State Univ., USA)S. Sundar (The Pennsylvania State Univ., USA)

      From the Internet of things to ubiquitous computing, smart objects are everywhere and have become an increasingly significant part of the information supply chain. However, these objects remain invisible to end-users mostly because they do not interact with them. Our project is devoted to brainstorming different design possibilities for building interfaces for these smart objects. This paper explores one such possibility—outfitting the object with a speech interface. Study participants (N = 63) witnessed the experimenter sneezing, followed by a “Bless You” from either a nearby tissue box, a robot in the room, or a person in the room. Surprisingly, users found the speaking tissue box to be as social and agentic as a humanoid robot and a human. We also found significant moderating effects of users’ preference for consistency, parasocial tendency and power usage. Participants who scored high on these traits were more likely to regard the study object as intelligent and likeable. Users also tended to show the same non-verbal reactions to the tissue box as they would to a human or a robot.

    • WEFUbiquitous Shortcuts: Mnemonics by Just Taking Photos
      M. Rissanen (Nanyang Technological Univ., SG), O. Fernando, H. Iroshan, S. Vu, N. Pang, S. Foo
      M. Rissanen (Nanyang Technological Univ., SG)O. Fernando (Nanyang Technological Univ., SG)H. Iroshan (Nanyang Technological Univ., SG)S. Vu (Nanyang Technological Univ., SG)N. Pang (Nanyang Technological Univ., SG)S. Foo (Nanyang Technological Univ., SG)

      Ubiquitous Shortcuts is an image processing based method for making and using mnemonics set onto the real world using smartphones or other computing systems. The mnemonics can be created by taking photos of the user’s vicinity and by binding them onto command sequences. The mnemonic is triggered every time a similar photo is taken. Our method uses natural feature matching algorithms and end-user programming approaches. The mnemonics can be concatenated into more complex command sequences. Thus, limited user input is realized by just taking photos with a camera embedded into a finger-ring, which enables rapid, subtle and socially acceptable user interaction. Our method can be used as semi-automatic way of achieving location and context sensitive services, activity recognition or tangible interaction.

    • WHUConnect and Connectivity: Revealing a World of Interactions
      G. Hakvoort (Univ. of Birmingham, UK), R. Beale, E. Ch’ng
      G. Hakvoort (Univ. of Birmingham, UK)R. Beale (Univ. of Birmingham, UK)E. Ch’ng (Univ. of Birmingham, UK)

      Connectivity is embedded into our modern day society. Devices increasingly rely on permanent network connections, and people keep connected through social networks. Technological advances allow everyday objects to become part of large networks of interconnected entities. Connectivity within these networks allows for the design of novel interaction methods that utilise the digital input and output capabilities of connected entities. However, when specifically designing for interaction, entities become entangled and remain oblivious of each other’s features. In this paper we report on the current progress in opening up the space of connectivity in order to reveal and make use of the available technological capabilities. We describe how this will open channels for new synergy and novel interaction methods. We conclude by discussing the preparation of a case study which incorporates our initial designs and proof of concepts.

    • WPVRelating to Speech Evoked Car Personalities
      J. Healey (Intel, USA), D. Szostak
      J. Healey (Intel, USA)D. Szostak (Intel, USA)

      Could an in-vehicle infotainment (IVI) system with a speech evoked personality change your relationship with your car? Alter your behavior? Would you like it more? Would it be easier or harder to use? Would a snarky or encouraging speech style make a difference? We report the findings of a preliminary 30 participant study using an experiential prototype that used three different speech styles designed to evoke different personalities: Neutral, Encouraging and Snarky. Our results indicate that driving preferences are conservative in practice and were not strongly influenced by a brief exposure to our system; however reactions to the system were more nuanced than expected. We report on some significant results for initial evaluations of desired attributes for embedded agents (p<0.01) and for the ease of use (p<0.016), usefulness (p<0.05) and friendliness (p<0.05) of the prototype system. Additionally, we found a significant upgrade in gas choice (p<0.01) based on the agent making a recommendation.

    • WGZExploring Programmable Light Spaces using Actively Deformable Mirrors
      M. Sato (The Univ. of Tokyo, JP), M. Chaillou, T. Tanikawa, M. Hirose
      M. Sato (The Univ. of Tokyo, JP)M. Chaillou (The Univ. of Tokyo, JP)T. Tanikawa (The Univ. of Tokyo, JP)M. Hirose (The Univ. of Tokyo, JP)

      In this study, we propose a new approach for displaying images and controlling light spaces using actively deformable mirrors. This approach enables programming the mirror-reflected light from sunlight or other parallel/point light sources to create arbitrary light spaces in various scenarios.

    • WPYDesigning the Car iWindow Exploring Interaction through Vehicle Side Windows
      J. Li (Univ. of Calgary, CA), E. Sharlin, S. Greenberg, M. Rounding
      J. Li (Univ. of Calgary, CA)E. Sharlin (Univ. of Calgary, CA)S. Greenberg (Univ. of Calgary, CA)M. Rounding (Smart Technologies, CA)

      Interactive vehicle windows can enrich the commuting experience by being informative and engaging, strengthening the connection between passengers and the outside world. We propose a preliminary interaction paradigm to allow rich and un-distracting interaction experience on vehicle side windows. Following this paradigm we present a prototype, the Car iWindow, and discuss our preliminary design critique of the interaction, based on the installation of the iWindow in a car and interaction with it while commuting around our campus.

    • WBEEnergy Management System for Electric Vehicle based on User Behavior Induction
      S. Iwabuchi (Univ. of Tsukuba, JP), S. Masuko, J. Hoshino
      S. Iwabuchi (Univ. of Tsukuba, JP)S. Masuko (Univ. of Tsukuba, JP)J. Hoshino (Univ. of Tsukuba, JP)

      Electric Vehicles (EV) and charging stations at large commercial centers with solar power generation are focused as a new energy infrastructure. However when many drivers visit to there, the demand of power for charging will be increased and they have to wait in queue until the power recovers. We propose a method to distribute the concentration of charging demand by recommending times for EV charging to the drivers. The charging time for recommendation is determined by each driver’s behavior model that is trained as probabilistic model.

    • WERThe Open Platform for Personal Lifelogging: The eLifeLog Architecture
      P. Kim (Univ. of Trento, IT), F. Giunchiglia
      P. Kim (Univ. of Trento, IT)F. Giunchiglia (Univ. of Trento, IT)

      Lifelogging is a complex application domain of multimedia management. This makes it challenging for people to keep their personal lifelogs under their control. Our work aims to provide people with an open platform, named $eLifeLog$, that would work in user’s private cloud to start archiving their valuable memories and experiences under the hood. eLifeLog has a number of distinct features that differentiate it from legacy CMS (Content Management System) products or related works: (1) It is specialized for personal lifelogging, (2) it embeds an event-based unified data representation to handle heterogenous timestamped streams, and (3) it is open to the public with the complete source code for personal use and for accelerating lifelogging research collaboration.

    • WJNTowards an Adaptive Cultural Heritage Experience Using Physiological Computing
      A. Karran (Liverpool John Moores Univ., UK), S. Fairclough, K. Gilleade
      A. Karran (Liverpool John Moores Univ., UK)S. Fairclough (Liverpool John Moores Univ., UK)K. Gilleade (Liverpool John Moores Univ., UK)

      The contemporary heritage institution visitor model is built around passive receivership where content is consumed but not influenced by the visitor. This paper presents work in progress towards an adaptive interface designed to respond to the level of interest of the visitor, in order to deliver a personalised experience within cultural heritage institutions. A subject-dependent experimental approach was taken to record and classify physiological signals using mobile physiological sensors and a machine learning algorithm. The results show a high classification rate using this approach, informing future work for the development of a real-time physiological computing component for use within an adaptive cultural heritage experience.

    • WKJPersuasive Dialogue for Older Adults: Promoting and Encouraging Social Interaction
      J. Vargheese (Univ. of Aberdeen, UK), S. Sripada, J. Masthoff, N. Oren, P. Schofield, V. Hanson
      J. Vargheese (Univ. of Aberdeen, UK)S. Sripada (Univ. of Aberdeen, UK)J. Masthoff (Univ. of Aberdeen, UK)N. Oren (Univ. of Aberdeen, UK)P. Schofield (Univ. of Greenwich, UK)V. Hanson (Univ. of Dundee, UK)

      We describe a persuasive dialogue component for promoting and encouraging social interaction for older adults. In order to identify effective persuasive strategies we conducted an interview study with formal carers for older adults. From the results of our study we have identified 6 persuasive strategies, information requirements and developed a model using rules for assessing older adult profiles and applying persuasive strategies.

    UI Design

    • WEGDoes Clustered Presentation Lead Readers To Diverse Selections?
      S. Chhabra (Univ. of Michigan, USA), P. Resnick
      S. Chhabra (Univ. of Michigan, USA)P. Resnick (Univ. of Michigan, USA)

      A recent study found that presenting news suggestions as clusters in a sidebar can lead to more exploration of articles and clusters related to particular stories [1]. We conducted a lab study to test the robustness of the result.Our results only partially replicate the original findings: people read more articles, but not from significantly more clusters;we also foundthat they prefer the clustered presentation. Further research is needed to better understand the conditions under which clustered presentation leads people to sample from more clusters.

    • WFFUbi-Jector : An Information-Sharing Screen in a Casual Meeting Environment Using Mobile Devices
      H. Lim (Seoul National Univ., KR), S. Choi, J. Lee
      H. Lim (Seoul National Univ., KR)S. Choi (Seoul National Univ., KR)J. Lee (Seoul National Univ., KR)

      We propose a system called Ubi-Jector, which provides a shared information screen utilizing participants’ personal mobile devices in casual meeting places. This system can successfully substitute for a large projector screen in most conventional meeting rooms, such as cafeterias, lobbies, or libraries, and also enable all participants to communicate simultaneously through their mobile devices. In this paper, we first present the preliminary study results that characterize the current issues when a casual meeting is carried out without a large shared screen, and then identify a set of user requirements for the system design. Next we describe our early prototype implementation, user interface, and simple evaluation.

    • WJEPeripheral Agent: Implementation of Peripheral Cognition Technology
      S. Yamada (National Institute of Informatics, JP), N. Mori, K. Kobayashi
      S. Yamada (National Institute of Informatics, JP)N. Mori (Tokyo Institute of Technology, JP)K. Kobayashi (Shinshu Univ., JP)

      Information notification on a display for e-mail arrival, micro-blog updates, and application updates is becoming increasingly important. We propose a novel information notification method, the peripheral agent (PA) as an implementation of peripheral cognition technology (PCT) that uses the human cognitive properties that a human does not recognize subtle changes in a peripheral area of cognition when he/she concentrates on a task and that he/she automatically recognizes the changes when not concentrating on the task. By only setting a PA in the peripheral area, a user automatically and easily accepts the notification only when his/her concentration breaks. We conducted two experiments to investigate a VFN area and evaluate the effectiveness of PAs.

    • WKDEstimating User Interruptibility by Measuring Table-top Pressure
      T. TANI (The Graduate Univ. for Advanced Studies, JP), S. Yamada
      T. TANI (The Graduate Univ. for Advanced Studies, JP)S. Yamada (National Institute of Informatics, JP)

      A user working with his/her desktop computer would benefit from notifications (e.g., the arrival of e-mail, micro-blogs, and application updates) being given at adequate times when he/she is interruptible. To do so, a notification system needs to determine the user’s state of activity. In this paper, we propose a novel method for estimating user states with a pressure sensor on a desk. We use a lattice-like pressure sensor sheet and distinguish between two simple user states: interruptible or not. The pressure can be measured without the user being aware of it, and changes in the pressure reflect useful information such as typing, an arm resting on the desk, mouse operation, and so on. We carefully developed features that can be extracted from the sensed raw data, and we used a machine learning technique to identify the user’s interruptibility. We conducted experiments for two different tasks to evaluate the accuracy of our proposed method and obtained promising results.

    • WMGDesign and Evaluation of Adaptive Interfaces for IVR Systems
      S. Asthana (Indraprastha Institute of Information Technology, IN), P. Singh, A. Singh
      S. Asthana (Indraprastha Institute of Information Technology, IN)P. Singh (Indraprastha Institute of Information Technology, IN)A. Singh (Indraprastha Institute of Information Technology, IN)

      Dialing a telephone number of an organization and coming across an automated system attending the call, instead of a human, has become common. These automated applications are known as Interactive Voice Response (IVR) systems. In developing nations, IVR systems are mostly touch-tone (key-press) because of under-supported speech technologies for non-English native languages and accents. Optimizing such IVR systems is crucial as they are often considered as time consuming and frustrating and further becomes more challenging when the data for individual caller to perform optimization are often unavailable. In this work, we investigate the performances of adaptive interfaces for touch-tone IVR system to optimize for future callers based on past system usage by other callers. We show that a portion of the call duration goes into selecting the correct menu option in IVR. To reduce this, desired menu options by a prospective caller must appear early in the sequence. We show that adaptive approaches to decide the optimal menu structure for future caller outperform static menu based IVR system. We have designed, deployed and evaluated different adaptive schemes for IVR in a real world study.

    • WMJBezel-Flipper: Design of a Light-weight Flipping Interface for E-Books
      S. Kim (KAIST (Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology), KR), J. Kim, S. Lee
      S. Kim (KAIST (Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology), KR)J. Kim (KAIST (Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology), KR)S. Lee (KAIST (Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology), KR)

      In this paper, we have designed a novel touchscreen interaction technique for light-weight navigation: Bezel-Flipper. The design specifics and initial prototype application are developed with user evaluation. We received overall positive feedback from our initial user study in terms of engagement and enjoyment.

    • WQHUser Authentication in a Multi-touch Surface: A Chord Password System
      I. Leftheriotis (Ionian Univ., GR)
      I. Leftheriotis (Ionian Univ., GR)

      In this research, we present a novel technique for user authentication. We take advantage of the fact that multi-touch screens have become apparent to almost any modern device so as to present a new technique that makes use of chord interactions in order to authenticate a user. With our technique, users are not asked to enter a number password or a PIN to log in a service. Instead, users are asked to consequently tap the appropriate number of fingers on a multi-touch screen. As it is shown, authentication with a chord interaction technique is simple and has some advantages that make it more appropriate for a number of applications. Early observations show that the presented technique protects the users more effectively from “shoulder surfing” compared to the traditional PIN entry, due to its integral characteristics of reducing visibility by hiding fingers and subdividing action.

    • WBHArtifacts for Programmable Devices: The Good, the Bad and the Ugly
      J. Back (Univ. College London, UK), A. Cox
      J. Back (Univ. College London, UK)A. Cox (Univ. College London, UK)

      Many devices require programming with values that can only be obtained by consulting an artifact. For example when preparing an unfamiliar microwave meal, the heating instructions should be consulted in order to program the correct values into the microwave oven. In this paper we consider how the presentation of programming values can impact on the likelihood of making an error. Findings from a medical device programming experiment demonstrate the hidden complexities of artifact design. Good design should encourage users to adopt programming strategies that are less prone to error. Artifact layouts need to be designed with the task in mind, especially when multiple devices require programming quickly.

    • WFJBases of Human-Computer Trust and Explanations
      F. Nothdurft (Institute of Communications Engineering, DE), H. Lang, M. Klepsch, W. Minker
      F. Nothdurft (Institute of Communications Engineering, DE)H. Lang (Ulm Univ., DE)M. Klepsch (Institute of Psychology and Education, DE)W. Minker (Institute of Communications Engineering, DE)

      Maintaining and enhancing the willingness of a user to interact with a technical system is crucial for human-computer interaction (HCI). Trust has shown to be an important factor influencing the frequency and kind of usage. In this paper we present our ongoing work on using explanations to maintain the trust relationship between human and computer. We describe an experiment on how different goals of explanations can be used to influence the bases of human-computer trust in a directed way. We present the results of a conducted preliminary study and outline how to improve the experiment so as to be able to include the results in an existing dialogue system.

    • WNXPatterns of Experience in Thermal Conceptual Metaphors
      H. Lin (Simon Fraser Univ., CA), D. Barter, R. Wakkary
      H. Lin (Simon Fraser Univ., CA)D. Barter (Simon Fraser Univ., CA)R. Wakkary (Simon Fraser Univ., CA)

      Thermal sensations have potential for use in technology for information and interactive systems. Experiences correlating to temperature structure our understanding of many abstract concepts that could be useful in such systems. In this study, the experiential nature of conceptual metaphors was analyzed, and an experiment was conducted in which participants were presented with six thermal conceptual metaphors for interpretation. The validity of the metaphors was assessed, and the results of the experiment provided examples of both consistent and inconsistent patterns of experience when the concepts were interpreted in terms of temperature. Recommendations for furthering the identification of thermal conceptual metaphors with potential were discussed.

    Visualization

    • WBLInteracting with Microseismic Visualizations
      A. Mostafa (Univ. of Calgary, CA), S. Greenberg, E. Vital Brazil, E. Sharlin, M. Costa Sousa
      A. Mostafa (Univ. of Calgary, CA)S. Greenberg (Univ. of Calgary, CA)E. Vital Brazil (Univ. of Calgary, CA)E. Sharlin (Univ. of Calgary, CA)M. Costa Sousa (Univ. of Calgary, CA)

      Microseismic visualization systems present complex 3D data of small seismic events within oil reservoirs to allow experts to explore and interact with that data. Yet existing systems suffer several problems: 3D spatial navigation and orientation is difficult, and selecting 3D data is challenging due to the problems of occlusion and lack of depth perception. Our work mitigates these problems by applying both proxemic interactions and a spatial input device to simplify how experts navigate through the visualization, and a painting metaphor to simplify how they select that information.

    • WEMAccentuating Visualization Parameters to Guide Exploration
      M. Dörk (Newcastle Univ., UK), H. Lam, O. Benjelloun
      M. Dörk (Newcastle Univ., UK)H. Lam (Google, Inc., USA)O. Benjelloun (Google, Inc., USA)

      We present a new method for displaying visualization parameters to guide casual data exploration. When visualizing datasets with large parameter spaces it can be difficult to move between data views. Building on social navigation and degree-of-interest visualization, we propose the concept of accentuation as the selection and emphasis of visualization parameters based on social and semantic signals. We describe how we designed an accentuated visualization interface, and discuss open challenges and directions for future research.

    • WFDToward a Visual Interface for Brain Connectivity Analysis
      H. Guo (Brown Univ., USA), A. Yidi, S. Gomez, M. Schnitzer, D. Badre, D. Laidlaw
      H. Guo (Brown Univ., USA)A. Yidi (Rhode Island School of Design, USA)S. Gomez (Brown Univ., USA)M. Schnitzer (Stanford Univ., USA)D. Badre (Brown Univ., USA)D. Laidlaw (Brown Univ., USA)

      In this paper, we report on the needs for, the design of, and feedback about a web-based platform that supports flexible exploration of existing brain connectivity knowledge. We analyze the needs in brain connectivity research for an integrated visual knowledge base and discuss the design of the platform and the design rationales. Preliminary user feedback suggests diverse analytical patterns and additional needs in brain connectivity analysis, which distinguish it from generic network analysis. Finally, we describe open issues motivated by preliminary feedback and observation in designing more advanced features to support additional needs and characterizing user analysis patterns.

    • WGLFisheye Word Cloud for Temporal Sentiment Exploration
      J. Wang (Virginia Tech, USA), K. Dent, C. North
      J. Wang (Virginia Tech, USA)K. Dent (Palo Alto Research Center (PARC), USA)C. North (Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State Univ., USA)

      This poster abstract presents a new word cloud technique, the Fisheye Word Cloud, for exploring time-series data in a focused+context approach to analyzing word data. Our design has two features: cursor-centric layout and word cloud generation on demand. We conducted a validation study to evaluate how our Fisheye Word Cloud influences user performance in comparison tasks of time-series data. Based on task completion time and a TLX-based Likert-style questionnaire, we found the Fisheye Word Cloud has faster task completion time and a better user satisfaction level than the alternative we reviewed.

    • WMHFast Interactive Visualization for Multivariate Data Exploration
      C. Lee (Georgia Institute of Technology, USA), W. Zhuo, J. Choo, D. Chau, H. Park
      C. Lee (Georgia Institute of Technology, USA)W. Zhuo (Georgia Institute of Technology , USA)J. Choo (Georgia Institute of Technology, USA)D. Chau (Georgia Institute of Technology, USA)H. Park (Georgia Institute of Technology, USA)

      We are investigating a fast layout method for visualizing and exploring relationships between multivariate data items. We improve on existing works that use the force-directed layout, which has high running time and cannot scale up for large-scale visual analysis. Our method, based on Mean Value Coordinates, has a closed-form solution that can determine items’ locations in a single iteration. In addition, it has a fast running time that is linear in the number of items. We are also exploring multiple interactive visualization techniques to help users make sense of the data, such as blending multiple heat maps to simultaneously express multiple types of data distributions; and techniques to create topics, and to merge or split topics in real time.

    • WNHTouchViz: (Multi)Touching Multivariate Data
      J. Rzeszotarski (Carnegie Mellon Univ., USA), A. Kittur
      J. Rzeszotarski (Carnegie Mellon Univ., USA)A. Kittur (Carnegie Mellon Univ., USA)

      In this paper we describe TouchViz, an information visualization system for tablets that encourages rich interaction, exploration, and play through references to physical models. TouchViz turns data into physical objects that experience forces and respond to the user. We describe the design of the system and conduct a user study to explore its use, finding that it supports many different models of data exploration and encourages users to have fun exploring data.

    • WBBVisualizing Lifelog Data For Different Interaction Platforms
      Y. Yang (Dublin City Univ., IE), H. Lee, C. Gurrin
      Y. Yang (Dublin City Univ., IE)H. Lee (Singapore Univ. of Technology and Design, SG)C. Gurrin (Dublin City Univ., IE)

      Today we are witnessing diverse forms and styles of interactive platforms and devices quickly penetrating to people’s everyday lives. New applications and services for smartphones, tablets, game consoles connected to TVs, and other embedded appliances are constantly appearing and diversifying the way we interact with technology. Thus when we design visualization and interaction strategies for the emerging lifelogging activity, it is important to consider affordances and contexts for these emerging interactive devices: by the time the lifelogging activity becomes truly ubiquitous, we will be interacting with even more diverse set of devices to support the activity. In this paper, we describe an early stage of our on-going project where we sketched a series of interactive visualization and their corresponding usage scenarios for three different interactive platforms: (1) smartphone, (2) tablet, and (3) desktop. Our sketch was rendered on these corresponding devices in such a way as to maximize the special interaction characteristics of each device and provides three very different lifelog data usage scenarios.

    • WDBVISO: A Shared, Formal Knowledge Base as a Foundation for Semi-automatic InfoVis Systems
      J. Polowinski (TU Dresden, DE), M. Voigt
      J. Polowinski (TU Dresden, DE)M. Voigt (TU Dresden, DE)

      Interactive visual analytic systems can help to solve the problem of identifying relevant information in the growing amount of data. For guiding the user through visualization tasks, these semi-automatic systems need to store and use knowledge of this interdisciplinary domain. Unfortunately, visualisation knowledge stored in one system cannot easily be reused in another due to a lack of shared formal models. In order to approach this problem, we introduce a visualization ontology (VISO) that formally models visualization-specific concepts and facts. Furthermore, we give first examples of the ontology’s use within two systems and highlight how the community can get involved in extending and improving it.

    Web & E-commerce

    • WCMLiveThumbs: A Visual Aid for Web Page Revisitation
      L. Leiva (ITI/DSIC, Univ. Politècnica de València, ES), V. Traver, V. Castelló
      L. Leiva (ITI/DSIC, Univ. Politècnica de València, ES)V. Traver (Institute of New Imaging Technologies, Jaume-I Univ., ES)V. Castelló (Institute of New Imaging Technologies, Jaume-I Univ., ES)

      One problem web users often face is that of remembering which previously visited page is likely to contain some particular piece of information they are now interested in. To ease this revisitation task, we propose a novel approach: using “live” thumbnails, or small video-like animations of a web page. Our approach is grounded on a two-fold notion: (1) live thumbnails should be more informative than their static counterparts, and (2) live thumbnails can help the user disambiguate among perceptually similar pages. We evaluate a proof-of-concept prototype with 13 users. Preliminary results show that our approach has an interesting potential to enhance web page revisitation in a visually compelling way.

    • WLBAds Suit Up! Effects of Website and Advertiser Credibility on Consumer Responses to Banner Ads
      M. Hug (Center for Cognitive Psychology and Methodology, CH), N. Suter, E. Mekler, K. Opwis
      M. Hug (Center for Cognitive Psychology and Methodology, CH)N. Suter (Univ. of Applied Science Northwestern Switzerland, CH)E. Mekler (Univ. of Basel, CH)K. Opwis (Univ. of Basel, CH)

      Effective communication on the internet is becoming increasingly difficult for advertisers, as they have to compete with many others for user attention. We examine the role of source credibility (specifically website and advertiser credibility) as a means to increase advertising effectiveness. Our results showed that website credibility affects ad credibility, whereas advertiser credibility also enhances attitude toward the brand, and users’ purchase intention. Based on these findings, we discuss implications and opportunities for future research on online advertising.

    • WFPFacilitating Developer-User Interactions with Mobile App Review Digests
      J. Oh (KAIST (Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology), KR), D. Kim, U. Lee, J. Lee, J. Song
      J. Oh (KAIST (Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology), KR)D. Kim (KAIST (Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology), KR)U. Lee (KAIST (Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology), KR)J. Lee (KAIST (Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology), KR)J. Song (KAIST (Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology), KR)

      As users are interacting with a large of mobile apps under various usage contexts, user involvements in an app design process has become a critical issue. Despite this fact, existing apps or app store platforms only provide a limited form of user involvements such as posting app reviews and sending email reports. While building a unified platform for facilitating user involvements with various apps is our ultimate goal, we present our preliminary work on handling developers’ information overload attributed to a large number of app comments. To address this issue, we first perform a simple content analysis on app reviews from the developer’s standpoint. We then propose an algorithm that automatically identifies informative reviews reflecting user involvements. The preliminary evaluation results document the efficiency of our algorithm.

    • WGQCrowdfunding Support Tools: Predicting Success & Failure
      M. Greenberg (Northwestern Univ., USA), K. Hariharan, B. Pardo, E. Gerber
      M. Greenberg (Northwestern Univ., USA)K. Hariharan (Northwestern Univ., USA)B. Pardo (Northwestern Univ., USA)E. Gerber (Northwestern Univ., USA)

      Creative individuals increasingly rely on online crowdfunding platforms to crowdsource funding for new ventures. For novice crowdfunding project creators, however, there are few resources to turn to for assistance in the planning of crowdfunding projects. We are building a tool for novice project creators to get feedback on their project designs. One component of this tool is a comparison to existing projects. As such, we have applied a variety of machine learning classifiers to learn the concept of a successful online crowdfunding project at the time of project launch. Currently our classifier can predict with roughly 68% accuracy, whether a project will be successful or not. The classification results will eventually power a prediction segment of the proposed feedback tool. Future work involves turning the results of the machine learning algorithms into human-readable content and integrating this content into the feedback tool.

    • WNSTowards Estimating Web Search Result Relevance from Touch Interactions on Mobile Devices
      Q. Guo (Microsoft, USA), H. Jin, D. Lagun, S. Yuan, E. Agichtein
      Q. Guo (Microsoft, USA)H. Jin (Emory Univ., USA)D. Lagun (Emory Univ., USA)S. Yuan (Emory Univ., USA)E. Agichtein (Emory Univ., USA)

      Fine-grained search interactions such as mouse cursor movements and scrolling have been shown to be valuable for modeling user attention and preferences of Web search results, in the desktop setting. However, users increasingly search the Web on touch-enabled devices such as smart phones and tablets, where they zoom and swipe instead of mousing and scrolling. In this paper, we present, to our knowledge, the first study of the utility of touch interactions on a mobile devices for estimating Web search result relevance — which can in turn be used for search result ranking and evaluation. In particular, we explore a variety of touch interaction signals as implicit relevance feedback, based on a user study of 26 users and hundreds of unique Web search queries, result clicks, and page examinations. Our experimental results show that touch interactions provide more effective implicit feedback compared to only the time spent visiting a document, resulting in substantially higher correlation of the estimated document relevance with the explicit relevance judgments.

    • WLTUnderstanding the Specificity of Web Search Queries
      C. Hafernik (The Pennsylvania State Univ., USA), B. Jansen
      C. Hafernik (The Pennsylvania State Univ., USA)B. Jansen (The Pennsylvania State Univ., USA)

      Understanding the specificity of Web search queries can help search systems better address the underlying needs of searchers and provide them relevant content. The goal of this work is to automatically determine the specificity of web search queries. Although many factors may impact the specificity of Web search queries, we investigate two factors of specificity in this research, (1) part of speech and (2) query length. We use content analysis and prior research to develop a list of nine attributes to identify query specificity. The attributes are whether a query contains a URL, a location or place name along with additional terms, compares multiple things, contains multiple distinct ideas or topics, a question that has a clear answer, request for directions, instructions or tips, a specific date and additional terms or a name and additional terms. We then apply these attributes to classify 5,115 unique queries as narrow or general. We then analyze the differences between narrow and general queries based on part of speech and query length. Our results indicate that query length and parts-of-speech usage, by themselves, can distinguish narrow and general queries. We discuss the implications of this work for search engines, marketers and users.

    • WPTDoes Ad Blindness on the Web Vary by Age and Gender?
      T. Tullis (Fidelity Investments, USA), M. Siegel
      T. Tullis (Fidelity Investments, USA)M. Siegel (Fidelity Investments, USA)

      A previous study had shown that users tend to associate certain elements of a web page with ads, and tend to avoid them. The current study revisited that data to see if this “ad blindness” varies with the age or gender of the users. We found that younger adults (20s and 30s) exhibited significantly more ad blindness than older adults. We also found that men exhibited significantly more ad blindness than women. We believe that both researchers and practitioners need to pay more attention to age and gender in studies of web behavior.

    • WCYHITOKE: A Study of Queue Visualization of Internet Purchase Information
      S. Masuko (Rakuten, Inc., JP), H. Abe
      S. Masuko (Rakuten, Inc., JP)H. Abe (Rakuten, Inc., JP)

      While on the one hand the business-to-consumer (BtoC) e-commerce market in online shopping and suchlike is growing year on year, most online shoppers are reported to feel hesitation at internet purchasing. For that reason, it has become important to display product evaluation information such as other customers’ feedback or purchase frequency, or a sense of activity on webpages so as to encourage users to purchase goods online. This paper therefore proposes a method, HITOKE, to visualize purchase context such as buyer attributes or product purchase frequency on web pages as a queue representation, and has undertaken to provide users with new evaluation information. Lastly, as a result of applying the proposed method in an actual online shop, we were able to confirm a trend of increased product page access and increased purchase frequency, and we showed that the proposed method has the potential to promote users’ purchasing.

    • WGCThe Gender-Brand Effect of Key Phrases on User Clicks in Sponsored Search
      P. Mukherjee (Pennsylvania State Univ., USA), B. Jansen
      P. Mukherjee (Pennsylvania State Univ., USA)B. Jansen (The Pennsylvania State Univ., USA)

      In this research, we analyze the relationship among (1) the numbers of clicks generated by the key-phrases users provide as queries in sponsored search, (2) the interaction between the gender orientation of those key-phrases, and (3) the occurrence of branded terms in those queries. The aim of this research is increased personalization of search engine results for branded queries targeting a specific gender. This will improve the consumer’s online searching experience and potential interest in ads with branding focus. Increased personalization of search engine results and enhancement of users’ interest in branded ads will also increase the revenue and profit of the advertisers. Our data consists of 7 million daily records from a keyword advertising campaign from a major US retailer. We segregate the key-phrases into six different categories. The gender orientation of terms has male, female and neutral categories each with two groups: – branded and unbranded phrases. Using one way Analysis of Variance, we analyze the effect of gender orientation of both branded and unbranded key-phrases on number of users’ clicks on the queries submitted to web search engine. The result shows that the means of users’ clicks significantly vary among the categories. Moreover the result shows that the group formed by combination of female gender with branded terms generates maximum number of clicks among all six categories. Females may be more attracted to the use of branded terms due to the positive attitude and customer loyalty generated by brand image.

    • WCREffortless Tool-based Evaluation of Web Form Filling Tasks using Keystroke Level Model and Fitts Law
      N. Karousos (Hellenic Open Univ., GR), C. Katsanos, N. Tselios, M. Xenos
      N. Karousos (Hellenic Open Univ., GR)C. Katsanos (Hellenic Open Univ., GR)N. Tselios (Univ. of Patras, GR)M. Xenos (Hellenic Open Univ., GR)

      Usability of interactive web forms is a critical aspect of the overall user experience. In this paper, a tool to automatically evaluate web form filling tasks is presented. The tool carries out Keystroke Level Model symbolic calculations of the time required to fill a specific web form in a straightforward and automatic manner. Moreover, it calculates the form completion time according to different interaction strategies or users’ characteristics. In addition, Fitts’ law is computationally realized to calculate the exact time required to move the cursor to the form elements. Preliminary case studies illustrated the tool capability to support both designers and evaluators in an efficient and effective manner.

    • WEXPicassopass: A Password Scheme Using a Dynamically Layered Combination of Graphical Elements
      W. van Eekelen (NHTV Breda Univ. of Applied Sciences, NL), J. van den Elst, V. Khan
      W. van Eekelen (NHTV Breda Univ. of Applied Sciences, NL)J. van den Elst (NHTV Breda Univ. of Applied Sciences, NL)V. Khan (NHTV Breda Univ. of Applied Sciences, NL)

      In this paper a new graphical password scheme is presented using a dynamic layered combination of graphical elements. It has unique capabilities in terms of low memory burden due to a story based approach, while at the same time being very resistant to shoulder surfing threats. The results of a security evaluation confirm shoulder surfing resistance.

    • WMEopenHTML: Designing a Transitional Web Editor for Novices
      T. Park (Drexel Univ., USA), A. Saxena, S. Jagannath, S. Wiedenbeck, A. Forte
      T. Park (Drexel Univ., USA)A. Saxena (Drexel Univ., USA)S. Jagannath (Drexel Univ., USA)S. Wiedenbeck (Drexel Univ., USA)A. Forte (Drexel Univ., USA)

      We describe the initial design rationale and early findings from studies of a web editor for beginners called openHTML. We explain our strategy of transitional design that views web editors as a part of a complex socio-technical system that spans multiple tools, practices, and actors. Our goal is to create a toolkit that can engage beginners in meaningful activities now and prepare them for more sophisticated activities in the future.

    • WNKDoes Interactive Search Results Overview Help? An Eye tracking Study
      J. Gwizdka (The Univ. of Texas at Austin, USA), M. Cole
      J. Gwizdka (The Univ. of Texas at Austin, USA)M. Cole (Rutgers Univ., USA)

      We examined the effect of introducing search results overview in the form of a tag cloud displayed next to a textual search result list. Does such an overview make users faster in search task execution and lower the cognitive effort required to make progress? We use cognitive effort measures derived from eye tracking data to examine the effect of providing a tag cloud-like summary on a user’s information search and navigation behaviors. The results show that a results overview helps a user become faster and more efficient. One contribution of this work is to describe the use of eye tracking data to create a simple model of reading and measures of cognitive effort. Another is to use those measures to explain the differences in interaction with two information search interfaces

    • WJROnline Ad Banners: The Effects of Goal Orientation and Content Congruence on Memory
      S. Heinz (Univ. of Basel, CH), M. Hug, C. Nugaeva, K. Opwis
      S. Heinz (Univ. of Basel, CH)M. Hug (Center for Cognitive Psychology and Methodology, CH)C. Nugaeva (Univ. of Basel, CH)K. Opwis (Univ. of Basel, CH)

      Banner blindness, the phenomenon that the user will consciously or unconsciously ignore online banners while navigating a certain website, is a big problem for marketers and has been studied in the past. We present a study that tests the hypothesis whether the user’s memory (free recall and recognition) is influenced by the user’s goal orientation during navigation on a website and whether it is mediated by the correspondence of the banner content and website content (congruence). Participants in an explorative orientation show better memory for banners than users in a broad or narrow goal orientation. No differences between the congruent and incongruent conditions with regard to recall measures were found but the congruent condition yields slightly better recognition rates. Based on these findings further implications and research possibilities are discussed.

    • WFYOn-site Information Seeking Behaviors in Earthquake and Tsunami
      D. Asai (NTT Corporation, JP), Y. Sagata, Y. Asano
      D. Asai (NTT Corporation, JP)Y. Sagata (NTT Corporation, JP)Y. Asano (NTT Corporation, JP)

      We described 28 interviews conducted to determine how the people near the epicenter sought information just after the Great Eastern Japan Earthquake. We identified five key behaviors regarding information seeking: understand what they should do; confirm loved one’s safety; get information to survive; seek information to return to regular life; and inform of own safety. These behaviors suggest several design opportunities for designing interactive systems that support those behaviors.

    • WLMCredible Web: A Platform for Web Credibility Evaluation
      Z. Huang (EPFL, CH), A. Olteanu, K. Aberer
      Z. Huang (EPFL, CH)A. Olteanu (EPFL, CH)K. Aberer (EPFL, CH)

      The web content is the main source of information for many users. However, due to the open nature of today’s web anyone can produce and publish content, which, as a result, is not always reliable. As such, mechanisms to evaluate the web content credibility are needed. In this paper, we describe CredibleWeb, a prototype crowdsourcing platform for web content evaluation with a two-fold goal: (1) to build a social enhanced and large scale dataset of credibility labeled web pages that enables the evaluation of different strategies for web credibility prediction, and (2) to investigate how various design elements are useful in engaging users to actively evaluate web pages credibility. We outline the challenges related with the design of a crowdsourcing platform for web credibility evaluation and describe our initial efforts.

    • WJZEmpirical Evaluation of 20 Web Form Optimization Guidelines
      M. Seckler (Univ. of Basel, CH), S. Heinz, J. Bargas-Avila, K. Opwis, A. Tuch
      M. Seckler (Univ. of Basel, CH)S. Heinz (Univ. of Basel, CH)J. Bargas-Avila (Google, Inc., CH)K. Opwis (Univ. of Basel, CH)A. Tuch (Univ. of Copenhagen, DK)

      Most websites use interactive online forms as a main contact point to users. Recently, many publications aim at optimizing web forms. In contrast to former research that focused at the evaluation of single guidelines, the present study shows in a controlled lab experiment with n=23 participants the combined effectiveness of 20 guidelines on real company web forms. Results indicate that optimized web forms lead to faster completion times, less form submission trials, fewer eye fixations and higher user satisfaction in comparison to the original forms.